Ancient Greek grammar
Ancient Greek grammar (here mainly referring to that of the Attic dialect) is morphologically complex and preserves several features of Proto-Indo-European morphology. Nouns, adjectives, pronouns, articles, numerals and especially verbs are all highly inflected. This article is an introduction to this morphological complexity.
The Classical Greek script did not use accents. Accents were devised in the Hellenistic era by scholars who wanted to make it easier for foreigners to learn Greek. The general use of these accents began during the Byzantine Empire. Modern Greek has used only two diacritics since 1982, namely the diaeresis and the acute.
- Rough breathing (Greek: δασεῖα, Latin: spiritus asper) (῾), written over a vowel letter, denotes the sound /h/ at the beginning of a word, preceding the vowel. The smooth breathing (Greek: ψιλή, Latin: spiritus lenis) (᾿) denotes the absence of the /h/ sound. The vowel υ always has the spiritus asper, while other vowels can occur with either of the two. The spiritus asper is also conventionally written over a word-initial ρ.
- The acute accent (Greek: ὀξεῖα) (΄) is used on long or short vowels or at the third syllable from the end. If there is a long vowel before a long vowel it will take an acute accent. e.g.: κώμη (kṓmē "village"), ἄνθρωπος (ánthrōpos "human").
- The grave accent (Greek: βαρεῖα) (`) is used on long or short vowels and replaces the acute accent but only on the last syllable. However it is not used when the next word causes an inclination of the accent and also when a punctuation mark follows. e.g.: ὁ καλὸς ποιμὴν ποιμαίνει (ho kalòs poimḕn poimaínei "the good shepherd herds") but ἔλαφός τις (élaphós tis "a deer")—the word τις is behaving as if it is one word with ἔλαφος—and ἐλθέ, Ἰωάννη (elthé, Iōánnē "come, John").
- The circumflex (Greek: περισπωμένη), displayed as either a tilde (˜) or an inverted breve ( ̑) is used on long vowels. It is on long syllables before short syllables and on nouns in the genitive and the dative case whose final syllable is accented. Also, it is often placed where a contraction has taken place: e.g.: τιμάειν > τιμᾶν (timân "to honor"); κῆπος (kêpos "garden"); nominative αὐγή (augḗ "dawn"), genitive αὐγῆς (augês) and αὐγῶν (augôn), dative αὐγῇ (augêi) and αὐγαῖς (augaîs).
In Ancient Greek, all nouns, including proper nouns, are classified according to grammatical gender as masculine, feminine or neuter and present forms in five distinct morphological cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative and vocative). Furthermore, common nouns present distinct forms in the singular, dual and plural number. The set of forms that any particular noun will present for each case and number is determined by the declension that it follows. The form of the declension is additionally determined by the final letter or letters in the stem.
Attic Greek has a definite article, but no indefinite article. The definite article agrees with its associated noun in number, gender and case. Proper names usually take a definite article, as do abstract nouns. Adjectives are either placed between the article and noun or after the noun, in which case the article is repeated before the adjective. Dependent genitive noun phrases are positioned in exactly the same way, even though this frequently results in splitting the article and noun by a long dependent phrase. For example, τὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἔργον tò toû anthrṓpou érgon, literally "the (of the man) deed", or "The deed of the man." In earlier Greek, for instance Homeric Greek, there was no definite article as such, the corresponding forms still having their original use as demonstrative pronouns.
|Singular||Dual||Plural||Singular||Dual [ar 1]||Plural||Singular||Dual||Plural|
|Nominative||ὁ (ho)||τώ (tṓ)||οἱ (hoi)||ἡ (hē)||τώ (tṓ)||αἱ (hai)||τό (tó)||τώ (tṓ)||τά (tá)|
|Genitive||τοῦ (toû)||τοῖν (toîn)||τῶν (tôn)||τῆς (tês)||τοῖν (toîn)||τῶν (tôn)||τοῦ (toû)||τοῖν (toîn)||τῶν (tôn)|
|Dative||τῷ (tôi)||τοῖν (toîn)||τοῖς (toîs)||τῇ (têi)||τοῖν (toîn)||ταῖς (taîs)||τῷ (tôi)||τοῖν (toîn)||τοῖς (toîs)|
|Accusative||τόν (tón)||τώ (tṓ)||τούς (toús)||τήν (tḗn)||τώ (tṓ)||τάς (tás)||τό (tó)||τώ (tṓ)||τά (tá)|
- The forms τά (tā́) and ταῖν (taîn) for feminine duals also exist.
