Ancient history of Sri Lanka

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The Ancient history of Sri Lanka begins with the gradual onset of historical records in the final centuries BC, ending the prehistoric period. According to the Mahavamsa, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka are the Yakshas and northern Naga tribes. Sinhalese history traditionally starts in 543 BC at the arrival of Prince Vijaya, a semi-legendary king who was banished from the Indian subcontinent with his 700 followers, and is recorded in the Mahavamsa chronicle.

Indigenous Sri Lankans[edit]

According to folklore, the Naga people were one of the groups of original inhabitants of Lanka. They were said to have ruled Nagadeepa, or Jaffna Peninsula and Kelaniya. Naga people were snake-worshipers, and may have been a race of the Dravidians.[1] The word Naga was sometimes written in early inscriptions as Nāya, as in Nāganika – this occurs in the Nanaghat inscription of 150 BC.

Pali Chronicles[edit]

Main articles: Dipavamsa, Mahavamsa and Culavamsa

The Pali chronicles, the Dipavamsa, Mahavamsa, Thupavamsa[2] and the Culavamsa as well as a large collection of stone inscriptions,[3] the Indian Epigraphical records, the Burmese versions of the chronicles etc., provide an exceptional record for the history of Sri Lanka from about the sixth century BC.

The Mahavamsa, written around 400 AD by the monk Nagasena,[citation needed] using the Deepavamsa, the Attakatha and other written sources available to him, correlates well with Indian histories of the period. Emperor Asoka's reign is recorded in the Mahavamsa. The Mahavamsa account of the period prior to Asoka's coronation, (218 years after the Buddha's death) seems to be part legend. The account of the Mahavamsa, a Pali text written largely from the Sinhalese perspective, has mythological beginnings but becomes historical from the third century BC, with the arrival of Buddhism under Devanampiya Tissa of Sri Lanka. Epigraphic sources also appear with the presence of Buddhism, from about the third century BC. The earliest historiographic litearature, such as the Mahavamsa, dates to the sixth century AD. The entire ancient period of history written in the Mahavamsa, is dominated by the Anuradhapura Kingdom. The medieval period in Sri Lanka is taken to begin with the fall of the Anuradhapura Kingdom in AD 1017.

Arrival of Sinhalese according to Mahavamsa tradition[edit]

Main article: Vijaya of Sri Lanka

Mahavamsa[4] attests that the ancestors of the Sinhalese came from Sihapura (Sinhapura) located in Lala Rattha (=Lata Rashtra). Today Lala Rattha is mainly coextensive with the state of West Bengal also comprising some portions of the state of Jharkhand and Bihar in India. Prince Sihabahu had left his maternal grand father's kingdom in Vanga and founded a Sihapura in Lata Rashtra. He married Sihasivali and there were born Vijaya and Sumitta and thirty more sons to her. With time, Sihabahu consecrated Vijaya as prince-regent, but due to some misdemeanor of prince Vijaya, the king had to banish him and his 700 followers from Sinhapura. Story says that the king had caused their heads to be shaved (aradh-mundak) before putting them on a ship and driving them away into the sea. The exiles sailed past Bharukachcha and Soparaka and finally landed at Tambapanni (Ceylon) near Puttalam.[5] on the day of Parinibhana (decease) of the Buddha (542 BC or 486 BC). The exiles permanently settled on the island, married local wives and established their kingdom which, in succeeding generations, assumed the name as Sinhala, said to have been named after Sinhapura, the ancestral city of the exiles.

Sri Lankan written history begins with the arrival of Vijaya and his 700 followers. Vijaya is a semi-legendary figure. He is the first recorded king of Sri Lanka but is also a figure in medieval Sri Lankan Tamil literature. His reign is traditionally dated to 543 BC - 505 BC. The primary source for his life-story is the Mahavamsa. It is inevitably difficult, given the dearth of sources, to separate fact from legend in Vijaya's life, and as H. W. Codrington puts it, 'It is possible and even probable that Vijaya (`The Conqueror') himself is a composite character combining in his person...two conquests' of ancient Sri Lanka. Vijaya is a Kalinga (ancient Orissa) prince, the eldest son of King Sinhabahu ("Man with Lion arms") and his sister Queen Sinhasivali. Both these Sinhala leaders were born of a mythical union between a lion and a human princess. The Mahavamsa states that Vijaya landed on the same day as the death of the Buddha (See Geiger's preface to Mahavamsa). The story of Vijaya and Kuveni (the local reigning queen) is reminiscent of Greek legend, and may have a common source in ancient Proto-Indo-European folk tales.[6]

