Anatomy of a Murder
|Anatomy of a Murder|
Theatrical release poster by Saul Bass
|Directed by||Otto Preminger|
|Produced by||Otto Preminger|
|Screenplay by||Wendell Mayes|
|Based on||Anatomy of a Murder (novel) by John D. Voelker|
George C. Scott
|Music by||Duke Ellington|
|Edited by||Louis R. Loeffler|
|Distributed by||Columbia Pictures|
Anatomy of a Murder is a 1959 American courtroom crime drama film. It was directed by Otto Preminger and adapted by Wendell Mayes from the best-selling novel of the same name written by Michigan Supreme Court Justice John D. Voelker under the pen name Robert Traver. Voelker based the novel on a 1952 murder case in which he was the defense attorney.
The film stars James Stewart, Lee Remick, Ben Gazzara, Eve Arden, George C. Scott, Arthur O'Connell, Kathryn Grant, Brooks West (Arden's real-life husband), Orson Bean, and Murray Hamilton. The judge was played by Joseph N. Welch, a real-life lawyer famous for berating Joseph McCarthy during the Army-McCarthy Hearings. This was one of the first mainstream Hollywood films to address sex and rape in graphic terms. It includes one of Saul Bass's most celebrated title sequences, a musical score by Duke Ellington (who plays a character called Pie-Eye in the film) and has been described by a law professor as "probably the finest pure trial movie ever made".
In the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, small-town lawyer Paul Biegler (James Stewart), a former district attorney who lost his re-election bid, spends most of his time fishing, playing the piano and hanging out with his alcoholic friend and colleague Parnell McCarthy (Arthur O'Connell) and sardonic secretary Maida Rutledge (Eve Arden).
One day Biegler is contacted by Laura Manion (Lee Remick), a tramp who is the wife of the loutish US Army Lieutenant Frederick "Manny" Manion (Ben Gazzara), who has been arrested for the first degree murder of innkeeper Barney Quill. Manion does not deny the murder, but claims that his wife was raped by Quill. Even with such a motivation, it would be difficult to get Manion cleared of murder, but Manion claims to have no memory of the event, suggesting that he may be eligible for a defense of irresistible impulse—a version of a temporary insanity defense.
As he sets about preparing his case, Biegler finds Laura Manion dancing with army officers at a party. He admonishes her to stay away from "men, juke joints, booze, and pinball machines" and to wear a girdle. He says she should play the part of a "meek little housewife" so as not to appear a loose woman. She agrees to give up tight-fitting clothes and to wear a dress, glasses and a hat—and, when in court, a woman's suit—so as not to damage her husband's defense. Biegler's folksy speech and laid-back demeanor hide a sharp legal mind and a propensity for courtroom theatrics that has the judge busy keeping things under control. However, the case for the defense does not go well, especially since the local district attorney (Brooks West) is assisted by a high-powered big-city prosecutor named Claude Dancer (George C. Scott).
Furthermore, the prosecution tries at every instance to block any mention of Manion's motive for killing Quill (the purported rape of his wife). Biegler eventually manages to get Laura Manion's rape into the record and Judge Weaver (Joseph N. Welch) agrees to allow the matter to be part of the deliberations. However, Dancer's cross-examination of Laura tries to portray her as a woman who was not satisfied with her marriage, who openly flirted with other men, including the man she claimed raped her. Psychiatrists give conflicting testimony to Manion's state of mind at the time that he killed Quill (a fact undisputed in the case). When it is suggested that Manion may have suspected Laura of complicity because she, a Catholic, was asked to swear on a rosary to persuade her husband that she was raped by Quill, this raises doubt as to whether the act was non-consensual (that it was violent is well-evidenced).