Verbs have four moods (indicative, imperative, subjunctive and optative), three voices (active, middle and passive), as well as three persons (first, second and third) and three numbers (singular, dual and plural). Verbs are conjugated in four main combinations of tense and aspect (present, future, perfect, and aorist), with a full complement of moods for each of these main "tenses", except for the following restrictions:
- There is no future subjunctive or future imperative.
- There are separate passive-voice forms (distinct from the middle) only in the future and aorist.
In addition, for each of the four "tenses", there exist, in each voice, an infinitive and participles. There is also an imperfect indicative that can be constructed from the present using a prefix (the "augment") and the secondary endings. A pluperfect and future perfect indicative also exist, but are rather rare. The distinction of the "tenses" in moods other than the indicative is predominantly one of aspect rather than time. The Ancient Greek verbal system preserves nearly all the complexities of Proto-Indo-European (PIE).
A distinction is traditionally made between the so-called athematic verbs, with endings affixed directly to the root (also called mi-verbs) and the thematic class of verbs that present a "thematic" vowel /o/ or /e/ before the ending. All athematic roots end in a vowel except for /es-/ "be". The endings are classified into primary (those used in the present, future, perfect and rare future perfect of the indicative, as well as in the subjunctive) and secondary (used in the aorist, imperfect, and pluperfect of the indicative, as well as in the optative). Ancient Greek also preserves the PIE middle voice; the passive voice that occurs in the future and aorist is an innovation.
Dependence of moods and tenses
Ancient Greek has both (a the articular infinitive (infinitive with the article) and (b) the infinitive without the article.
a. The articular infinitive often corresponds to a cognate verbal substantive. It uses the neuter singular article and has the character and function of both a substantive and a verbal form. It can be used in any case (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative) and thus have the construction of any normal substantive: it can be subject, object (direct of indirect), predicate (rarely), apposition; it may have an adnominal or adverbial use (eg. to be in a possessive structure as an objective genitive, or to form a genitive of cause); it may form an exclamation (in poetry); it can also be the object of a proposition in any oblique case and denote many adverbial relations; finally, it can denote purpose, oftener a negative one.
- κακόν ἐστι τὸ παρανομεῖν (= ἡ παρανομία; nominative subject of the verb ἐστί)
- It is bad to break the law(s) (= transgression of law is a bad thing)
- τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ ἀδικεῖν (predicate in nominative), τὸ πλέον τῶν ἄλλων ζητεῖν ἔχειν (nominative apposition to the demonstrative pronounτοῦτο)
- this is injustice: to seek to have more than other people.
- μέγα φρονεῖ ἐπὶ τῷ δύνασθαι λέγειν (dative complement of the proposition ἐπί, denoting cause)
- He takes pride in being able to speak (= ...in his ability to speak)
- τὸ σιγᾶν κρεῖττόν ἐστι τοῦ λαλεῖν (genitive of comparison depended on comparative grade κρεῖττον)
- keeping silence is better than speaking
- ἐτειχίσθη Ἀταλάντη... τοῦ μὴ ληστὰς κακουργεῖν τὴν Εὔβοιαν (genitive of purpose)
- Αtalante was fortified to prevent pirates from ravaging Euboea.
b. The infinitive without the article is of two sorts: the dynamic infinitive and the declarative infinitive (traditionally they are also said to be used not in indirect discourse and in indirect discourse respectively).
1. A so called dynamic infinitive may depend on verbs of will or desire to do something (ἐθέλω or βούλομαι "to be willing, wish" αἱροῦμαι "choose, prefer", μέλλω "to be about, or: delay", κελεύω "urge, command", ἐπιτάσσω "order", ψηφίζομαι "vote", ἐῶ "allow", δέομαι "beg" etc.), verbs of will or desire not to do anything (δέδοικα/δέδια "fear", φοβοῦμαι "be afraid", ἀπέχομαι "abstain from", αἰσχύνομαι "to be ashamed", ἀπαγορεύω "forbid", κωλύω "hinder, prevent" etc.) and verbs or verbal expressions denoting ability, fitness, necessity, capacity, etc. (δύναμαι, ἔχω "be able to", ἐπίσταμαι, γιγνώσκω "know how to" μανθάνω "learn to", δυνατὸς εἰμί, ἱκανὸς εἰμί "I am able to", δίκαιον ἐστί "it is right to", ἀνάγκη ἐστί "it is necessary to", ὥρα ἐστί "it is time to" etc.). It can also be found after adjectives (and sometimes derived adverbs) of kindred meaning (δεινός "skillful", δυνατός "able", οἷός τε "able", ἱκανός "sufficient, capable" etc.). It stands as the object (direct or indirect) or the subject of such verbs or verbal expressions, or it defines the meaning of an adjective almost as an accusative of respect. An infinitive of that kind denotes only stage of action, not actual tense, and can be in any tense stem (mostly in the present and aorist, the perfect being rare enough) except the future one (only the verb μέλλω "I am about to" may take a dynamic future infinitive).