The authorities such as Wilhelm Geiger, H. W. Codrington, Chatterji, Mendis, A. L. Bhasham, S. Parnavitana, K. M. De Silva, J. L. Kamboj etc. assert that the early settlers of Sri Lanka came from the north-west part of India, while others like Muller, Majumdar, Siddhartha, Sabidullah etc. hold that north-eastern India was the home of the earliest colonists.[7]

The Encyclopædia Britannica asserts on Vijaya's arrival in Sri Lanka as follows: "Their landing in Sri Lanka at Tambapanni, near Puttalam, would indicate their arrival from western India. Some early tribal names occurring in Sri Lanka also suggest connections with north-western India and the Indus region. While considerable evidence points to western India as the home of the first immigrants, it seems probable that a subsequent wave arrived from the east around Bengal and Orissa" .[8][9]

Place-names[edit]

According to the Mahavamsa, Vijaya landed on Sri Lanka near Mahathitha (Manthota or Mannar[10]), and named the Island "Thambaparni" ('copper-colored palms). This name is attested in Ptolemy's map of the ancient world.

Tamirabharani is the old name for the second longest river in Sri Lanka (known as Malwatu Oya in Sinhala and Aruvi Aru in Tamil). This river was a main supply route connecting the capital, Anuradhapura to Mahathitha (Mannar). The waterway was used by Greek and by Chinese ships travelling the southern Silk Route.

Mahathitha was an ancient port linking Sri Lanka to India and the Persian gulf,.[11]

The present day Sihalese (and many modern Tamils) are a mixture of the indigenous people and of other peoples who came to the island from various parts of India. The Sinhalese recognize the Vijayan Indo-Aryan culture and Buddhism (already in existence prior to the arrival of Vijaya), as distinct from other groups in neighbouring south India.

History of Tamils in Sri Lanka[edit]

Potsherds with early Tamil writing from the 2nd century BC have been found from the north in Poonakari, Jaffna to the south in Tissamaharama. They bore several inscriptions, including a clan name—vela, a name related to velir from ancient Tamil country.[12] Epigraphic evidence shows people identifying themselves as Damelas or Damedas (the Indo-Aryan Prakrit word for Tamil people) in Anuradhapura, the capital city of Rajarata the middle kingdom, and other areas of Sri Lanka as early as the 2nd century BC.[13] Excavations in the area of Tissamaharama in southern Sri Lanka have unearthed locally issued coins, produced between the 2nd century BC and the 2nd century CE, some of which carry local Tamil personal names written in early Tamil characters,[14] which suggest that Tamils were present and actively involved in trade along the southern coast of Sri Lanka by the late classical period.[15] Other ancient inscriptions from the period reference a Tamil merchant,[16] the Tamil householder residing in Ilubharata[17] and a Tamil sailor named Karava.[18] Two of the five ancient inscriptions referring to the Damedas (Tamils) are in Periya Pullyakulam in the Vavuniya District, one is in Seruvavila district in Trincomalee District, one is in Kuduvil in Amparai District and one is in Anuradhapura. Mention is made in literary sources of Tamil rulers bringing horses to the island in water craft in the second century BCE, most likely arriving at Kudiramalai. Historical records establish that Tamil kingdoms in modern India were closely involved in the island's affairs from about the 2nd century BC.[19]

Kudiramalai, Kandarodai and Vallipuram served as great northern Tamil capitals and emporiums of trade with Tamil kingdoms and the Romans from the 6th–2nd centuries BC. The archaeological discoveries in these towns and the Manimekhalai, a historical poem, detail how Nāka-Tivu of Nāka-Nadu on the Jaffna Peninsula was a lucrative international market for pearl and counch trading for the Tamil fishermen of that time period.

Anuradhapura Kingdom[edit]

Anuradhapura is heralded as an ancient cosmopolitan citadel with diverse populations.

Successions[edit]

Pandukabhaya (437–367 BC) King of Upatissa Nuwara and the first monarch of the Anuradhapura Kingdom and 6th over all of the island of Sri Lanka since the arrival of the Vijaya, he reigned from 437 BC to 367 BC. According to many historians and philosophers, he is the first truly Sri Lankan king since the Vijayan invasion, and also the king who ended the conflict between the Sinha clan and local community, reorganizing the populace.

