Anderson County, Texas

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Not to be confused with Anderson, Texas. ‹See Tfd›
Anderson County, Texas
Anderson courthouse tx 2010.jpg
The Anderson County Courthouse in Palestine.
Map of Texas highlighting Anderson County
Location in the state of Texas
Map of the United States highlighting Texas
Texas's location in the U.S.
Founded 1846
Named for Kenneth L. Anderson
Seat Palestine
Largest city Palestine
Area
 • Total 1,078 sq mi (2,792 km2)
 • Land 1,062 sq mi (2,751 km2)
 • Water 15 sq mi (39 km2), 1.4%
Population
 • (2010) 58,458
 • Density 52/sq mi (20/km²)
Congressional district 5th
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Website www.co.anderson.tx.us

Anderson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 58,458.[1] Its county seat is Palestine.[2] Anderson county was organized in 1846 and is named in honor of Kenneth L. Anderson who had been Vice President of the Republic of Texas.

Anderson County comprises the Palestine, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area.

History[edit]

Native Americans[edit]

Indians friendly to the settlers resided in east Texas[3] before the Kiowa, Kickapoo, Kichai, Apache and Comanche intruded upon their territory.[4] These tribes hunted, farmed the land, and were adept traders. By 1772 they had settled on the Brazos at Waco and on the Trinity upstream from the site of present Palestine. The Tawakoni[5] branch of Wichita Indians originated north of Texas, but migrated south into east Texas. From 1843 onward, the Tawakoni were part of treaties made by both the Republic of Texas and the United States.

On May 19, 1836 an alliance of Comanche, Kiowa, Caddo and Wichita attacked Fort Parker, killing or kidnapping all but about 18 settlers who managed to escape to Fort Houston, which had been erected in Anderson County in 1835 as protection against Indians.[6][7] Among the captured was Cynthia Ann Parker, who later became mother of Comanche Chief Quanah Parker.[8] Some residents of Anderson County are related to Cynthia Ann Parker.

In October 1838, Gen. Thomas Jefferson Rusk conducted a raid against hostile Indians at Kickapoo, near Frankston,[9] ending the engagements with the Indians in eastern Texas for that year.

Settlers[edit]

In 1826, empresario David G. Burnet received a grant from the Coahuila y Tejas legislature to settle 300 families in what is now Anderson County.[10] Most of the settlers in the county came from the southern states and from Missouri.

Baptist spiritual leader Daniel Parker[11][12] and eight other men organized the Pilgrim Predestinarian Regular Baptist Church in Lamotte, Illinois. The fellowship in its entirety migrated in 1833 to the new frontier of Texas. Among this group of settlers were Silas M. Parker, Moses Herrin, Elisha Anglin, Luther T. M. Plummer, David Faulkenberry,[13] Joshua Hadley, and Samuel Frost. Fort Parker was the earliest actual settlement in the vicinity. After the fort was attacked, some of the survivors moved to Anderson County.

County Established[edit]

The First Legislature of the state of Texas formed Anderson County from Houston County on March 24, 1846. The county was named after Kenneth Lewis Anderson. Palestine[14] was named county seat.

Anderson County voted in favor of secession from the Union.[15] When the Civil War broke out, former Palestine district judge Judge John H. Reagan[16][17] served in the cabinet of the Confederate government as postmaster general, being captured at the end of the war and spending twenty-two months in solitary confinement. During Reconstruction, District Nine Court Judge Reuben A. Reeves,[18] a resident of Palestine, was removed from office as "an obstruction to Reconstruction" in part because of his refusal to allow blacks to participate as jurors in the judicial process.

In 1875, the International – Great Northern Railroad[19] placed its machine and repair shops and general offices in Palestine, causing the community to double in size over the next five years.

In January 1928 the first successful oil producer in Anderson County, known as the Humble-Lizzie Smith No. 1, was brought in.[20] By the year 2000 - 295,904,540 barrels (47,045,062 m3) of oil had been taken from county lands since 1929.

The Gus Engeling Wildlife Management Area[21] was purchased by the state between 1950 and 1960, much of it. Milze L. Derden. The area was renamed in 1952 after Gus A. Engeling, the first biologist assigned to the area, was shot and killed by a poacher on December 13, 1951.

