Headless Cross, Anderton of pre Conquest Origin
Anderton shown within Lancashire
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|EU Parliament||North West England|
Anderton is civil parish in the Borough of Chorley in Lancashire, England. It is now a suburb of Adlington, 5 miles (8 km) northwest of Bolton, Its eastern boundary is in the Rivington Reservoir. Grimeford Village is in the parish. The parish has a population of 1,206.
The name Anderton is derived from the Anglo-Saxon personal name Eandred and the Old English word tun - meaning the settlement belonging to Eandred. It gives its name to the Anderton family who branched out into Clayton-le-Woods, Euxton, Lostock, Birchley Hall and other places throughout Lancashire.
A Neolithic or Bronze Age stone with a cup and ring mark dating from between 2000 and 3000 BC was found near the Lower Rivington Reservoir in 1999, it is on view outside the Anderton Centre. The 'Headless Cross', a well known local landmark from pre-conquest days, was found at Rivington Church. The cross was divided between 1853 and 1855. Around 1865 the lower part of the cross was moved to Horwich whilst its corona or crown was used in a building near Chorley, before this the cross was displayed inside Rivington Church. Its lower portion was sited in its current position after the death of Lord Leverhulme with its corona or crown still missing, and known as the headless cross.
The Penwortham fee, a vast barony, included Anderton and was granted to Robert Gresle, Baron of Manchester, in 1212. Over time the manor of Anderton became the shared property of families named Anderton and Cunliffe, being held in moieties.
The manor can be traced to 1281 belonging to the Andertons who also claimed a quarter of Rivington. The Manor remained with the Andertons for many centuries. Old Anderton hall is mentioned as being property of Peter the son of Oliver Anderton who died in 1559, with various buildings, lands, a watermill and half another mill in Anderton and Healey. Anderton was held of Sir Thomas Gerard and William Anderton, William was the son and heir of Peter Anderton and held the property when a child.
William Anderton made a settlement or mortgage of his estate in 1593. He appears among the freeholders in 1600 as a convicted recusant he suffered the sequestration of two-thirds of his estates in 1593 which still continued in force in 1607 and he is named again among the contributors to the subsidy in 1628. He died without issue in August 1634 holding the manor of Anderton and a water corn-mill is mentioned. His brother Peter, then seventy years of age, was his heir and had a son William.
Peter Anderton died about April 1640, and his son William had his estates confiscated and sold by Parliament in 1652. He was still living in 1664, when a pedigree was recorded. In the same year he made a settlement of the manor to Francis Anderton of Lostock, and four years later Francis purchased the estate from Peter Anderton and Roger his brother, the surviving sons of William. From this time the manor descended in the same way as Lostock — from Anderton to Blundell and Stonor.
The manor was sold by Mr. Charles Joseph Stonor in 1897 to Richard Bond, George T. Brown and Augustine Bond for £45,000. Two years later the hall and 237 acres (0.96 km2) of land were sold to the Liverpool Corporation for the protection of the Rivington water supply and the remainder was divided between the purchasers, the manorial rights being included in the share of Mr. Richard Bond. No manorial courts were held.
Ladyhall was the Cunliffe portion of the manor. Around 1400 a moiety of the village of Anderton together with Cunliffe in Billington and Wilpshire and other lands came into the possession of Adam de Lever of Great Lever in right of his wife Margaret sister of Roger de Cunliffe. It was sold in 1629, together with Great Lever, to Bishop Bridgeman, whose son Sir Orlando in 1663 sold it to Francis Anderton of Lostock. The moieties were reunited to one owner. Ladyhall or Ladyhoug Rivington, grid ref: SD 6110 2360 is now underwater at the Upper Rivington Reservoir.