Elara (205–161 BC), a Tamil King with Chola origins, who ruled "Pihiti Rata", i.e., Sri Lanka north of the mahaweli, after killing King Asela. During Elara's time, Kelani Tissa was a sub-king of Maya Rata (south-west) and Kavan Tissa was a regional sub-king of Ruhuna (south-east). Kavan Tissa built Tissa Maha Vihara, Dighavapi Tank and many shrines in Seruvila. Dutugemunu (161–137 BC) – Eldest son of King Kavan Tissa, who was a young man 25 years of age, defeated the South Indian Tamil Invader Elara (over 64 years of age) in single combat, described in the Mahavamsa. Dutugemunu is depicted as a Sinhala "Asoka". The Ruwanwelisaya, built by this king is a dagaba of pyramid-like proportions. It was an engineering marvel.

Pulahatta (or Pulahatha) deposed by Bahiya, was deposed by Panaya Mara, deposed by Pilaya Mara, murdered by Dathiya 88 BC – deposed by Valagambahu, ending Tamil rule. Valagambahu I (89–77) BC – restored the Dutugamunu dynasty. The Mahavihara Theravada – Abhayagiri (pro-Mahayana) doctrinal disputes arose at this time. The Tripitaka was written in Pali at Aluvihara, Matale. Chora Naga (Mahanaga) (63–51) BC; poisoned by his consort Anula. Queen Anula (48–44 BC) – Widow of Chora Naga and Kuda Tissa, was the first Queen of Lanka. She had many lovers who were poisoned by her. She was finally killed by: Kuttakanna Tissa. Vasabha (67–111 AD) – Vallipuram gold plate; he fortified Anuradhapura and built eleven tanks; many edicts. Gajabahu I (114–136) – invaded the Chola kingdom and brought back captives. He recovered the tooth relic of the Buddha.

Mahasena (274–301) – The Theravada (Maha Vihara) was persecuted and Mahayana surfaced. Later the King returned to the Maha Vihara. Pandu (429) - first of seven Pandiyan rulers, ending with Pithya, 455; Dhatusena (459-477), his uncle, Mahanama wrote the Mahavamsa, he built "Kalaweva". His son Kashyapa (477–495), built the famous sigiriya rock palace. Some 700 rock graffiti give a glimpse of ancient Sinhala.

Arrival of Buddhism and the sacred tooth relic[edit]

Devanampiya Tissa (250–210 BC), a Sinhalese King of the Mauriya clan. His links with Emperor Asoka led to the introduction of Buddhism by Mahinda (son of Asoka) in 247 BC. Sangamitta, (sister of Mahinda) brought a Bodhi sapling via Jambukola (Sambiliturei). There is no evidence in the history of King Ashoka about his having had a son by the name of Mahinda (or by any other name) or a daughter by the name of Sangamitta (or by any other name). This king's reign was crucial to Theravada Buddhism, and for Sri Lanka.

Lambakanna[edit]

Manavamma (684–718) – seized the throne with Pallava help. Manavamma introduced Pallava patronage for three centuries. By the 9th century, with the Pandyan ascendancy in southern India, Anuradhapura was sacked. However, the Sinhalese invaded Pandya using a rival prince, and Madurai itself was sacked. Mahinda V (982–1029) – was the last Sinhala monarch of Anuradhapura. He fled to Ruhuna, where, in 1017, the Chola took him to prison and he died in India.

Demise[edit]

In 993, the Chola Emperor Rajaraja I invaded Sri Lanka, forcing the then Sri Lankan ruler Mahinda V to flee to the southern part of the country.[20] The Mahavamsa describes the rule of Mahinda V as weak, and the country was suffering from poverty by this time. It further mentions that his army rose against him due to lack of wages.[21] Taking advantage of this situation, Rajendra I son of Rajaraja I, launched a large invasion in 1017. Mahinda V was captured and taken to India, and the Cholas sacked the city of Anuradhapura.[20] They moved the capital to Polonnaruwa and subsequent Sri Lankan rulers who came into power after the Chola reign continued to use Polonnaruwa as the capital, thus ending the Anuradhapura Kingdom.[22]

Technology[edit]

The irrigation works in ancient Sri Lanka dated from about 300 BC during the reign of King Pandukabhaya and under continuous development for the next thousand years, were one of the most complex irrigation systems of the ancient world. In addition to underground canals, the Sinhalese were the first to build completely artificial reservoirs and dams to store water. The system was extensively restored and further extended during the reign of King Parākramabāhu.