Quill's estate is to be inherited by Mary Pilant (Kathryn Grant), a mysterious and beautiful Canadian woman who is dramatically accused (in the court room on cross examination by Dancer) of being Quill's mistress. Inquiries by Biegler's partner, McCarthy, have revealed that she is Quill's daughter, a fact she is anxious to keep secret since she was born out of wedlock (a fact unknown to the prosecution). Biegler, who is losing the case, tries to persuade Pilant that Al Paquette, (Murray Hamilton) the bartender who witnessed the murder, may know that Quill admitted to raping Laura but Paquette is covering this up, either because he loves Pilant or out of loyalty to Quill (his friend and employer). Through Pilant, Biegler tries to persuade Paquette to testify for the defense but Paquette refuses. Biegler tells Pilant: "I'll leave a pass for you and Al at the trial [so that you can attend]." He then says, sardonically, "you might like to watch Lieutenant Manion get convicted".
Pilant does attend the trial when the issue of Laura Manion's panties is raised (panties she claimed she was wearing on the night of her rape and Quill's murder, panties she claims were torn off her during the violent act of rape). These panties were not found in the crime scenes where she alleges the rape took place. Pilant, unaware of any details of the case, voluntarily returns to the courtroom to testify that she found the panties in the inn's laundry room. Biegler suggests Quill may have dropped the panties down the laundry chute, located next to his room, to avoid suspicion. Dancer tries to establish that Pilant's answers are founded on her jealousy. When Dancer asserts forcibly that Quill was Pilant's lover and that Pilant lied to cover this fact, Pilant shocks everyone (except the defence) by stating that Quill was her father.
Biegler suggests during the trial that he is "just a humble country lawyer" facing a "brilliant prosecutor from the big city of Lansing"; whether this suggestion has played well with the jury is unknown. After the closing speeches, Biegler indicates privately to his defense team that he thinks that Dancer has delivered the "best summary I've ever heard in a courtroom". Manion is found "not guilty by reason of insanity".
The next day Biegler and McCarthy travel to the trailer park where the Manions lived in order to get Lieutenant Manion's signature on a promissory note which they hope will suffice as collateral for a (desperately needed) loan. It turns out the Manions have vacated the trailer park, with the trailer park superintendent commenting that Laura Manion had been crying. Manion left a note for Biegler, indicating that his flight was "an irresistible impulse" — the same terminology used by Biegler during the trial. Evidence left behind on the Manion trailer site suggests that one or both of the Manions was a gin drinker. McCarthy states, "I never saw a gin drinker yet you could trust". Biegler states that Mary Pilant has retained him to execute Quill's estate. McCarthy says that working for her will be "poetic justice".
On July 31, 1952 Lt Coleman Alonzo Peterson shot and killed Maurice Chenoweth in Big Bay, Michigan. A month after the trial, Peterson—who underwent a psychiatric evaluation—was deemed sane and released from the state asylum; he and his wife were divorced. Contrary to one report, Peterson was not killed in a plane crash in Alaska several years later; he died in Nueces, Texas, on September 14, 1977.
The film was shot in several locations in the Upper Peninsula (Big Bay, Marquette, Ishpeming, and Michigamme). Some scenes were actually filmed in the Thunder Bay Inn in Big Bay, Michigan, one block from the Lumberjack Tavern, the site of a 1952 murder that inspired much of the novel. Though set in and filmed in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, the world premiere for the 1959 film was held at the United Artists Theater in Detroit. This was subsequent to a local premiere at the Butler Theater in Ishpeming, Michigan.
The Lumberjack Tavern is still in existence today. The murder scene body outline is still there, although it is possibly a restoration and not the original outline. The members of the jury panel from the original trial were contacted and asked to sit on the set. With the exception of a few that had either died or moved, most appeared in the film. The missing ones were replaced with local residents.
The role of the judge was offered to both Spencer Tracy and Burl Ives, but ultimately went to Joseph Welch, who had made a name for himself representing the U.S. Army in hearings conducted by Senator Joseph McCarthy. It was Welch who famously asked of McCarthy, "Have you no sense of decency, sir? At long last, have you left no sense of decency?" Welch accepted the part only after Preminger agreed to let his wife be on the jury. Chicago newspaper columnist Irv "Kup" Kupcinet has a small uncredited role in the film. Duke Ellington, who composed the music, appears as "Pie-Eye", the owner of a roadhouse, with whom Jimmy Stewart's character plays piano.
