Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882

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The Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (as it then was). It was introduced by John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, recognising the need for a governmental administration on the protection of ancient monuments, was finally passed after a number of failed attempts on heritage protection acts. The gradual change towards a state-based authority responsible for the safeguarding of the Kingdom's national heritage manifested itself through the appointment of the first Inspector of Ancient Monuments in 1882, General Pitt-Rivers.[1]

The Schedule[edit]

The 1882 Act contains a schedule of the initial 68 sites that were covered by the legislation. This schedule exclusively focussed on pre-historic monuments, and covered some of the most famous such sites in the country, alongside some that were felt to be at particular risk at the time.

England and Wales[edit]

There were 26 English sites listed in the Schedule, in just 10 counties, including seven sites in Wiltshire. Welsh monuments were represented by one site in each of north, south and west Wales.[2]

Site Name 1882 Description Site type Period Location
Plas Newydd Burial Chambers The tumulus and dolmen, Plas Newydd, Llandedwen, Anglesea. Chambered tomb Neolithic 53°12′14″N 4°13′04″W / 53.2038°N 4.2179°W / 53.2038; -4.2179 (Plas Newydd Burial Chambers)
Wayland's Smithy The tumulus known as Wayland Smith's Forge, Ashbury, Berkshire. Long barrow Neolithic 51°34′02″N 1°35′43″W / 51.5672°N 1.5953°W / 51.5672; -1.5953 (Wayland's Smithy)
Uffington Castle Uffington Castle, Uffington, Berkshire. Hillfort Iron Age 51°34′29″N 1°34′12″W / 51.5748°N 1.5699°W / 51.5748; -1.5699 (Uffington Castle)
Long Meg and Her Daughters The stone circle known as Long Meg and her Daughters, near Penrith, Addingham, Cumberland. Stone circle Bronze Age 54°43′40″N 2°40′03″W / 54.7279°N 2.6676°W / 54.7279; -2.6676 (Long Meg and Her Daughters)
Castlerigg stone circle The stone circle on Castle Rigg, near Keswick, Crosthwaite, Cumberland. Stone circle Late Neolithic 54°36′09″N 3°05′51″W / 54.6026°N 3.0975°W / 54.6026; -3.0975 (Castlerigg stone circle)
Low Longrigg Stone Circles, Boot? The stone circles on Burn Moor, St. Bees, Cumberland. 5 Stone circles Bronze Age 54°24′40″N 3°16′33″W / 54.4112°N 3.2757°W / 54.4112; -3.2757 (Low Longrigg Stone Circles, Boot?)
Nine Ladies The stone circle known as The Nine Ladies, Stanton Moor, Bakewell, Derbyshire. Stone circle Bronze Age 53°10′05″N 1°37′44″W / 53.1681°N 1.6289°W / 53.1681; -1.6289 (Nine Ladies)
Arbor Low The tumulus known as Arborlow, Bakewell, Derbyshire. Henge Neolithic 53°10′08″N 1°45′42″W / 53.1689°N 1.7617°W / 53.1689; -1.7617 (Arbor Low)
Hob Hurst's House Hob Hurst's House and Hut, Baslow Moor. Bakewell, Derbyshire. Round barrow Bronze Age 53°13′12″N 1°34′12″W / 53.2199°N 1.5701°W / 53.2199; -1.5701 (Hob Hurst's House)
Minninglow Minning Low, Brassington, Derbyshire. Round barrow Neolithic 53°06′45″N 1°41′20″W / 53.11245°N 1.6888°W / 53.11245; -1.6888 (Minninglow)
Arthur's Stone Arthur’s Quoit, Gower, Llanridian, Glamorganshire. Chambered tomb Neolithic 51°35′37″N 4°10′46″W / 51.5936°N 4.1794°W / 51.5936; -4.1794 (Arthur's Stone)
Uley Long Barrow The tumulus at Uley, Gloucestershire. Long barrow Neolithic 51°41′55″N 2°18′21″W / 51.6986°N 2.3058°W / 51.6986; -2.3058 (Uley Long Barrow)
