Andalusi nubah

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For the Algerian musical form, see Nuubaat.

Andalusī nūbah (نوبة أندلسيّة), also transliterated nūba, nūbā, or nouba (pl. nūbāt), or in its classical Arabic form, nawba or nawbah, is a musical genre found in the North African Maghrib states of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya but, as the name indicates, it has its origins in Arabo-Andalusian music. The name replaced the older use of sawt and originates from the musician waiting behind a curtain to be told it was his turn or nawbah by the sattar or curtain man (Touma 1996, p. 68).

The North African cities have inherited a particularly Andalusian musical style of Granada (Menocal, Scheindlin, and Sells 2000, pp. 72–73). The term gharnati (Granadan) refers in current Algeria, especially in the region of Tlemcen, the entire directory Andalusian scholar,[clarification needed] but in Morocco it designates a distinct musical style of the Andalusian "Tarab Al Ala", as confirmed by the authors Rachid Aous and Mohammed Habib Samrakandi in the latter's book Musiques d'Algérie (Samrakandi 2002, pp. 15, 24).

Form, texts, and performance[edit]

According to tradition there were initially 24 nubat, one for each hour of the day. Each nuba must have a duration of 1 hour.[citation needed]

Lyrics are sung by a soloist or in unison by a chorus, and are chosen from the muwashshah or zajal poetic forms, which are in classical and colloquial Arabic, respectively (Touma 1996, pp. 70–71).

An andalusi nubah uses one tab' (similar to a maqam, or mode) per performance, and includes several instrumental pieces as well as predominantly vocal pieces accompanied by instrumentation. These differ as to mizan (pl. mawazin) or rhythmic pattern (wazn, pl. awzan) (Touma 1996, p. 68).

Formally the tempo increases while the awzan simply[vague] within each of five sections, called mawazin. The sections are introduced by short instrumental pieces and vary according to region, the name of a section indicating the wazn used:

  • in Algeria (12 nubah and 4 incomplete): msaddar, btayhi, darj, insiraf, khlas
  • in Tunisia (13 nubah): btaybhi, barwal, darj, khafif, khatm
  • in Morocco (11 nubah): basit, qayim wa-nisf, btayhi, darj, quddam

The instrumental ensemble used includes the ud, rabab or rebec, nay, qanun, tambourine, and a goblet drum called darbuka. The instrumentalists also serve as chorus (Touma 1996, p. 70).

Tunisia[edit]

In Tunisia, the 13 nubat are traditionally said to have been classified and organized by the 18th-century aristocratic amateur Muhammad al-Rashid Bey, who died in 1759. He is also credited with the composition or commissioning of the 27 instrumental pieces (bashrafs, etc.) that introduce and separate the main vocal pieces in the nuba cycle. In this system, the 13 nubat are treated as a single overarching cycle, given a sequence in which, ideally, they should be performed (Davis 1996, 425–26).

Morocco[edit]

The nubat of Morocco were collected and classified in the 18th century by the musician Al Haïk from Tetuan (Eisenberg 1988,[page needed]).

Unlike the nubat from Algeria or Tunisia, Moroccan nubat are long, so it is rare for a Moroccan nuba to be played in its entirety. Another distinction is that many Tunisian or Libyan nubat and some Algerian nubat are considered as being of Turkish inspiration, whereas Moroccan nubat are free of this influence.[citation needed]

Discography[edit]