The difference between the present and the aorist infinitive is the stage of action, not the tense -- despite their tense stem, such infinitives always have a future reference, because of the volitive meaning of their main verb. More specifically, an infinitive in the present verb stem emphasizes the process or course of the state of affairs, and in many cases has an immediative semantic force, while an infinitive in the aorist verb stem emphasizes the completion of the state of affairs, expressing a well-defined or well-delineated state of affairs.
Present dynamic infinitive (continuing stage of action):
- βούλομαί σε εἰς τὰς Ἀθήνας ἰέναι.
- I want (for) you to go (=every time, or=to start/keep going to Athens etc.).
- ἀνάγκη ἐστὶ μάχεσθαι.
- It is necessary to fight.
Aorist dynamic infinitive (completed stage of action):
- βούλομαί σε εἰς τὰς Ἀθήνας 'ἐλθεῖν.
- I want (for) you to go to Athens. (just once, a simple and sole occurance of going)
- αἰσχύνομαι ὑμῖν εἰπεῖν τἀληθῆ.
- I'm ashamed to tell you the truth. (simple occurance, as in the previous example)
2. A so called declarative infinitive is mostly used in connexion with verbs (or verbal expressions) of saying, thinking and (sometimes) perceiving such as λέγω, φημί, ἀποκρίνομαι, ὑπισχνοῦμαι, ὁμολογῶ, ἀκούω, ὁρῶ etc. and it is usually used in oratio obliqua (in indirect speech/discourse). The latter means that it represents a corresponding finite form of the oratio recta (of the direct discourse), thus a declarative infinitive denotes both tense and stage of action. But the present infinitive represents either a present indicative or an imperfect one, and a perfect infinitive either a perfect indicative or a pluperfect one. A declarative infinitive with the particle ἂν can also be a representative of a potential indicative or potential optative of the corresponding tense.
- ᾤετο ἀποθανεῖσθαι. Future infinitive = future indicative.
- He was thinking that he would die. (direct form: ἀποθανοῦμαι "I will die". )
- ᾤοντο ὑμᾶς ἀποθανεῖν. Aorist infinitive = aorist indicative.
- They were thinking that you died. (direct form: ἀπέθανον "they died".)
- ἔφην σε ἀφικνεῖσθαι. Present infinitive = either present or imperfect indicative, according to context.
- I said that you were arriving (at the very moment), or: I said that you had been arriving (some time ago) (direct forms: ἀφικνεῖται "He is arriving" and ἀφικνεῖτο "He was arriving", respectively).
(Same as above for perfect infinitive.)
- ἔφασαν ἂν ἀποθανεῖν, εἰ τὰ ὅπλα παραδοῖεν. Potential infinitive = potential optative.
- They said that they might die, if they surrender their arms (direct form: ἂν ἀποθάνοιμεν, εἰ... "we may die if...".).
- ἔφασαν ἂν ἀποθανεῖν, εἰ τὰ ὅπλα παρέδοσαν. Potential infinitive = potential/unreal indicative.
- They said that they would had been dead, if they had surrendered their arms. (direct form: ἂν ἀπεθάνομεν, εἰ... "we would have died if...".)
Verbs that usually have a future reference, such as ὄμνυμι "swear", ὑπισχνοῦμαι "promise", ἐλπίζω "hope", ἀπειλέω "threaten", προσδοκάω "expect" etc., either take the declarative infinitive (mostly the future, but less often also the present, aorist or perfect infinitive, even the infinitive with ἀν representing a potential optative or indicative), and in this case indirect discourse is employed, or they are followed by the dynamic aorist (less often the present) infinitive, and they are construed just like any verb of will, desire etc. The same constructional alternation is available in English (complementary that clause or infinitive with to), as shown below.