Kaboja or Kambojas[edit]

"Several early Brahmi inscriptions in Ceylon refer to a community of people called Kambojas who then lived in various parts of Sri Lanka. An early Pali text refers to a Kambojagama in Rohana".[23]

The Kaboja (also Kamboja or Kambodin) are mentioned in eight Brahmi texts. The Dameda are referenced in five texts. The Mileka are mentioned twice. The Muridi, Meraya and Jhavaka are mentioned only once.[24] The Kambojas living in Rohana are mentioned in the (?th) chapter of the Sihalavatthu, a Pali text from about 300 AD. An Elder named Maleyya was residing in Kamboja-gama, in the province (Janapada) of Rohana on the Island of Tambapanni (Sri Lanka), according to chapter 3, Metteyya-vatthu, of the Sihalavatthu.[25] Further, the Mahavamsa asserts the Yonas or Yavanas (Greeks), neighbors to the Kambojas in the north-west, also had a settlement in Pandukabhaya in Anuradhapura.[26] Eight epigraphic and one literary sources attest that the Kambojas had settled in various parts of Ceylon including Hambantoa district and Aparai districts of Rohana province, in Kurunagala district Southwest of Anuradhapura, in Polonnaruva district in eastern Ceylon as well as in Anuradhapura city. A Kambojagama is attested in the Southeast in Rohana province.

Ancient inscriptions reveal that the Kambojas were actively involved in trade, referencing one "Grand Trade Guild of the Kambojas" (Kabojhiya-mahapugiyana) in Aparai district in Rohana and one "Sangha of the Kambojas" (Gota-Kabojhi(ya]na) in Kurunagala district in Southwest Anuradhapura.[27] Epigraphers date these inscriptions to at least 200 BC, or even earlier.

The Indo-Aryan speakers of Sri Lanka may be descended from these north-western Kambojas [28][29][30] Another portion of this Aryan population originated among the Sakas and the Yavanas. These Kambojas inhabited a region bordering the upper Indus in a country near Sind, from whence they, and the Yavanas, finally reached Ceylon in pre-Christian times.[31]

Tamils (Demada) in the Mahavamsa[edit]

The Dameda are the second most mentioned ethnic group in the epigraphy of Ceylon, with mention in five cave inscriptions. "Dameda" in these inscriptions stands for Damela (=Tamil) [32] According to another view, Dameda is a Sanskrit equivalent of Dravida.[33][34] These inscriptions reference the Tamil merchant (Vishaka),[35] the Tamil householder Samana (residing) in Ilubharata[36] and a Tamil navika (or sailor) Karava.[37] These Tamil inscriptions are further corroborated by a reference in the Mahavamsa which contains the expression "Damilas Assandviks" i.e. those (Tamils) who brought horses in water-craft.[38] Early Buddhist literature from north India refers to the Uttarapatha (comprising the Kambojas, Kashmiras, and Gandharas) [39] as horse traders [40] attesting that horses were brought for sale to various parts of the subcontinent. By early mediaeval times, the Kambojas had adopted Islam and were still trading all along the west-coast of India from the Persian Gulf to Ceylon and probably further-east.[41] Kamboja traders from the north-west and Tamil merchants from southern India had probably been involved in trade and settlement in Sri Lanka. Two of the five ancient inscriptions referring to the Damedas (Tamils) are in Periya Pullyakulam in the Vayuniya District, one is in Seruvavila district in Trincomalee district, one is in Kuduvil in Amprai district and one in the ancient city of Anuradhapura.[42]

Mileka, Muridi, Merya and Jhavaka[edit]