  • Anthologie Al-âla: musique andaluci-marocaine. 12 vols.
    • Vol. 1: Nûbâ gharîbat al-husayn, version intégrale. Orchestre al-Brihi de Fès; Haj Abdelkrim al-Raïs, dir. 6-CD set. Auvidis W 260010. [Rabat]: Wizarat al-Thaqafah al-Maghribiyah = Royaume du Maroc Ministère de la Culture; Paris: Maison du cultures du monde / INEDIT, 1989.
    • Vol. 2: Nûbâ al-’ushshâq, version intégrale. Orchestre Moulay Ahmed Loukili de Rabat; Haj Mohammed Toud, dir. 6-CD set. Auvidis W 260014. [Rabat]: Wizarat al-Thaqafah al-Maghribiyah = Royaume du Maroc Ministère de la Culture; Paris: Maison du cultures du monde / INEDIT, 1990.
    • Vol. 3: Nûbâ al-isbihân, version intégrale. Orchestre du Conservatoire se Tétouan; Mohammed Larbi Temsamani, dir. 6-CD set. Auvidis W 260024. [Rabat]: Wizarat al-Thaqafah al-Maghribiyah = Royaume du Maroc Ministère de la Culture; Paris: Maison du cultures du monde / INEDIT, 1993.
    • Vol. 4: Nûbâ al-rasd, version intégrale. Orchestre de Tangier; Ahmed Zaytouni Sahraoui, dir. 6-CD set. Auvidis W 260027. [Rabat]: Wizarat al-Thaqafah al-Maghribiyah = Royaume du Maroc Ministère de la Culture; Paris: Maison du cultures du monde / INEDIT, 1995.
    • Vol. 5: Nûbâ al-îstihlâl, version intégrale / durée 7 h 40. Orchestre al-Brihi de Fès; Haj Abdelkrim al-Raïs, dir. 7-CD set. Auvidis W 260028. [Rabat]: Wizarat al-Thaqafah al-Maghribiyah = Royaume du Maroc Ministère de la Culture; Paris: Maison du cultures du monde / INEDIT, 1994.
    • Vol. 6: Nûbâ rasd al-dhil, version intégrale / durée 6 h 10. Orchestre Moulay Ahmed Loukili de Rabat; Haj Mohammed Toud, dir. 6-CD set. Auvidis W 260029. [Rabat]: Wizarat al-Thaqafah al-Maghribiyah = Royaume du Maroc Ministère de la Culture; Paris: Maison du cultures du monde / INEDIT, 1996.
    • Vol. 7: Nûbâ ’irâq al-’ajam, version intégrale. Orchestre de Tanger; Ahmed Zaytouni Sahraoui, dir. 7-CD set. Auvidis W 260030. [Rabat]: Wizarat al-Thaqafah al-Maghribiyah = Royaume du Maroc Ministère de la Culture; Paris: Maison du cultures du monde / INEDIT, 1996.
    • Vol. 8: Nûbâ al-hijâz al-kebîr, version intégrale / durée 7 h 30. Orchestre al-Brihi de Fès; Haj Abdelkrim al-Raïs, dir. 7-CD set. Auvidis W 260031. [Rabat]: Wizarat al-Thaqafah al-Maghribiyah = Royaume du Maroc Ministère de la Culture; Paris: Maison du cultures du monde / INEDIT, 1997.
    • Vol. 9: Nûbâ ramal al-mâya, version intégrale. Orchestre du Conservatoire de Tétouan; Mohammed Larbi Temsamani, dir. 8-CD set. Auvidis W 260032. [Rabat]: Wizarat al-Thaqafah al-Maghribiyah = Royaume du Maroc Ministère de la Culture; Paris: Maison du cultures du monde / INEDIT, 1997.
    • Vol. 10: Nûbâ al-hijâz al-msharqî, version intégrale. Orchestre al-Brihi de Fès; Haj Abdelkrim al-Raïs, dir. 7-CD set. Auvidis W 260033. [Rabat]: Wizarat al-Thaqafah al-Maghribiyah = Royaume du Maroc Ministère de la Culture; Paris: Maison du cultures du monde / INEDIT, 1998.
    • Vol. 11: Nûbâ al-mâya, version intégrale. Orchestre de Tanger; Ahmed Zaytouni Sahraoui, dir. 7-CD set. Auvidis W 260034. [Rabat]: Wizarat al-Thaqafah al-Maghribiyah = Royaume du Maroc Ministère de la Culture; Paris: Maison du cultures du monde / INEDIT, 1998.
    • Vol. 12: Les deux dernièrs quddâm. Ensemble Al-Âla; Mohammed Briouel, dir. 2-CD set. Auvidis W 260035. [Rabat]: Wizarat al-Thaqafah al-Maghribiyah = Royaume du Maroc Ministère de la Culture; Paris: Maison du cultures du monde / INEDIT, 1999.
  • Maroc: Musique classique Andalou-Maghrébine. Nûba al-Hijâz al-Kabîr; Nûba al-'istihlâl. Orchestre de Fez; Hajj Abdelkrim Raïs, dir. Collection dirigée par Pierre Toureille. Recorded 29 March 1984 at Studio 105, Radio France, Paris. 1-CD. Ocora C559016. Paris: Radio France; Harmonia Mundi, 1987.
  • Música Andalusi, Escuela de Rabat, Orquesta de la Radio Televisión de Marruecos, Mûlây Ahmed Lúkílí, Msháliyya l-Kbíra, recorded in 1962, Btáyhi r-Rásd, recorded in 1958. Madrid: Pneuma, 1998.
  • Música Andalusi, Escuela de Tetuán-Tánger, Orquesta del Conservatorio de Tetúan, Mohammed Ben Arbi Temsamani, Qá'im Wa Nisf Al Istihlál, recorded in 1960. Madrid: Pneuma, 1999.
  • Música Andalusi, Escuela de Fez, Orquesta Brihi, Abdelkrim Rais, Qyddám Al-Máya, Cantor Muhammed Jsásí. Madrid: Pneuma, 2000.
  • Musique arabo-andalouse classique. Nouba Hijaz M'Charqi; Nouba Raml al Mâya. Mahammed Al Moussadir (melismatic chant); Ahmed Chikhi (voice and oud); Mustapha Amri (oud and alto kamanja); Mohammed Diouri (swissèn); Hadj Mohammed Lahlou (tar); Hadj Ustad Mohammed Masano Tazzi (rebab), dir. Recorded June 1987 at Hay al Amal, Fez, Marocco. 1-CD. Le Chant du Monde CMT 274 1007. [Paris]: Le Cant du Monde, 1995.
  • Nawba hijaz la-msharqi. Françoise Atlan (soprano), Abdelfettah Bennis (tenor), Noureddine Tahri (tenor); Abdelkrim Raïs Andalusian Orchestra of Fès; Mohammed Briouel, dir. Recorded 18 October 1998, in the Mnehbi Palace, in the Medina at Fès, Morocco. 1-CD. Erato 3984-25499-2.Paris: Erato Disques, S. A., 1999.