The film examines the apparent fallibility of the human factor in jurisprudence. In various ways all of the human components — the counsels for defense and prosecution, the defendant and his wife, and the witnesses have their own differing positions on what is right or wrong, and varying perspectives on integrity, justice, morality and ethics. It is to be noted that the reliance on credibility of witnesses, and the "finding of facts" based upon those determinations, is the "Achilles heel" of the judicial process.
One controversial legal issue in this film is possible witness coaching, a violation of legal canons. The only plausible legal defense Lt. Manion has—the insanity defense—is virtually spelled out to a befuddled Manion by his prospective counsel, who then temporarily suspends the conversation and suggests that Manion rethink his factual/legal position. Witness coaching by the prosecution is even more blatant as they call in other jail inmates awaiting sentencing to testify against Manion, and is portrayed as subornation of perjury to an extent. The first suggests that the defendant may be concealing the truth and manipulating his story in order to obtain the best possible verdict, and the latter that the prosecution dangled a possible lighter sentence through plea bargain as an incentive to perjury.
Thus, there could be a synergy: compounding the inherent fallible nature of the process with the malleability of memory, the potential mendacity of witnesses, the showmanship and "magic tricks" involved in trials and advocacy, and the self-interest, venality, morality, poor perception and recollection, and ethical standards of the participants. Indeed, the unreliability of judicial decisions based on demeanor has been legally established.
In protracted litigation, confabulated memory—filling in the blanks and recreating memories — is common, and research has documented the tendency. Repetitive and suggestive questioning tends to plant the seeds of memory. The book and the film are examples of the lawyers' dance. "Horse shedding" of witnesses is well known, if controversial and potentially unethical; it is not just an occasion to directly orchestrate perjury. What is more problematic is that it is possible to reach a point where "if you believe it, then it isn't a lie." Thus, even letter-perfect "bona fide" certainty of belief is not equivalent to a certification of accuracy or even truthfulness. This process is called "horse shedding", "sandpapering", or "wood shedding" — the first and last terms being metaphorical references to the location of such a "collaboration."
The language used during the film startled Chicago, Illinois Mayor Richard J. Daley, and his Police Commissioner. As a result the film was temporarily banned in the heavily Catholic city. Preminger filed a motion in federal court in Illinois and the mayor's decision was overturned. The film was allowed to be exhibited after the court determined that the clinical language during the trial was realistic and appropriate within the film's context.
Anatomy of a Murder has been well received by members of the legal and educational professions. In 1989, the American Bar Association rated this as one of the 12 best trial films of all time. In addition to its plot and musical score, the article noted: "The film's real highlight is its ability to demonstrate how a legal defense is developed in a difficult case. How many trial films would dare spend so much time watching lawyers do what many lawyers do most (and enjoy least)—research?" The film has also been used as a teaching tool in law schools, as it encompasses (from the defense standpoint) all of the basic stages in the U.S. criminal justice system from client interview and arraignment through trial. The film was listed as No. 4 of 25 "Greatest Legal Movies" by the American Bar Association.
The film earned an estimated $5.5 million in rentals in the U.S. and Canada during its first year of release.
Film critics have noted the moral ambiguity, where a small town lawyer triumphs by guile, stealth and trickery. The film is frank and direct. Language and sexual themes are explicit, at variance with the times (and other films) when it was produced. The black and white palette is seen as a complement to Michigan's harsh Upper Peninsula landscape. The film is "[m]ade in black-and-white but full of local color".
Bosley Crowther, film critic for The New York Times said, "After watching an endless succession of courtroom melodramas that have more or less transgressed the bounds of human reason and the rules of advocacy, it is cheering and fascinating to see one that hews magnificently to a line of dramatic but reasonable behavior and proper procedure in a court. Such a one is Anatomy of a Murder, which opened at the Criterion and the Plaza yesterday. It is the best courtroom melodrama this old judge has ever seen... . Outside of the fact that this drama gets a little tiring in spots—in its two hours and forty minutes, most of which is spent in court—it is well nigh flawless as a picture of an American court at work, of small-town American characters and of the average sordidness of crime."
In June 2008, the American Film Institute revealed AFI's 10 Top 10, the best 10 films in 10 "classic" American film genres, after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community. Anatomy of a Murder was selected as the seventh best film in the courtroom drama genre. The Internet Movie Database rates it number 23 of 1,177 trial films.
