An ancestral hall, shrine or temple (Chinese: 祠堂; pinyin: Cítáng or Chinese: 宗祠; pinyin: Zōng Cí), also called lineage temple, is a Chinese temple dedicated to deified ancestors and progenitors of surname lineages or families in the Chinese traditional religion. Ancestral halls are closely linked to Confucian culture and the emphasis that it places on filial piety.
A common central feature of the ancestral halls are the ancestral tablets that embody the ancestral spirits. The ancestral tablets are typically arranged by seniority of the ancestors. Altars and other ritual objects such as incense burners are also common fixtures. Ancestors and gods can also be represented by statues.
The halls are used for collective rituals and festivals in honor of the ancestors but also for other family- and community-related functions such as weddings and funerals. Sometimes, they serve wider community functions such as meetings and local elections.
In traditional weddings, the ancestral hall serves a major symbolic function, completing the transfer of a woman to her husband's family. During the wedding rites, the bride and groom worship at the groom's ancestral hall, bowing as follows:
- first bow - Heaven and Earth
- second bow - ancestors
- third bow - parents
- fourth bow - spouse
Three months after the marriage, the wife undertakes worship at the husband's ancestral hall, in a rite known as miaojian (廟見).
Ancestral halls have often been secularized to serve as village schools or granaries during the land reform of the 1950s and the Cultural Revolution. They have experienced a revival since the economic liberalization of the 1980s. The revival of the ancestral halls has been particularly strong in southern China where lineage organization had stronger roots in the local culture and local communities are more likely to have members living overseas who can support rebuilding of the halls through donations.
Notable ancestral halls in Hong Kong include:
- Tang Ancestral Hall and Yu Kiu Ancestral Hall, along the Ping Shan Heritage Trail
- King Law Ka Shuk
- Tang Chung Ling Ancestral Hall
- Edward L. Davis (Editor), Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture, Routledge, 2004
- Li Wenxian (2011). "Worshipping in the Ancestral Hall". Encyclopedia of Taiwan. Taipei: Council for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
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