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Barrios Manuel, Gitanos, Moriscos y Cante Flamenco, Séville, RC 1994.
  • Benabdeljalil Abdelaziz, Madjal ilâ târîj al-mûsîqâ al-magribiyya (Introduction à la musique marocaine), Casablanca, s. éd., 2000.
  • Chailley, Jacques, Histoire musicale du Moyen-Age, Paris, PUF, 1950.
  • Chottin, Alexis, Corpus de musique marocaine, fascicule 1: Nouba de ochchâk (prélude et première phase rythmique: Bsīṭ), transcription, translation, and notes. Paris: Heugel Editeur, 1931.
  • Cortes, García Manuela, Pasado y Presente de la Música Andalusí, Sevilla, Fundación El Monte, 1996.
  • Fernandez Manzano, Reynaldo, De las Melodias Nazari de Granada a las Estructuras Musicales Cristianas, Diputación Provincial de Granada, 1985.
  • García Barriuso Patrocinio, La Música hispano-musulmana en Marruecos, Madrid, Publicaciones des Instituto General Franco, 1950.
  • Guettat, Mahmoud, La Musique classique du Maghreb, Paris, Sindbad, 1980.
  • Guettat, Mahmoud, La Música Andaluí En El Maghreb, Sevilla, Fundación El Monte, 1999.
  • Poché, Christian, La Musique Arabo-Andalouse, Paris, Cité de la musique / Actes Sud, 1998.
  • Nadir Marouf, (dir.), Le chant arabo-andalou, Paris : L'Harmattan, 1995.
  • Bois, Pierre, L'Anthologie al-Âla du Maroc. Une opération de sauvegarde discographique., in Internationale de l'imaginaire, vol. 4 : « La musique et le monde », Paris, Babel, Maison des cultures du Monde, 1995, pp. 75–90.
  • Scarnecchia, Paolo, Encyclopédie de la Méditerranée, Musiques populaire, musique savante, série Temps Présent, Edisud, 2003
  • Fethi Zghonda, Tunisie. Anthologie du mâlûf, vol. 4, éd. Maison des cultures du monde, Paris, 1993
  • Mokhtar Hadj Slimane : "Recueil d'informations élémentaires sur la musique andalouse à Tlemcen", publié en avril 2002. Ministère le culture du Maroc Historique ; Personnages ayant marqué de leurs empreintes leurs passages au sein de cette musique(photos et biographies de certains d'entre eux ), Poésies chantées les plus utilisées, Volet technique, conclusion.[full citation needed] (archive from 19 April 2009).
  • Azzouna, J. Evolution de la musique arabe jusqu'au Zajal, Ibla. Revue de l'Institut des Belles-Lettres Arabes Tunis,1977, vol. 40, no140, pp. 213–241.
  • thèse de doctorat inédite Los moriscos españoles emigrados al norte de Africa, después de la expulsión. Traduction de l’extrait par J. et C. Penella, révision de M. de Epalza et J. Servage.

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