- ὄμνυμι τὰ χρήματα ἀποδώσειν.
- I swear that I will give back the money.
- ὄμνυμι τὰ χρήματα ἀποδοῦναι.
- I swear to give the money back.
But in the last example another reading is also possible, considering ἀποδοῦναι to be a declarative infinitive : "I swear that I gave the money back."
Subject of the infinitive
When the infinitive has a subject of its own (that is, when the subject of the infinitive is not coreferential either with the subject or the object of the governing verb), then this word stands in the accusative case. When the subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject of the governing verb (when the subjects are co-referential), then it is usually neither expressed nor repeated with the infinitive. This omission is noticed also when the subject of the infinitive, although not the subject of the governing verb, is construed in a higher syntactic construction, e.g as the object of the governing verb in any oblique case, or as a dative of interest with an impersonal verb or verbal expression. But even in this case an accusative may be present or - more usually - understood by a predicate adjective, participle etc. in the accusative.
No coreference, with the subject in the accusative (the infinitival clause is put in square brackets ):
- λέγουσίν τινες [Σωκράτη σοφὸν εἶναι].
- Some people say [that Socrates is (or: was) wise].
- νομίζουσιν [Σωκράτη σοφὸν εἶναι].
- They consider [Socrates to be (or: to have been) wise].
- Oratio Recta: Σωκράτης σοφός ἐστιν (or ἦν). "Socrates is (or: was) wise."
Coreference, with the subject → subject omitted and understood in the nominative:
- (ὑμεῖς) νομίζετε [τοὺς πολεμίους ἂν νικῆσαι].
- You think [that you could beat your enemy].
- Oratio Recta: Τοὺς πολεμίους ἂν νικήσαιμεν. "We could beat our enemy."
- [Πέρσης] ἔφη [εἶναι].
- He said [he was a Persian].
- (Πέρσης is a predicate noun in the nominative, showing case agreement with an understood and omitted nominative).
Coreference, with a word construed with the governing verb in a higher syntactic level:
- νῦν σοι ἔξεστιν [ἀνδρὶ γενέσθαι].
- Now it is possible for you [to become a man].
- (Predicate noun ἀνδρί "a man" in case agreement with the dative σοι "for you".)
- ἐδέοντο τοῦ Κύρου [ὡς προθυμοτάτου πρὸς τὸν πόλεμον γενέσθαι].
- They were begging Cyrus [to be as willing as possible for war].
- (Predicate adjective ὡς προθυμοτάτου in case agreement with the genitive object τοῦ Κύρου.)
(Traditionally this is called dativus cum infinitivo or genitivus cum infinitivo (dative with the infinitive or genitive with the infinitive) and is considered to be a case attraction, the dative or genitive being used instead of a predicate in the accusative: ἄνδρα, ὡς προθυμότατον. See also below.)
Coreference, with a word construed with the governing verb, but subject understood in the accusative:
- Λακεδαιμονίοις ἔξεστιν [ὑμῖν φίλους γενέσθαι].
- It is possible for Lacedaemonians [to become friends to you].
- (Predicate adjective φίλους is in the accusative, in case agreement with an understood and omitted accusative subject Λακεδαιμονίους.)
- δεόμεθ᾽ οὖν ὑμῶν [ἀκροάσασθαι τῶν λεγομένων, ἐνθυμηθέντας ὅτι...]
- (Participle ἐνθυμηθέντας in the accusative, agreeing in case with an omitted accusative ὑμᾶς.)
The participle is a verbal adjective and has many functions in Ancient Greek. The participle can be active, middle or passive and can be found in present, aorist, future and perfect. It is divided into three categories: attributive participle (ἐπιθετική), supplementary participle(κατηγορηματικὴ) and adverbial participle(ἐπιρρηματική).
- The attributive participle most often is used with the article. It functions as an adjective (not seldom as a noun also) and it can be in every tense stem. The attributive participle is on a par with -and thus often translated as- a relative clause ("who...", "which...", "whom...").
- οὗτός ἐστι ὁ κλέψας τὸν χιτῶνα.
- This is the one who stole the chiton.
- ἔχων τις ὄνον ἐπώλησεν αὐτόν.
- Someone who had a donkey sold it.
- The supplementary participle is always without the article and is used with every tense. The supplementary participle sides with the following:
- εἰμί, γίγνομαι, ὑπάρχω
- προσεοικότες γίγνονται τοῖς γονεῦσιν οἱ παῖδες.
- The children take after their parents.