Kit's Coty House Kits Coty House, Aylesford, Kent. Long barrow Neolithic 51°19′12″N 0°30′10″E / 51.3199°N 0.5029°E / 51.3199; 0.5029 (Kit's Coty House)
Hunsbury Hill Danes Camp, Hardingstone, Northamptonshire. Hillfort Iron Age 52°13′08″N 0°55′13″W / 52.2189°N 0.9202°W / 52.2189; -0.9202 (Hunsbury Hill)
Castle Dykes Enclosure Castle Dykes, Farthingston, Northamptonshire. Hillfort enclosure Iron Age to Roman 52°12′07″N 1°05′53″W / 52.2019°N 1.0980°W / 52.2019; -1.0980 (Castle Dykes Enclosure)
Rollright Stones The Rollrich Stones, Little Rollright, Oxfordshire. Megaliths Neolithic and Bronze Age 51°58′32″N 1°34′15″W / 51.9755°N 1.5708°W / 51.9755; -1.5708 (Rollright Stones)
Pentre Ifan The Pentre Evan Cromlech, Nevern, Pembrokeshire. Chambered tomb Neolithic 51°59′56″N 4°46′12″W / 51.9990°N 4.7700°W / 51.9990; -4.7700 (Pentre Ifan)
Stanton Drew stone circles The ancient stones at Stanton Drew, Somersetshire. '2 Stone circles Neolithic 51°22′04″N 2°34′31″W / 51.3678°N 2.5753°W / 51.3678; -2.5753 (Stanton Drew stone circles)
Stoney Littleton Long Barrow The chambered tumulus at Stoney Littleton, Wellow, Somersetshire. Chambered tomb Neolithic 51°18′48″N 2°22′53″W / 51.3133°N 2.3813°W / 51.3133; -2.3813 (Stoney Littleton Long Barrow)
Cadbury Castle Cadbury Castle, South Cadbury, Somersetshire. Hillfort Iron Age 51°01′27″N 2°31′54″W / 51.0241°N 2.5318°W / 51.0241; -2.5318 (Cadbury Castle, Somerset)
Mayburgh Henge Mayborough, near Penrith, Barton, Westmoreland. Henge Neolithic or Bronze Age 54°38′56″N 2°44′47″W / 54.6489°N 2.7465°W / 54.6489; -2.7465 (Mayburgh Henge)
King Arthur's Round Table (henge) Arthur’s Round Table, Penrith, Barton, Westmoreland. Henge Neolithic 54°38′54″N 2°44′25″W / 54.6483°N 2.7403°W / 54.6483; -2.7403 (King Arthur's Round Table (henge))
Stonehenge The group of stones known as Stonehenge, Amesbury, Wiltshire. Henge Bronze Age 51°10′44″N 1°49′34″W / 51.1788°N 1.8262°W / 51.1788; -1.8262 (Stonehenge)
Old Sarum Old Serum, Wiltshire. Hillfort Iron Age 51°05′33″N 1°48′21″W / 51.0925°N 1.8057°W / 51.0925; -1.8057 (Old Sarum)
Avebury The vallum at Abury, the Sarcen stones within the same, those along the Kennet Road, and the group between Abury and Beckhampton, Abury, Wiltshire. Henge Neolithic 51°25′43″N 1°51′15″W / 51.4286°N 1.8542°W / 51.4286; -1.8542 (Avebury)
West Kennet Long Barrow The long barrow at West Kennet, near Marlborough, West Kennet, Wiltshire. Long barrow Neolithic 51°24′31″N 1°51′04″W / 51.4086°N 1.8511°W / 51.4086; -1.8511 (West Kennet Long Barrow)
Silbury Hill Silbury Hill, Abury, Wiltshire. Mound Neolithic 51°24′56″N 1°51′27″W / 51.4156°N 1.8575°W / 51.4156; -1.8575 (Silbury Hill)
The Devil's Den The Dolmen (Devil’s Den), near Marlborough, Fyfield, Wiltshire. Chambered tomb Neolithic 51°25′33″N 1°46′57″W / 51.4257°N 1.7826°W / 51.4257; -1.7826 (The Devil's Den)
Barbury Castle Barbury Castle, Ogboume, St. Andrews, and Swindon, Wiltshire. Hillfort Iron Age 51°29′07″N 1°47′11″W / 51.4853°N 1.7865°W / 51.4853; -1.7865 (Barbury Castle)

Scotland[edit]

The 1882 Schedule included 21 monuments, the majority of which are prehistoric sites.[2] Two are Neolithic, five Bronze Age, eight Iron Age and six from early Christian/Pictish periods, although two of the prehistoric stones also have notable early Christian additions.[3] Those sites now in the care of Historic Scotland are indicated with '(HS)'.