It holds a perfect 100% score on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 40 reviews with a consensus: "One of cinema's greatest courtroom dramas, Anatomy of a Murder is tense, thought-provoking, and brilliantly acted, with great performances from James Stewart and George C. Scott."
|Anatomy of a Murder|
|Soundtrack album by Duke Ellington|
|Recorded||May 29 and June 1–2, 1959
Radio Recorders, Los Angeles
|Duke Ellington chronology|
The jazz score of Anatomy of a Murder was composed by Duke Ellington and Billy Strayhorn and played by Ellington's orchestra. Several of the Ellington band's sidemen, notably Johnny Hodges, Paul Gonsalves, Harry Carney, Russell Procope, and William "Cat" Anderson, are heard prominently throughout the film, and Ellington himself appears briefly as "Pie-Eye," the owner of a roadhouse where Paul Biegler (Stewart) and Laura Manion (Remick) have a confrontation.
Despite being heard "in bits and pieces" the score "contains some of his most evocative and eloquent music... and beckons with the alluring scent of a femme fatale." Including small pieces by Billy Strayhorn, film historians recognize it "as a landmark—the first significant Hollywood film music by African Americans comprising non-diegetic music, that is, music whose source is not visible or implied by action in the film, like an on-screen band." The score avoids cultural stereotypes which previously characterized jazz scores and "rejected a strict adherence to visuals in ways that presaged the New Wave cinema of the '60s."
Detroit Free Press music critic Mark Stryker concluded: "Though indispensable, I think the score is too sketchy to rank in the top echelon among Ellington-Strayhorn masterpiece suites like Such Sweet Thunder and The Far East Suite, but its most inspired moments are their equal." The score employs a "handful of themes, endlessly recombined and re-orchestrated. Ellington never wrote a melody more seductive than the hip-swaying "Flirtibird", featuring the "irresistibly salacious tremor" by Johnny Hodges on the alto saxophone." A stalking back-beat barely contains the simmering violence of the main title music" The score is heavily dipped in "the scent of the blues and Ellington's orchestra bursts with color." The AllMusic review by Bruce Eder awarded the album 3 stars calling it "a virtuoso jazz score—moody, witty, sexy, and—in its own quiet way—playful".
Ellington's score won three Grammy Awards in 1959, for Best Performance by a Dance Band, Best Musical Composition First Recorded and Released in 1959 and Best Sound Track Album.
All songs written and composed by Duke Ellington and Billy Strayhorn, except as indicated.
|1.||"Main Title/Anatomy of a Murder"||3:57|
|3.||"Way Early Subtone"||3:59|
|4.||"Hero to Zero"||2:11|
|5.||"Low Key Lightly"||3:39|
|6.||"Happy Anatomy" (band-movie version)||2:35|
|8.||"Almost Cried" (studio)||2:26|
|11.||"Happy Anatomy" (P.I. Five version)||1:28|
|12.||"Upper and Outest"||2:23|
|CD reissue bonus tracks|
|13.||"Anatomy of a Murder" (stereo single)||2:44|
|14.||"Merrily Rolling Along (aka Hero to Zero)/Sunswept Sunday" (movie stings & rehearsal)||3:49|
|16.||"Happy Anatomy" (band-studio five version)||2:43|
|17.||"Polly (aka Grace Valse, Haupe, Low Key Lightly, Midnight Indigo)"||3:35|
|18.||"Polly" (movie stings)||3:54|
|19.||"Happy Anatomy" (Dixieland version)||2:15|
|21.||"Almost Cried (aka Flirtibird)" (P.I. Five/movie version)||2:13|
|22.||"Soundtrack Music: Anatomy of a Murder (Duke Ellington a la Guy Lombardo)"||2:29|
|23.||"Anatomy of a Murder" (mono single in stereo)||2:36|
|24.||"The Grand Finale (Rehearsal/Lines/Interview/Music/Stings/Murder)"||10:47|
- Duke Ellington – piano
- Cat Anderson, Shorty Baker, Herbie Jones, Ray Nance, Clark Terry, Gerald Wilson – trumpet
- Quentin Jackson, Britt Woodman – trombone
- John Sanders – valve trombone
- Jimmy Hamilton – clarinet, tenor saxophone
- Johnny Hodges – alto saxophone
- Russell Procope – alto saxophone, clarinet
- Paul Gonsalves – tenor saxophone
- Harry Carney – baritone saxophone, clarinet, bass clarinet
- Jimmy Woode – bass
- James Johnson – drums
After Traver's novel was published, St. Martins Press planned to have it adapted for the stage, intending a Broadway production, which would then be made into a film. Before he died in December 1957, John Van Druten wrote a rough draft of the play adaptation. Some time after that, the publisher then made the film rights available, and these were purchased by Otto Preminger.
