Anatabine

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Anatabine
Anatabine.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
[2R,(+)]-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydro-2,3'-bipyridine
Clinical data
Legal status ?
Identifiers
CAS number 581-49-7 YesY
ATC code ?
ChemSpider 10910 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C10H12N2 
Mol. mass 160.22 g/mol
 YesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Anatabine (uh-nat-uh-been,-bin) is one of the minor alkaloids found in plants in the Solanaceae family, which includes the tobacco plant and tomato, that has been shown to affect monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity.[1][2] Anatabine is found in cigarette tobacco and smoke, and is absorbed in the human body after tobacco use.[3]

There have been hypotheses that minor tobacco constituents and other non-nicotine therapies may be beneficial in fighting nicotine withdrawal.[4] Many studies have been conducted investigating the effects of smoking on MAO activity.[5][6][7][8]

Anatabine is one of the ingredients in the smoking alternative dietary supplement, CiGRX, developed by Star Scientific Inc.[9] The use of anatabine rather than nicotine replacement therapy is related to the half-lives of nicotine and anatabine. The latency of needing a cigarette (LTNC) among regular smokers was less than two hours[10] compared to the half-life of anatabine which is 10 hours.[3]

Star Scientific has also developed Anatabloc, a product that targets inflammation.[11] The Roskamp Institute in Sarasota, Florida, has worked with Star Scientific to study the effects of the anatabine compound on inflammatory diseases and disorders.[12]

Anatabine's potential in fighting Alzheimer's disease and other inflammatory illnesses is being studied.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rose JE, Behm FM, Ramsey C, Ritchie JC (November 2001). "Platelet monoamine oxidase, smoking cessation, and tobacco withdrawal symptoms". Nicotine Tob. Res. 3 (4): 383–90. doi:10.1080/14622200110087277. PMID 11694206. 
  2. ^ Castagnoli K, Petzer JB, Steyn SJ, van der Schyf CJ, Castagnoli N (2003). "Inhibition of human MAO-A and MAO-B by a compound isolated from flue-cured tobacco leaves and its neuroprotective properties in the MPTP mouse model of neurodegeneration". Inflammopharmacology 11 (2): 183–8. doi:10.1163/156856003765764353. PMID 15035820. 
  3. ^ a b Jacob P, Yu L, Shulgin AT, Benowitz NL (May 1999). "Minor tobacco alkaloids as biomarkers for tobacco use: comparison of users of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, cigars, and pipes". Am J Public Health 89 (5): 731–6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.89.5.731. PMC 1508721. PMID 10224986. 
  4. ^ Mattioli L, Perfumi M (March 2011). "Evaluation of Rhodiola rosea L. extract on affective and physical signs of nicotine withdrawal in mice". J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) 25 (3): 402–10. doi:10.1177/0269881109348166. PMID 19939867. 
  5. ^ Fowler JS, Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Pappas N, Logan J, MacGregor R, Alexoff D, Shea C, Schlyer D, Wolf AP, Warner D, Zezulkova I, Cilento R (February 1996). "Inhibition of monoamine oxidase B in the brains of smokers". Nature 379 (6567): 733–6. Bibcode:1996Natur.379..733F. doi:10.1038/379733a0. PMID 8602220. 
  6. ^ Fowler JS, Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Pappas N, Logan J, Shea C, Alexoff D, MacGregor RR, Schlyer DJ, Zezulkova I, Wolf AP (November 1996). "Brain monoamine oxidase A inhibition in cigarette smokers". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (24): 14065–9. Bibcode:1996PNAS...9314065F. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.24.14065. PMC 19495. PMID 8943061. 
  7. ^ van Amsterdam J, Talhout R, Vleeming W, Opperhuizen A (October 2006). "Contribution of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition to tobacco and alcohol addiction". Life Sci. 79 (21): 1969–73. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2006.06.010. PMID 16884739. 
  8. ^ Norman TR, Chamberlain KG, French MA (March 1987). "Platelet monoamine oxidase: low activity in cigarette smokers". Psychiatry Res 20 (3): 199–205. doi:10.1016/0165-1781(87)90079-5. PMID 3588781. 
  9. ^ "CiGRX". Star Scientific, Inc. Retrieved 2011-09-06. 
  10. ^ Ursprung WW, Morello P, Gershenson B, DiFranza JR (April 2011). "Development of a measure of the latency to needing a cigarette". J Adolesc Health 48 (4): 338–43. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.07.011. PMID 21402261. 
  11. ^ "Anatabloc". Star Scientific, Inc. Retrieved 2011-09-06. 
  12. ^ a b "Role of Anatabine as an anti-inflammatory agent". Roskamp Institute. Retrieved 2011-09-06.