Site Name 1882 Description Site type Period Location
Inverurie Cemetery, four symbol stones The Bass of Inverury, Inverurie, Aberdeenshire. Four Pictish Stones 9th century 57°16′32″N 2°21′59″W / 57.2755°N 2.3665°W / 57.2755; -2.3665 (Inverurie Cemetery)
Tap o' Noth, Rhynie The vitrified fort on the Hill of Noath, Rhynie, Aberdeenshire. Hillfort Iron Age 57°21′06″N 2°51′27″W / 57.3517°N 2.8575°W / 57.3517; -2.8575 (Tap o' Noth)
Newton House, inscribed stone and symbol stone The pillar and stone at Newton-in-the-Garioch, Culsalmond, Aberdeenshire. Pictish stones 9th century 57°21′23″N 2°33′48″W / 57.3565°N 2.5634°W / 57.3565; -2.5634 (Newton House)
Edin's Hall Broch The circular walled structures called "Edin’s Hall," on Cockburn Law, Dunse, Berwickshire. Broch (HS) Iron Age 55°50′07″N 2°21′56″W / 55.8354°N 2.3656°W / 55.8354; -2.3656 (Edin's Hall Broch)
Pallisaded Huts Nr Lauder Barns The British walled settlement enclosing huts at Harefaulds in Lauderdale, Lauder, Berwickshire. settlement Iron Age 55°42′26″N 2°43′32″W / 55.7071°N 2.7256°W / 55.7071; -2.7256 (Pallisaded Huts Nr Lauder Barns)
Dun Dornaigil The Dun of Dornadilla, Durness, Sutherlandshire. Broch (HS) Iron Age 58°22′00″N 4°38′19″W / 58.3667°N 4.6386°W / 58.3667; -4.6386 (Dun Dornaigil)
Sueno's Stone The sculptured stone called Suenos Stone, near Forres, Rafford, Elgin. Standing stone 9th century 57°36′57″N 3°35′52″W / 57.6157°N 3.5977°W / 57.6157; -3.5977 (Sueno's Stone)
Drosten Stone The cross slab, with inscription, in the churchyard of St. Vigeans, St. Vigeans, Forfarshire. Pictish stone 9th century 56°34′37″N 2°35′25″W / 56.577°N 2.5904°W / 56.577; -2.5904 (St Vigeans)
Caterthun The British forts, on the hills, called "The Black and White Catherthuns," Menmuir, Forfarshire. Hillforts (HS) Iron Age 56°47′03″N 2°44′27″W / 56.7842°N 2.7408°W / 56.7842; -2.7408 (Caterthun)
Clava cairns A group of remains and pillars, on a haugh at Clava on the banks of the Nairn, Croy and Dalcross, Inverness. Chamber tomb (HS) Bronze Age 57°28′25″N 4°04′27″W / 57.4737°N 4.0743°W / 57.4737; -4.0743 (Clava cairns)
Dun Telve and Dun Troddan The Pictish Towers at Glenelg, Inverness. Brochs (HS) Iron Age 57°11′41″N 5°35′41″W / 57.1946°N 5.5946°W / 57.1946; -5.5946 (Dun Telve and Dun Troddan)
Drumwhirn Cairn and Boreland cairn? The Cairns, with chambers and galleries partially dilapidated, Minnigaff, Kirkcudbrightshire. Chamber tombs Bronze Age 54°59′24″N 4°29′40″W / 54.9899°N 4.4945°W / 54.9899; -4.4945 (Drumwhirn Cairn)
Cat Stane The Catstane, an inscribed pillar, Kirkliston, Linlithgow. Inscribed stone Bronze Age & 5th century 55°57′17″N 3°21′52″W / 55.9548°N 3.3645°W / 55.9548; -3.3645 (Cat Stane)
Ring of Brodgar The Ring of Brogar and other stone pillars at Stennis in Orkney, and the neighbouring pillars, Firth and Stennis, Orkney. Henge (HS) Neolithic 59°00′07″N 3°13′43″W / 59.002°N 3.2287°W / 59.002; -3.2287 (Ring of Brodgar)
Maeshowe The Chambered mound of Maeshowe, Firth and Stennis, Orkney. Chambered cairn (HS) Neolithic 58°59′48″N 3°11′18″W / 58.9966°N 3.1882°W / 58.9966; -3.1882 (Maeshowe)
Callanish Stones The stones of Callernish, Uig, Ross. Stone circles Bronze Age & 5th century 58°11′49″N 6°44′42″W / 58.197°N 6.745°W / 58.197; -6.745 (Callanish Stones)
Broch of Clickimin The Burgh of Clickanim, Sound, Shetland. Broch (HS) Iron Age 60°08′57″N 1°09′57″W / 60.1492°N 1.1657°W / 60.1492; -1.1657 (Broch of Clickimin)
Broch of Mousa The Pictish tower at Mousa in Shetland, Dunrossness, Shetland. Broch (HS) Iron Age 59°59′44″N 1°10′57″W / 59.9956°N 1.1826°W / 59.9956; -1.1826 (Broch of Mousa)
(now in Whithorn Priory Museum?) The inscribed slab standing on the roadside leading from Wigton to Whithorn and about a mile from Whithorn, Whithorn, Wigtonshire. Inscribed stone Early Christian
Laggangairn Standing Stones Two stones, with incised crosses, on a mound in a field at Laggangairn, New Luce, Wigtonshire. Standing stones (HS) Bronze Age & early Christian 55°00′26″N 4°46′54″W / 55.0071°N 4.7818°W / 55.0071; -4.7818 (Laggangairn Standing Stones)
Kirkmadrine Early Christian Stones The pillars at Kirkmadrine, Stoneykirk, Wigtonshire. Inscribed stones (HS) 6th century 54°47′37″N 4°59′17″W / 54.7936°N 4.9881°W / 54.7936; -4.9881 (Kirkmadrine Early Christian Stones)