References in media and popular culture
The making of the film is the subject of the song, "Marquette County, 1959", by Great Lakes Myth Society. The lyrics read: "Jimmy Stewart came to Marquette County in 1959/ And he was shot for two months there/ And all the pines wept stardust for a while/ And the Duke would play his soundtrack there/ As Preminger had cast him in the film/ His character was Pie-Eye".
Awards and honors
- New York Film Critics Circle Awards: NYFCC Award Best Actor, James Stewart, Best Screenplay, Wendell Mayes; 1959.
- Venice International Film Festival: Volpi Cup; Best Actor, James Stewart; 1959.
- Three Grammy Awards (see above)
- Producers Guild of America Awards: PGA Award; Top Drama; Top Male Dramatic Performance, James Stewart; Top Male Supporting Performance, Arthur O'Connell; 1960.
- Michigan Product of the Year.
- Best Actor in a Leading Role: James Stewart
- Best Actor in a Supporting Role: Arthur O'Connell
- Best Actor in a Supporting Role: George C. Scott
- Best Cinematography, Black-and-White: Sam Leavitt
- Best Film Editing: Louis R. Loeffler
- Best Picture: Otto Preminger
- Best Writing, Screenplay Based on Material from Another Medium: Wendell Mayes; 1960
- Best Film from any Source Otto Preminger, USA
- Best Foreign Actor James Stewart, USA
- Most Promising Newcomer Joseph N. Welch, USA; 1960.
- DGA Award Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Feature Film, Otto Preminger; 1960.
- Best Motion Picture – Drama
- Best Performance By An Actress In A Motion Picture – Drama: Lee Remick
- Best Director – Motion Picture: Otto Preminger
- Best Performance By An Actor In A Supporting Role In A Motion Picture: Joseph N. Welch; 1960.
- American Film Institute Lists
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies – Nominated
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills – Nominated
- AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores – Nominated
- AFI's 10 Top 10 – #7 Courtroom Drama
- Variety: 6. July 1, 1959. Missing or empty
- Harrison's Reports: 106. July 4, 1959. Missing or empty
- Anatomy of a Murder at the Internet Movie Database
- Asimow, Michael (February 1998). "Picturing Justice film review from a legal perspective".
- King, Susan (December 19, 2012). "National Film Registry selects 25 films for preservation". Los Angeles Times.
- LDS SSI records
- "John D. Voelker". 50th Anniversary "Anatomy of a Murder". Northern Michigan University. 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- United Artists Press and Marketing. ""Anatomy of a Murder" Premiere (1959)". Promotional trailer showing premiere activities and publicity surrounding the release of Otto Preminger's film ANATOMY OF A MURDER (United Artists). Online Video Guide. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
- Frank, Jerome (1973). Courts on Trial. Princeton University Press. pp. 23–24. 318.
- Thomas, Edward Wilfrid (2006). The Judicial Process: Realism, Pragmatism, Practical Reasoning and Principles. Auckland University Press. pp. 318–324. ISBN 978-0-521-85566-2.
- Shaul, Richard D. (November–December 2001). "Backwoods Barrister" (PDF). Michigan History. p. 82. Archived from the original on February 1, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- Saltzburg, Stephen A. (2006). Trial Tactics. American Bar Association. pp. 225, 231. ISBN 1-59031-767-X.