- δῆλός εἰμι, διαβιῶ, διαμένω, διάγω, διαγίγνομαι, οὐ διαλείπω, διατελῶ, λανθάνω, οἴχομαι, τυγχάνω, φαίνομαι/φανερός εἰμι, φθάνω
- δῆλος ἦν ἐπιθυμῶν προσελθεῖν.
- It was evident that he wanted to come (He was evident that he wanted to come).
- Verbs that mean commencement, termination, patience, tolerance, fatigue:
- ἄρξομαι διδάσκων περὶ τοῦ θείου.
- I will start teaching about god.
- οὐκ ἀνέχομαί σε ὑβρίζοντα.
- I don't tolerate you insulting me.
- Verbs that mean sense, knowledge, learning, memory and their contrary verbs:
- αἰσθάνομαί τινας παραβαίνοντας τοὺς νόμους.
- I understand that some people break the laws.
- Verbs that mean announcing, showing, proving:
- ἀπέδειξε Λύσανδρον κτείναντα Φιλοκλέα.
- He proved that Lysander killed Philocles.
- Verbs that mean passions of the soul, such as ἀγανακτῶ "I am vexed", αἰσχύνομαι "I am ashamed", ἥδομαι "I am pleased", χαίρω "I am happy", λυποῦμαι "I am sorry", ὀργίζομαι "I get angry" etc.
- χαίρω ὁρῶν σε ὑγιῆ.
- I am happy to see you healthy.
- ἀγανακτεῖ ὑπομένων τὰς ὕβρεις.
- He is vexed to tolerate the insults.
- εὖ, καλῶς, δίκαια, κακῶς ποιῶ "I behave well, honourably, fairly, badly", χαρίζομαι "I gratify, favour", ἀδικῶ "I do wrong", νικῶ "I defeat", περιγίγνομαι "I prevail, survive", κρατῶ "I have the better of", ἡττῶμαι "I am worsted by", λείπομαι "I am left behind, fall short".
- καλῶς ποιεῖτε τοὺς γέροντας ἐπιμελοῦντες.
- You are doing well by taking care of the old men.
- The adverbial participle is used without the article in every tense and functions as an adverbial definition. This participle expresses time, cause, purpose, supposition, opposition, concession, manner or any other attendant circumstance.
- The temporal participle is used in the present tense stem or the aorist one. It expresses a simultaneous or an anterior action "rarely a posterior one, and only within a prepositional phrase". It is usually found with temporal adverbs such as ἅμα "while, simultaneously", ἐνταῦθα "then", ἔπειτα "after", εὐθύς "immediately", ἤδη "already", μεταξύ "meanwhile".
- ἀποπλεύσας εἰς Λάμψακον τὰς ναῦς ἐπεσκεύαζεν.
- After having sailed to Lampsacus he repaired the ships.
- ἐπαιάνιζον ἅμα πλέοντες.
- They were singing the paean while they were sailing.
- The causal participle is used with every tense stem (rarely future). It is usually translated as a causal clause or nominative absolute.
- ὁρῶν αὐτοὺς λυπουμένους ὑπεσχόμην γράψειν τὴν ἐπιστολήν.
- As I saw that they were sad I promised to write the letter.
- εἰδώς σε ἱκανὸν ὄντα οὐ φοβοῦμαι.
- As I know that you are competent, I am not afraid.
- The final (telic) participle (expresses purpose) is used with the future tense stem. It forms the negation with μή. If the participle is modifying a verb that expresses movement, then it usually stands alone. If the verb does not express a movement then the participle is often found with the particle ὡς.
- ἀνεχώρησεν ἀπαγγελῶν τὰ γεγονότα
- He left in order to announce the events.
- ψεύδεται ὡς κρύψων τὴν ἀλήθειαν.
- He lies in order to hide the truth.
- ἔπεμψεν Ἀριστοτέλη ἀγγελοῦντα τὰς σπονδάς.
- He sent Aristotle in order for him to announce the agreements (Aristotle will announce).
The gerundive is a passive verbal adjective that indicates the necessity for the action of the verb to be performed. It takes the nominative endings -τέος, -τέᾱ, -τέον, declining like a normal first/second declension adjective. Its stem is normally of the same form as the aorist passive, but with φ changed to π and χ to κ. e.g.