Ireland[edit]

In 1882 the whole of Ireland was under British administration Subsequent legislation for Ireland used the terminology of 'Historic Monuments' which continues in Northern Ireland. Three sites in the Schedule are in what became Northern Ireland, one being in County Armagh and two in County Down.[4] The fifteen sites now in the Republic of Ireland are protected by the National Monuments Service[5] and include two world heritage sites. As with England and Wales, the 1882 selection was overwhelmingly what were thought to be prehistoric sites, although there is now uncertainty on the age of many sites.

Site Name 1882 Description Site type Period Location
Navan Fort The earthern enclosure and mounds called the Navan Fort, Eglish, Armagh. Ceremonial site Iron Age, Celtic 54°20′43″N 6°43′07″W / 54.3453°N 6.7186°W / 54.3453; -6.7186 (Navan Fort)
Glencolumbkille Cashel Stone monuments and groups of sepulchral cists in Glen Maulin, Glencolumbkille, Banagh, Donegal. 51°33′53″N 9°05′14″W / 51.5646°N 9.0871°W / 51.5646; -9.0871 (Glencolumbkille Cashel)
Grianan of Aileach The earthern and stone inclosure known as Grimm of Aileach, Burt, West Innishowen, Donegal. 55°01′00″N 7°26′00″W / 55.0167°N 7.4333°W / 55.0167; -7.4333 (Grianan of Aileach)
Giant's Ring The earthen inclosure and Cromlech called the Giant's Ring near Ballylessan, Drumbo, Upper Castlereagh, Down. 54°32′25″N 5°57′00″W / 54.5403°N 5.95°W / 54.5403; -5.95 (Giant's Ring)
Downpatrick Mound of Down? The earthern fort at Downpatrick (Dunkeltair), Leoale, Down. 54°19′56″N 5°43′16″W / 54.3323°N 5.7212°W / 54.3323; -5.7212 (Downpatrick Fort)
Staigue stone fort Stone structure called Staigue Fort, Kilcrogham, Dunkerron, Kerry. Ringfort Iron Age 51°48′19″N 10°00′57″W / 51.8053°N 10.0158°W / 51.8053; -10.0158 (Staigue stone fort)
Greenmount Motte, County Louth The earthern mound at Greenmount, Kilsaren, Ardee, Kerry. Motte over a Souterrain Anglo-Norman and older 53°52′41″N 6°23′08″W / 53.8781°N 6.3856°W / 53.8781; -6.3856 (Greenmount Motte)
Ballina megalithic tomb (Dolmen of the Four Maols) The stone monument at Ballyna, Kilmoremoy, Tyrawly, Mayo. Chamber tomb Bronze Age 54°06′26″N 9°09′58″W / 54.1071°N 9.166°W / 54.1071; -9.166 (Ballina megalithic tomb)
Glebe Stone Circles Cairns and stone circles at Moytura, Cong, Kilmaine, Mayo. Stone Circles 53°32′52″N 9°15′54″W / 53.5477°N 9.2649°W / 53.5477; -9.2649 (Glebe Stone Circles)