- Keeton, Robert E. (1973). Trial tactics and methods (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Little, Brown. p. 456. ISBN 0-316-48572-1.
- Societé d'Avancé Egyptienne v Merchants Marine Insurance Co. the Palitana, 140 Lloyd's Law Rep, 152 (1924).
- Underwood, J. & Pezdek, K. (1998). "Memory suggestibility as an example of the sleeper effect". Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 5 (3): 449–453. doi:10.3758/bf03208820.
- Garner, Bryan A. (1999). Black's Law Dictionary (7th ed.). St. Paul, MN: West Group. pp. 742, 1342 and 1598. ISBN 0-314-22864-0.
- Gerhart, Eugene C. (1998). Quote it Completely!: World Reference Guide to More Than 5,500 Memorable Quotations. Wm. S. Hein Publishing. ISBN 1-57588-400-3.
- Shaul, Richard D. (November–December 2001). "Anatomy of a Murder" (PDF). Michigan History. p. 89. Archived from the original on February 1, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- "Cinema: The New Pictures, July 13, 1959". Time Magazine. July 13, 1959.
- Schumach, Murray (1964). The Face on the Cutting Room Floor. William Morrow and Company.
- "Chicago Loses Bid to Censor Movie". The Deseret News. July 9, 1959. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
- Verone, Patric M. (November 1989). "The 12 Best Trial Movies". American Bar Association Journal.
- Brust, Richard (August 1, 2008). "25 Greatest Legal Movies". American Bar Association Journal. Retrieved February 24, 2012.
- "1959: Probable Domestic Take". Variety: 34. January 6, 1960.
- "A collection of professional reviews". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
- Monaghan, John (January 20, 2009). "The movie that put Ishpeming on the map: UP plans events this summer to mark 50th anniversary of Anatomy of a Murder". Detroit Free Press.[dead link]
- Crowther, Bosley (July 3, 1959). "A Court Classic". The New York Times.
- "AFI's 10 Top 10". American Film Institute. 2008-06-17. Archived from the original on June 19, 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2008.
- "Best trial movies". Internet Movie Database.
- "Anatomy of a Murder". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
- McGregor, Tony. "Duke Ellington's Anatomy of a Murder soundtrack music". Jazz Forum@Xing. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
- Cooke, Mervyn (2008). History of Film Music. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-01048-1.
- "A Duke Ellington Panorama". Retrieved May 14, 2010.
- Stryker, Mark (January 20, 2009). "Ellington's score still celebrated". Detroit Free Press.
- Eder, B. "AllMusic Review". Retrieved May 17, 2010.
- P.I. Five consists of Duke Ellington, Ray Nance, Jimmy Hamilton, Jimmy Woode, and James Johnson
- "Anatomy of a Murder 50th Anniversary". Northern Michigan University.
- Winer, Elihu (1964). Anatomy of a Murder: a court drama in three acts. New York: Samuel French. ISBN 0-573-60530-0.
- "CD Review: The Great Lakes Myth Society". Blogcritics.
- Great Lakes Myth Society. "Marquette County, 1959" (audio). Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- "AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- Meslow, Scott (December 19, 2012). "The 25 films added to the National Film Registry in 2012". Retrieved January 4, 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Anatomy of a Murder.|
- Anatomy of a Murder at the Internet Movie Database
- Anatomy of a Murder at Rotten Tomatoes
- Film: Anatomy of a Murder TV Tropes.com
- Anatomy of a Murder at the TCM Movie Database
- Anatomy of a Murder at AllMovie
- Criterion Collection Essay "Anatomy of a Murder: Atomization of a Murder" by Nick Pinkerton
- Anatomy of a Murder trailer at the Internet Archive
- Anatomy of a Murder at American Film Institute
- Baulch, Vivian M., The Detroit News, "When Hollywood Came to the Upper Peninsula."
- Bergman, Shirley J., "The Real Trial", Michigan History, November/December 2001.[dead link]
- Michigan Supreme Court Historical Society, John D. Voelker Biography and bust.
- 50th Anniversary Celebration of Anatomy of a Murder at Northern Michigan University
- Michigan Archive, Michigan History Arts and Letters, John D. Voelker.[dead link]