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,078 square miles (2,790 km2), of which 1,062 square miles (2,750 km2) is land and 15 square miles (39 km2) (1.4%) is water.[22]

Major highways[edit]

Adjacent counties[edit]

National protected area[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 2,684
1860 10,398 287.4%
1870 9,229 −11.2%
1880 17,395 88.5%
1890 20,923 20.3%
1900 28,015 33.9%
1910 29,650 5.8%
1920 34,318 15.7%
1930 34,643 0.9%
1940 37,092 7.1%
1950 31,875 −14.1%
1960 28,162 −11.6%
1970 27,789 −1.3%
1980 38,381 38.1%
1990 48,024 25.1%
2000 55,109 14.8%
2010 58,458 6.1%
Est. 2012 58,190 −0.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[23]
2012 Estimate[1]

As of the census[24] of 2000, there were 55,109 people, 15,678 households, and 11,335 families residing in the county. The population density was 52 people per square mile (20/km²). There were 18,436 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile (7/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 66.44% White, 23.48% Black or African American, 0.64% Native American, 0.45% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 8.00% from other races, and 0.96% from two or more races. 12.17% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 15,678 households out of which 34.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.50% were married couples living together, 13.20% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.70% were non-families. 24.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.07.

In the county, the population was spread out with 20.70% under the age of 18, 9.30% from 18 to 24, 37.70% from 25 to 44, 20.60% from 45 to 64, and 11.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 155.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 173.40 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $31,957, and the median income for a family was $37,513. Males had a median income of $27,070 versus $21,577 for females. The per capita income for the county was $13,838. About 12.70% of families and 16.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.60% of those under age 18 and 16.60% of those age 65 or over.

Media[edit]

Anderson County is part of the Dallas/Fort Worth DMA. Local media outlets are: KDFW-TV, KXAS-TV, WFAA-TV, KTVT-TV, KERA-TV, KTXA-TV, KDFI-TV, KDAF-TV, and KFWD-TV. Other nearby stations that provide coverage for Anderson County come from the Tyler/Longview/Jacksonville market and they include: KLTV-TV, KTRE-TV, KYTX-TV, KFXK-TV, KCEB-TV, and KETK-TV.

Government and infrastructure[edit]

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) operates state prisons for men in the county. The prisons Beto, Coffield, Michael, and Powledge units and the Gurney Unit transfer facility are co-located in an unincorporated area 7 miles (11 km) west of Palestine.[25] The Beto Unit has the Correctional Institutions Division Region II maintenance headquarters.[26]

Education[edit]

The following school districts serve areas in Anderson County:

Communities[edit]

City[edit]

Towns[edit]

Unincorporated areas[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 8, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ Moore, R Edward. "East Texas Indian Lands". Texas Indians. Archived from the original on 17 April 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  R E. Moore and Texarch Associates
  4. ^ "The Passing of the Indian Era". Texas Beyond History. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  Texas Beyond History
  5. ^ Krieger, Margery H: Tawakoni Indians from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 02 May 2010. Texas State Historical Association
  6. ^ "Fort Houston, Texas". Texas Escapes - Blueprints For Travel, LLC. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  Texas Escapes - Blueprints For Travel, LLC.
  7. ^ Watts, Mrs. Harmon: Fort Houston from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 02 May 2010. Texas State Historical Association
  8. ^ Hacker, Margaret Schmidt: Parker, Cynthia Ann from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 02 May 2010. Texas State Historical Association
  9. ^ "Frankston, Texas". Texas Escapes - Blueprints For Travel, LLC. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  Texas Escapes - Blueprints For Travel, LLC.
  10. ^ "Empresario Contracts in the Colonization of Texas 1825-1834". Texas A & M UNiversity. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  Wallace L. McKeehan,
  11. ^ "Parker, Elder Daniel". Find A Grave. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  12. ^ Bob Bowman. "The Parker Family". Texas Escapes - Blueprints For Travel, LLC. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  Texas Escapes - Blueprints For Travel, LLC.
  13. ^ "Faulkenberry, David". Find A Grave. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  14. ^ "Palestine, Texas". Texas Escapes - Blueprints For Travel, LLC. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  Texas Escapes - Blueprints For Travel, LLC.
  15. ^ Bradberry Jr, Forrest E. "Anderson County in the Civil War". Palestine Herald Press. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  16. ^ "Reagan, John Henninger". Find A Grave. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  17. ^ Procter, Ben H: Reagan, John Henninger from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 02 May 2010. Texas State Historical Association
  18. ^ Caraway, Georgia Kemp: Reeves, Reuben A from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 02 May 2010. Texas State Historical Association
  19. ^ Werner, George C: International-Great Northern Railroad from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 02 May 2010. Texas State Historical Association
  20. ^ Caraway, Georgia Kemp: Anderson County from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 02 May 2010. Texas State Historical Association
  21. ^ "Gus Engeling Wildlife Management Area". Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Archived from the original on 3 April 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  22. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  23. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved December 8, 2013. 
  24. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14. 
  25. ^ "Powledge Unit." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 13, 2010.
  26. ^ "Beto Unit." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on June 5, 2010.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 31°49′N 95°39′W / 31.81°N 95.65°W / 31.81; -95.65