Ancient Church of the East

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Ancient Church of the East
TimothausLogo2.jpg
Founder Historically St. Peter, St. Thomas, St. Thaddeus and his disciple Mar Mari. Split from the Assyrian Church of the East during the mid-late 60s
Independence 1968 split from the Assyrian Church of the East
Primate Mar Addai II, Catholicos-Patriarch of the East.
Headquarters Baghdad, Iraq
Territory Iraq, Syria, Australia, New Zealand, United States, Canada, Sweden, Germany, United Kingdom, Denmark
Language Syriac (liturgical language)
Members 100,000
Website http://www.stzaiacathedral.org.au/

The Ancient Church of the East (Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܥܬܝܩܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ʿĒtā ʿAttīqtā d'Maḏnəḥā, Arabic: كنيسة المشرق القديمة‎), officially the Ancient Holy Apostolic Catholic Church of the East (ܗܝ ܥܕܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܕܐܫܬܬܐܣܬ ܒܫܢܬܐ) distinguished itself from the Assyrian Church of the East in 1964. It is one of the Assyrian churches that claim continuity with the historical Patriarchate of Seleucia-Ctesiphon – the Church of the East, one of the oldest Christian churches in Mesopotamia.[1] The church is headquartered in Baghdad, Iraq. Mar Thoma Darmo (1968–1969), was succeeded as Catholicos-Patriarch by Mar Addai II Giwargis in 1970. Mar Addai II continues to lead the church.

History[edit]

The Ancient Church of the East emerged as the result of a schism within the Assyrian Church of the East, in opposition to reforms introduced by Patriarch Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII of the Assyrian Church of the East, including the substitution of the modern Gregorian Calendar in place of the traditional Julian Calendar (which differs from the Gregorian by a widening number of days, currently thirteen). The Ancient Church of the East seated itself in Baghdad, Iraq, headed by a separate Catholicos-Patriarch.

Following the schism, the position of Catholicos-Patriarch of the Ancient Church of the East remained vacant from 1964 until 1968, when Mar Thoma Darmo was named the church's Patriarch. Mar Thoma was elected as a rival Catholicos-Patriarch to Mar Eshai Shimun, who continued to serve as the official head of the Assyrian Church of the East headquartered in the United States. The elected Catholicos-Patriarch Mar Thoma was a native of Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq), and a former Metropolitan of the Assyrian Church of the East based in Thrissur, India. Mar Thoma served as Metropolitan from 1952 until his resignation in 1964. Upon becoming the head of the newly-formed Ancient Church of the East, he immediately relocated to Baghdad.

Under the Tenure of His Holiness Mar Thoma Darmo[edit]

In September of 1968, Mar Addai Giwargis was elevated to the rank of Metropolitan of Iraq. Similarly, Mar Aprem Mooken was consecrated Metropolitan of India, and Mar Poulose Poulose was consecrated Bishop of India. These prelates in turn consecrated Mar Thoma Darmo Catholicos-Patriarch of the Ancient Church of the East during the first week of October 1968. Mar Thoma then became the first Patriarch of the Ancient Church of the East. Mar Thoma served as Patriarch for just under a year before his death in September of 1969. Though he served for a short period of time, his legacy was defined by his commitment to upholding the traditions of the Church of the East.

Under the Tenure of His Holiness Mar Addai II[edit]

Following Patriarch Mar Thoma Darmo's death in 1969, Mar Addai II assumed the position of Acting Patriarch, and was later elected to lead the Ancient Church of the East in February 1970. In the meantime, he consecrated two Metropolitans, both in December of 1969: Mar Narsai Toma was consecrated as Metropolitan of Kirkuk, and Mar Toma Eramia was consecrated Metropolitan of Nineveh (Mosul) and Northern Iraq. Mar Addai's official jurisdiction at the time was Baghdad.

Together, on February 20, 1972, Mar Narsai and Mar Toma consecrated Mar Addai Giwargis as Catholicos-Patriarch.

Expansion of the Holy Synod[edit]

In 1985, Mar Daniel Yakob, Bishop of Kirkuk of the Assyrian Church of the East was accepted into the Holy Synod of the Ancient Church of the East. He was to head the parishes in California, but ultimately served as an Auxiliary Bishop. In July of 1992, Mar Yacoub Daniel was consecrated Bishop of Syria. The following year, in June of 1993, Mar Emmanuel Elia was ordained Bishop of the Patriarchate of Baghdad. In 1994, however, Mar Emmanuel shifted his residence and became Bishop of North America and Canada.

Between the months of November through December of 1995, the Ancient Church experienced several major changes. Mar Aprem Mooken and Mar Poulose Poulose, along with the Church of India, reunited with the Assyrian Church of the East for external reasons. During that same period, Timothaus Mar Shallita (Mar Shallita) was accepted into the Holy Synod and appointed Metropolitan of Europe, and Mar Yacoub Daniel was elevated to the rank of Metropolitan.

Ten years later, in July of 2005, Mar Yacoub was transferred from Syria to serve the church community in Australia and New Zealand.

In April of 2009, Mar Addai II consecrated Mar Zaia Khoshaba as Bishop of Baghdad. In the same month, he ordained Mar Aprem Daweed as Bishop of Duhok. In 2011, Mar Aprem resigned after serving just two years. 2011 also saw the resignation of Mar Emmanuel. Months later, in August of 2011, Mar Yacoub Daniel and Mar Zaia Khoshaba consecrated Mar Mari Emmanuel as Bishop for Australia and New Zealand, assisting the Metropolitan.

Most recently, Mar Addai II consecrated Mar Gewargis Younan as Bishop of Chicago. Mar Gewargis is currently the youngest-serving prelate of the Ancient Church of the East.