Other ethnic terms like Mileka, Muridi,[43] Meraya and Jhavaka are also mentioned in the ancient texts. Milaka, occurring twice in the sources, may be Mlechcha, an aboriginal population of Vedda people. Muridi may be Murunda (Saka Murunda)[44] Merya may be Maurya. Jhavaka identity is not clear. Each of the last three of these terms occur only once in the record.[45]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Laura Smid (2003). South Asian folklore: an encyclopedia : Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka. Great Britain: Routledge. 429.
  2. ^ Geiger-Bode translation of the Mahavamsa
  3. ^ Paranavithana Epigraphics Zeylanica
  4. ^ Mahavamsa 6.34
  5. ^ See: A Concise History of Ceylon: From the Earliest Times to the Arrival of the Portuguese in 1505, Edition 1961, p. 25, Cyril Wace Nicholas, Senarat Paranavitana
  6. ^ Indo-European Folk-Tales and Greek Legend by W. R. Halliday
  7. ^ Early History of Education in Ceylon: From Earliest Times to Mahāsena, 1969, p. 31, U. D. Jayasekera
  8. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Online: See: "History, Colonization and the spread of Buddhism: Indo-Aryan settlement"; See also: A Concise History of Ceylon: From the Earliest Times to the Arrival of the Portuguese in 1505, Edition 1961, p. 25, Cyril Wace Nicholas, Senarat Paranavitana
  9. ^ More Evidence in Favor of Northwest:
    • Phonetics shows that ancient Sinhalese is more allied to western language than eastern. (Epigraphia Zeylanica, II, p. 115, W. Geiger). The change from 'v' to 'b' and 'y' to 'j' is speciality of eastern Indian languages which is not found in Sinhalese and the western Indian language. The change of 's' to 'h' which is a speciality of western languages is found in the Sinhalese language.
    • The comparative linguistics show that the language of ancient Sinhalese is more akin to western India. Comparative study of the languages of ancient Sinhalese inscriptions and that of the edicts of king Ashoka with regard to phonetics and word formation seem to connect the Sinhalese language more to the language used in Mansehra and Shabazgarhi edicts of king Ashoka located in north-west frontier province of Pakistan (Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp. 345–46).
    • Ancient Sinhalese used Goyam (Godhumt) for rice. Rice is not the staple diet in the northwest. This indicates that the Sinhalese colonists came from northwest where Goyam (wheat) was staple diet. In Ceylon where rice was plenty, the colonists started using Goyam for the rice too which seems again to connect them to the northwest.
    • Vijaya's twin brother Sumitta, who was left behind at Sinhapura after Vijaya was exiled was married to a princess from Madradesa (Madda) which country was located between Ravi and Chenab in northern Punjab. And the Madras are closely connected with the Kambojas as is evident from Vamsa Brahmanina of Samaveda(Vamsa Brahamana 1.18-19). If Sihabahu belonged to Bengal, then it is more difficult to explain the matrimonial alliance of prince Sumitta with the princess of Madradesa.
    • On some tradition current during his times, the Chinese pilgrim Hiun Tsang wrote that the ship on which sister of Vijaya was sent to exile landed in Persia. Her descendants founded a kingdom which came to known as Strirajya. Mahavamsa also states that ship on which the women exiles were boarded landed in the island called Mahiladipaka. Marco Polo who traveled in north-west of India attests one Purushadvipa and one Mahiladvipa in his writings. All these evidences again point out that the ancestors of the Sinhalese had been connected with the west coast rather than the east coast of India
  10. ^ "see place names". Archived from the original on 2009-10-25. 
  11. ^ S. Kiribamuna, "The role of the Port city of Mahathathitha in the Trade networks of the Indian Ocean", in "Reflections on a Heritage", Part I 2000
  12. ^ Mahadevan, I. Early Tamil Epigraphy: From the Earliest Times to the Sixth Century A.D., p. 48
  13. ^ Indrapala, K., The Evolution of an ethnic identity: The Tamils of Sri Lanka, p. 157
  14. ^ Mahadevan, I. "Ancient Tamil coins from Sri Lanka", pp. 152–154