- παύω → παυστέος (to be stopped)
- λαμβάνω → ληπτέος (to be taken)
Gerundives may be used as straightforward adjectives, with the agent, if any, in the dative:
- βοῦς θυστέος ἐστίν
- An ox must be sacrificed
They may also be used to express impersonal necessity
- ποιητέον (ἐστί) ...
- It is necessary to do...
Time and aspect
One of the most notable features that Ancient Greek has inherited from Proto-Indo-European is its use of verb "tense" to express both tense proper (present, past, or future) and the aspect of the time (as ongoing, simply taking place, or completed with a lasting result). The aspectual relation is expressed by the tenses in all the moods, while the temporal relation is only expressed in the indicative and to a more limited extent in the other moods (also called the dependent moods).
With regard to the time relation that they express in the indicative, the seven tense-aspects are divided into two categories:
- Primary: denoting present or future time. These are the present tense (in its ordinary use), perfect, future tense and the rare future perfect.
- Secondary (also called historical), denoting past time. The secondary tenses are the imperfect, pluperfect, and the aorist (in its ordinary uses)
This classification, which properly applies only to forms of the indicative, is also extended to the dependent moods in the cases where they express the same time relation as the indicative. The time relation expressed by a verb's tense may be present, past or future with reference to the time of the utterance or with reference to the time of another verb with which the verb in question is connected. Compare for instance ἀληθές ἐστιν "it's true" with εἶπον ὅτι ἀληθὲς εἴη "I said that it was true" or "I said 'it's true'."
A verb also expresses one of three possible aspects, irrespective of the mood it may be in:
- Imperfective aspect: indicating an ongoing, continuous, or repeated action. The present and the imperfect convey this aspect.
- Perfective aspect (traditionally also called aorist aspect in Greek grammar): indicating that the action is started and concluded at the same time, or that the action is focused on a single point in time, or that the action simply occurs without reference to its duration or lasting effect. The aorist conveys this aspect in all moods.
- Perfect (traditionally also often called perfective, but not to be confused with the above): indicating that the action is completed with a result that remains into the time being considered. The perfect (in all moods) as well as the pluperfect and future perfect carry this combination of relative tense and aspect.
Mood of the dependent verb
The rules on mood sequence (consecutio modorum) determine the mood of verbs in subordinate clauses in a way analogous to but more flexible than the Latin rules on time sequence (consecutio temporum) that determine their tense.
Putting aside special cases and exceptions, these rules can be formulated as follows:
- In dependent sentences, where the construction allows both the subjunctive and the optative, the subjunctive is used if the leading verb is primary, and the optative if it is secondary. E.g. πράττουσιν ἃ ἂν βούλωνται, "they do whatever they want"; but ἐπραττον ἃ βούλοιντο, "they did whatever they wanted".
- Similarly, where the construction allows both the indicative and the optative, the indicative follows primary, and the optative follows secondary tenses. E.g. λέγουσιν ὅτι τοῦτο βούλονται, "they say they want this"; εἶπον ὅτι τοῦτο βούλοιντο, "they said they wanted this".
- BRANDÃO, Jacynto L.; SARAIVA, Maria O. de Q.; and LAGE, Celina F. Ελληνικά: introdução ao grego antigo. Belo Horizonte (Brazil): Editora UFMG, 2005. p. 44, 67 and 512.
- FREIRE, Antônio. Gramática Grega. São Paulo (Brazil): Martins Fontes, 1987. p. 17.
- Madvig, J.N., Syntax der griechishen Sprache, besonders der attishen Sprachform, für Shulen. Braunsweig 1847, pp. 187ff.
- Rijksbaron, Albert. University of Chicago Press, 2006, pp. 96ff., §§31ff.
- Smyth, Herbert Weir, Greek Grammar, Harvard University Press, 1984 (renewed), pp.442ff.,§§ 1988ff.A Greek Grammar for Colleges by Herbert Weir Smyth.
- Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of the Greek Verb by William Watson Goodwin.
- Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of the Greek Verb by William Watson Goodwin.
- Rijksbaron, Albert. University of Chicago Press, 2006, pp. 102-103, §33.1, and pp.44-45, §16.2.
- Rijksbaron, Albert. University of Chicago Press, 2006, pp. 106ff., §33.2.
- A Greek Grammar for Colleges by Herbert Weir Smyth §§ 2019 and 2023.
- Rijksbaron, Albert. University of Chicago Press, 2006, p. 109, §33.1, and pp.44-45, §16.2.
- A Greek Grammar for Colleges by Herbert Weir Smyth §§1998, 1999, 2024