Structure of Church Hierarchy[edit]

The Ancient Church of the East recognizes nine positions in its hierarchy. The positions are ranked as follows:

  1. Patriarch
  2. Metropolitan (Archbishop)
  3. Bishop
  4. Archdeacon
  5. Cor-Bishop
  6. Priest
  7. Deacon
  8. Subdeacon
  9. Reader

The Patriarch is the supreme head of the church, and oversees all dioceses of the church. The church has an episcopal polity, meaning it is organized into dicoeses, each headed by a bishop. Dioceses are organized into Ecclesiastical provinces under the authority of a Metropolitan. Each diocese is made up of several parish communities. The individual parishes are staffed by at least one priest. Priests are assisted by Deacons, Subdeacons, and Readers. All members of the clergy may preach, baptize, witness marriages, and conduct funeral liturgies - though Deacons, Subdeacons, and Readers assume an assistant's role. Only those ranking above a deacon, however, can celebrate the sacraments of the Eucharist, though others may be ministers of Holy Communion. Administering the sacrament of Holy Orders (ordaining someone into the clergy) are limited only to Bishops, Metropolitans, and the Patriarch.

Holy Synod[edit]

Current[edit]

  • Mar Addai II, Catholicos-Patriarch of the Ancient Church of the East, residing in the Patriarchal Palace, Hay al-Riyadh, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Mar Yacoub Daniel, Metropolitan of Australia and New Zealand
  • Mar Timothaus Shallita, Metropolitan of Europe
  • Mar Zaia Khoshaba, Metropolitan of Baghdad and (temporarily) Syria and North America
  • Mar Mari Emmanuel, Auxiliary Bishop of Australia and New Zealand
  • Mar Daniel Yakob, Auxiliary Bishop of California
  • Mar Gewargis Younan, Bishop of North America

Deceased[edit]

  • Mar Thoma Darmo, the late Catholicos-Patriarch of the Ancient Church of the East
  • Mar Narsai Toma, the late Metropolitan of Kirkuk

Resigned[edit]

  • Mar Aprem Mooken, Metropolitan of India (now serving the Assyrian Church of the East)
  • Mar Poulose Polouse, Bishop of India (now serving the Assyrian Church of the East)
  • Mar Emmanuel Elia, Bishop of North America and Canada
  • Mar Aprem Daweed, Bishop of Duhok

List of Catholicos-Patriarchs of the Ancient Church of the East[edit]

Prior to 1964[edit]

The Ancient Church of the East acknowledges the traditional lineage of the Patriarchs of the Church of the East in Babylon from Mar Shimun Keepa [2] until the schism of 1964. The Ancient Church considers itself a true continuation of this lineage, and recognizes the Assyrian Church of the East as the same. Directly following the split from the Assyrian Church of the East, the seat of the Patriarch remained vacant for three years before a Patriarch was elected.

1964–present[edit]

  1. Vacant (1964 to 1967)
  2. Mar Thoma Darmo (1968 to 1969)
  3. Mar Addai II as Acting Patriarch (1969 to 1972)
  4. Mar Addai II (1972 to present day)

International Dioceses[edit]

Relationship with the Assyrian Church of the East[edit]

The Ancient Church of the East was distinguished by its intent to maintain the traditions passed on by the Church of the East. The schism that divided the Church of the East into two parts resulted mainly from controversial changes introduced by Mar Eshai Shimun XXII. The most obvious of these was the decision to replace the traditional Julian Calendar with the Gregorian Calendar. Additionally, there were concerns raised in regards to the succession of the Patriarchate. The Patriarchate had been hereditary in the d'Mar Shimun family for six centuries, often resulting in the consecration of minors as head of the church. For example, the late Mar Eshai Shimun XXII himself was ordained Patriarch at just twelve years old. [3]

Under the tenure of Mar Addai II, the Ancient Church of the East has made several gestures towards reunification with the Assyrian Church of the East. The most prominent of these is undoubtedly the declaration made in June of 2010 stating that the Ancient Church of the East would now celebrate Christmas on December 25, in accordance with the Gregorian Calendar. Previously, the church recognized January 7 each year as Christmas day, as the Church of the East had for thousands of years. The decision was to be implemented later that year, on December 25, 2015.[4] This was the first time since the schism that the two churches celebrated the Christmas holiday on the same day. Despite this decision, the Holy Synod maintained that Easter would continue to be celebrated according to the Julian Calendar.

The declaration related to the celebration of Christmas was perceived as an attempt of reconciliation, and encouraged efforts for talks of reunification. A joint Holy Synod between the two churches was postponed, though is expected in the near future.

The international Assyrian community has long-since advocated for reunification, particularly in response to the 2014 and 2015 attacks launched against Assyrians in Iraq and Syria, respectively. Since that time, relations between the churches have improved on every level, particularly in the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and parts of Europe.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Mar Aprem Mooken, The Assyrian Church of the East in the Twentieth Century. Mōrān ’Eth’ō, 18. (Kottayam: St. Ephrem Ecumenical Research Institute, 2003).
  • Bishop James Hess, Nestorian Apostolic Bishop, "Bishops at Large", by Bishop Alan Bain published in the UK. 1985
  • Most Rev James H Hess, "A Directory of Autocephalous Bishops" by Bishop Karl Pruter, St Willibrord Press, USA, 1985
  • Rev George Badger (Anglican priest and protégé of the Archbishop of Canterbury), "Nestorians and Their Rituals", published by Oxford University c. 1860.
  • The Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, as published in the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England, Cambridge University Press, 1968
  • "The Pearl (Marganitha), On The Truth of Christianity" Written in 1298 AD by Mar Odisho, Metropolitan of Suwa and Armenia. Translated and published in English by the late Patriarch, Shimun (Simon) XXIII, in 1964.

External links[edit]