Brú na Bóinne (Bend of the Boyne) World heritage site The tumuli, New Grange, Knowth and Dowth, Monknewton and Dowth, Upper Slane, Meath. Megalithic complex Neolithic 53°41′34″N 6°26′57″W / 53.6928°N 6.4493°W / 53.6928; -6.4493 (Brú na Bóinne)
Hill of Tara The earthworks on the hill of Tara, Skreen, Meath. multi-period 53°34′39″N 6°36′43″W / 53.5775°N 6.6119°W / 53.5775; -6.6119 (Hill of Tara)
Telltown The earthworks at Teltown (Taltin), Upper Kells, Meath. Bronze Age 53°42′01″N 6°45′59″W / 53.7003°N 6.7665°W / 53.7003; -6.7665 (Telltown)
Hill of Ward The earthworks at Wardstown (Tlaghta), Athboy, Lune, Meath. Ringfort Iron Age 53°37′26″N 6°53′10″W / 53.624°N 6.886°W / 53.624; -6.886 (The Hill of Ward)
Slieve na Calliagh The two central tumuli on the hills called Slieve Na Calliagh, Loughcrew, Fore, Meath. Megalithic complex Neolithic 53°44′40″N 7°06′42″W / 53.7445°N 7.1117°W / 53.7445; -7.1117 (Slieve na Calliagh)
Heapstown Cairn The Cairn at Heapstown, Kilmacallan, Tirerrill, Sligo. Passage tomb 54°05′42″N 8°20′54″W / 54.0951°N 8.3483°W / 54.0951; -8.3483 (Heapstown Cairn)
Knocknarea passage tombs & Medb's Cairn Sepulchral remains at Carrowmore. The cairn called Miscaun Mave or Knocknarea, Kilmacowen, Curbury, Sligo. Passage tomb Neolithic 54°15′32″N 8°34′29″W / 54.2589°N 8.5746°W / 54.2589; -8.5746 (Knocknarea passage tombs)
Drumlohan Souterrain & Ogham Stones The cave containing Ogham inscribed stones at Drumloghan, Stradbally, Decies without Drum, Waterford. 52°09′44″N 7°27′51″W / 52.1621°N 7.4641°W / 52.1621; -7.4641 (Drumlohan Souterrain & Ogham Stones)
Hill of Uisneach (World Heritage Site) The stone monument called the Catstone and the cemetery on the hill of Usnagh, Killare, Rathconrath, Westmeath. Royal innauguartion site 53°29′24″N 7°33′43″W / 53.49°N 7.562°W / 53.49; -7.562 (Hill of Uisneach)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^  Tylor, Edward Burnett (1901). "Pitt-Rivers, Augustus Henry Lane Fox". In Sidney Lee. Dictionary of National Biography, 1901 supplement​. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 
  2. ^ a b Hunter, Robert (1907). "Wikisource link to Appendix A". The Preservation of Places of Interest or Beauty. Manchester University Press. Wikisource. (includes the full text of the 1882 Act).
  3. ^ Historic Scotland: A List of Scheduled Monuments 13-04-10, and a List of Properties in Care, accessed 3 July 2014
  4. ^ Northern Ireland Environment Agency, The Schedule of Historic Monuments. 31 March 2010
  5. ^ National Monuments database at archeology.ie