  15. ^ Bopearachchi, O. "Ancient Sri Lanka and Tamil Nadu", pp. 546–549
  16. ^ "Dameda vanija gahapati Vishaka"
  17. ^ "Ilu bhartechi Dameda karite Dameda gahapatikana"
  18. ^ "Dameda navika karava"
  19. ^ de Silva, C.R. Sri Lanka — A History, pp. 30–32
  20. ^ a b Siriweera (2004), p. 44
  21. ^ Wijesooriya (2006), p. 114
  22. ^ Siriweera (2004), p. 45
  23. ^ A Concise History of Ceylon: From the Earliest Times to the Arrival of the Portuguese in 1505, 1961, p 25, Cyril Wace Nicholas, Senarat Paranavitana – Sri Lanka; Sinhalese and Other Island Languages in South Asia: By M.W.S. de Silva, 1979, p 15, M. W. Sugathapala De Silva.
  24. ^ Inscriptions of Ceylon, 1970, p xc, Senarat Paranavitana – Inscriptions; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 341–42, 347, Dr J. L. Kamboj
  25. ^ Ships and the Development of Maritime Technology on the Indian Ocean, 2002, pp 108-109, David Parkin and Ruth Barnes; Epigraphia Zeylanica: Being Lithic and Other Inscriptions of Ceylon, 1984, p 53, Don M. de Z. Wickremasinghe, Ceylon Archeological Dept, Archaeological Dept – Inscriptions, Sinhalese; The Archaeology of Seafaring in Ancient South Asia (Cambridge World Archaeology) 2003, p 206, Himanshu Prabha Ray, Norman Yoffee, Susan Alcock, Tom Dillehay, Stephen Shennan, and Carla Sinopoli (14 August 2003) – Cambridge University Press; Nirvana and Other Buddhist Felicities, Cambridge Studies in Religious Traditions, Steven Collins....See APPENDIX 4, Selections from the Story of the Elder Máleyya i.e. Maleyyadevattheravatthu).
  26. ^ Mahavamsa X.90, XII.5, XII.37–39; Dipavamsa. VIII.9; Samantapasadika, (P.T.B.)..I.67; See: History of Ceylon, Vol I, Part I, pp 88–91, Dr S Parnavitana
  27. ^ Ships and the Development of Maritime Technology on the Indian Ocean, 2002, pp 108–109, David Parkin and Ruth Barnes; The Archaeology of Seafaring in Ancient South Asia (Cambridge World Archaeology) 2003, p 206, Himanshu Prabha Ray, Norman Yoffee, Susan Alcock, Tom Dillehay, Stephen Shennan, and Carla Sinopoli (14 August 2003) – Cambridge University Press; The Beginnings of Civilization in South India, Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 29, No. 3 (May, 1970), pp. 603–616, Clarence Maloney)
  28. '^ "It is believed that the people who arrived in Lanka from time to time came from the region of Ancient Kamboja. These people may have come from the Indus Valley Civilization or related southern Indian groups. Evidence of such origins may be seen in the bathing ponds and drainage system at Anuradhapura city. Symbols and signs (e.g. Swastika) found in caves, on pottery and on coins may have been introduced by these yet unknown arrivals (from Kamboja)" (See: Heritage of Sri Lanka, 1984, p 14, Nandadeva Wijesekera – Sri Lanka.
  29. ^ Cf: Proceedings of the Pakistan History Conference, 1968, p 14/15, Pakistan Historical Society – Pakistan.
  30. ^
    • While referring to Simhala country, which is referred to in the Book III, Chapter VII of Saktisangama Tantra, , Dr D. C. Sircar, a front ranking Indologist observes:
    The great country called Simhala, the best of all countries, is placed to the east of Maru-desa and to the south of the Kama-dra. This Simhala of the Saktisangama Tantra can not be identified with Ceylon as such. It is evidently in the Punjab... and reminds us of the kingdom of Sinhapura, mentioned by Hiuen Tsang. The capital of this kingdom has been identified with Khetas, or Katas in the Jhellum District (See: Saktisangama Tantra III. 83, 4 and 205) which is next to the Javalamukhi, the most frequented place of pilgrimage in the Punjab. Tantric literature locates Shambhala (i.e Simhala) and Lankapuri in the SWAT-KASHMIR region (SeeL Studies in Tantras, pp 39–40, Dr P. C. Bagchi; Geography of Ancient India and Medieval India, 1971, pp 108/110, Dr D. C. Sircar). Kama or Kama-giri is also referred to in the Saktisangama Tantra and is located to the north of Maru-desa and also to the north of Huna country (in Punjab and called the land of Heroes) (See: Geography of Ancient India and Medieval India, 1971, pp 108, 110, Dr D. C. Sircar).
    • Here Kama or Kama-giri obviously refers to Kama/Kamma valley/ region in the north-east Afghanistan. Kata is the name of a people and their language, located north of the Kabul river and south of the Hindu Kush. These people are also called Katirs/Kamtoz and are considered descendants of ancient Kambojas. The Saktisangama Tantra attests one Simhala and also one Lankapuri, in the Swat valley to the north of Kabul and the west of the Indus in present day northern-eastern Afghanistan. This location corresponds precisely with the land of the Ancient Kambojas. Thus the Aryan speaking Sinhalese migration to Ceylon, must have started/originated from this Swat/Kashmir region of north-west India.
  31. ^ History of Ceylon, 1959, p 91, Ceylon University, University of Ceylon, Peradeniya, Hem Chandra Ray, K. M. De Silva – Sri Lanka.
  32. ^ Buddhism Among Tamils in Pre-colonial Tamilakam and Ilam, 2002, p 349, Peter Schalk, A. Veluppillai – Tamil (Indic people); Buddhism Among Tamils in Pre-colonial Tamilakam and Ilam, 2002, p 349, Peter Schalk, A. Veluppillai – Tamil (Indic people); The Dravidian Languages, 2003, p 2, Bhadriraju Krishnamurti – Language Arts & Disciplines; Inscriptions of Ceylon, 1970, p xc, Senarat Paranavitana – Inscriptions; Sri Lanka: History and the Roots of Conflict, 1990, p 46,Jonathan Spencer; Ships and the Development of Maritime Technology on the Indian Ocean, 2002, pp 101, 121, 122, Ruth Barnes, David Parkin; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 341–42, 347, Dr J. L. Kamboj.
  33. ^ Sanskrit: Dramida or Dravida; Pali: Damila, Sinhali: Damela, and Tamil: Tamil (Mahāvaṃsa, the Great Chronicle of Sri Lanka: Chapters One to Thirty-seven : an Annotated New Translation with Prolegomena, p 283, Mahānāma, Ananda W. P. Guruge).
  34. ^ Island Interlude, 1971, p 29, Esmée Rankine; The Archaeology of Seafaring in Ancient South Asia: The Formative Period, 2003, p 205, Himanshu Prabha Ray, Social Science.
  35. ^ Dameda vanija gahapati Vishaka.
  36. ^ Ilu bhartechi Dameda karite Dameda gahapatikana.
  37. ^ Dameda navika karava.
  38. ^ "Two Damilas (SENA and GUTTIKA), sons of a freighter who brought horses hither" (via water-craft (See: Mahavamsa XXI, v 10–12.
  39. ^ Dictionary of Pali Proper Names: Pali-English, 2003 (edition), p 363, G. P. Malalasekera – Reference.
  40. ^ Vinaya Pitaka, III, 6; Játaka, Vol II, 287, Fausboll; Samantapāsādikā (P.T.S), Vol I, p 175.
  41. ^ Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, XV, 1915, p. 171, E. Muller, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; Pracina Kamboja, Jana aura Janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, Jiya Lal Kamboj, Satyavrat Shastri; Epigraphia Zeylanica: Being Lithic and Other Inscriptions of Ceylon, Vol 2, 1928, p 75, Inscriptions, Sinhalese.
  42. ^ Narsiṁhapriyā (prof. A.V.N. Murthy Felicitation Volume): Essays on Indian Archaeology, Epigraphy, Numismatics, Art, Architecture, Iconography, and Cultural History, 2000, p 77, Inguva Karthikeya Sarma, D. V. Devaraj, Ram Gopal, A. V. Narasimha Murthy.
  43. ^ Muridi-Utaraha sheni = Trans: "The flight of the steps of Uttara--the Murnidiya".
  44. ^ Since the epithet 'Muridi' is prefixed to the name '-Utara' (Skt. Uttara), Dr S. Paranavitana believed that Muridi is a derivative of Muruda, which is the same as Murunda in the compound Saka-Murunda that occurs in the Allahabad inscription of Samudragupta. Dr S. Konow (1929: XX), referring to the same inscription argued that Murunda is almost certainly a Saka word meaning 'master', 'lord', and he argued that the word murunda has become synonymome with Saka, when applied to royalty.
  45. ^ A Concise History of Ceylon: From the Earliest Times to the Arrival of the Portuguese in 1505, 1961, p 25, Cyril Wace Nicholas, Senarat Paranavitana – Sri Lanka; Ships and the Development of Maritime Technology on the Indian Ocean, 2002, p 109, Ruth Barnes, David Parkin; THE PEOPLE OF THE LION ETHNIC IDENTITY, IDEOLOGY AND HISTORICAL REVISIONISM IN CONTEMPORARY SRI LANKA: K. N. O. DHARMADASA; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 341-42, 347, Dr J. L. Kamboj.

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