There were many hand loom weavers in Anderton in the nineteenth century. British muslins were first manufactured at Anderton in 1764, and that there in 1782 were for the first time in England produced 'the Balasore handkerchiefs, the jaconet and japanned muslins in the style of India. In 1779 Samuel Oldknow purchased a number of spinning mules suitable for use in the manufacture of muslin and in 1781 Samuel entered into partnership with his brother Thomas in 1782 during which time he resided at Roscoe Lowe Farm, Anderton, expanding into the manufacture of cotton goods using the Roscoe Lowe Barn as a workshop. Samuel Oldknows father is interred at Rivington Unitarian Chapel. Oldknow used Putting-out system of production in Anderton, whereby raw cotton was distributed to spinners and yarn to weavers who worked in their homes and workshops. The finished cloth was then returned to Oldknow's warehouse for checking and payment.
|Source: Vision of Britain.|
St Joseph's Church is a Roman Catholic place of worship within the Archdiocese of Liverpool, it also serves Roman Catholics in Adlington, Heath Charnock and Rivington. Anderton New Hall, also known as Stoners Anderton Hall stood on the Anderton side of the lower Rivington reservoir, was built for Charles Joseph Stoner Esq who made significant contributions to the build of St. Josephs Church had earlier paid for the building a presbytery at the Hall. The Hall Catholic Chapel was used by locals until 1863 when St. Josephs Church was built. The Hall was last owned by the Lawrence family and demolished in 1930, today's its armorial stones that once surrounded the building are a garden wall at Rivington Hall Records indicate a chapel existed in 1370 at Anderton Hall and a sculptured stone depicting the shack bolts from the arms of the Andertons and a crucified figure with 'Inri' above known as 'The Anderton Stone' is now at Rivington Church and is believed to have from Anderton Hall chapel. Above this stone is another carved with a Sator Square reading "SATOR AREPO TENET OPERA ROTAS".
Listed buildings and structures
The term listed building, in the United Kingdom, refers to a building or structure designated as being of special architectural, historical, or cultural significance. They are categorised in three grades: Grade I is the highest. Buildings in England are listed by the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport on recommendations provided by English Heritage, which also determines the grading.
There are twelve grade II listed buildings and structures within Anderton that are nationally important and of special interest. Andertons listed buildings are varied, reflecting its rural and historic importance. The earliest is the Headless Cross, a pre conquest Scheduled Monument located in Grimeford Village at SD 6190 1302 Early in the twentieth century William Lever, 1st Viscount Leverhulme adapted the Headless Cross to make a sun dial at his Bungalow in Rivington. The monument was moved to its current position by his son the 2nd Viscount Leverhulme in 1925. The most recently constructed of the twelve grade II listed buildings being 'Brown Low', a house and outbuildings that was built in 1907 for C F & L Sixsmith. The designs are by Charles Holden, a leading architect from Bolton, then resident in London. Other buildings include Roscoe Lowe and Barn once used as a base by Samuel Oldknows as a workshop. Locally sourced stone for walls and slate for roofs are the predominant building materials used including in the build of those not listed.
- Roscoe Lowe Farmhouse, Roscoe Lowe Brow, grade II, built 1759, listed building number 184259
- Barn & Shippon on east side of road, opposite Roscoe Lowe Farmhouse Roscoe Lowe Brow, grade II, built 1588, listed building number 184260
- Norris Fold Farmhouse & Cottage, with garden wall, Bolton Road, grade II, built 1710, listed building number 184252
- Greenhalgh Farmhouse Greenhalgh Lane, grade II, built 1703 on site of earlier build, listed building number, 184253
- Heskins Farmhouse Grimeford Lane, grade II, built 1715, listed building number 184254
- Headless Cross, pre conquest with 18th-century additions, grade II, Historical Monument, listed building number 184255
- Stocks c. 10 metres west of Headless Cross Headless Cross, dated 1808, grade II, listed building number 184256
- Tan Pits Farmhouse New Road, grade II, 1722 date stone build likely earlier, listed building number 184257
- Pigsty c. 10 metres east of Tan Pits Farmhouse New Road, grade II, eighteenth-century, listed building number 184258
- Barn c. 50 metres north of Anderton Old Hall Farmhouse Squirrel Lane, grade II, built eighteenth century and since altered, listed building number 184261
- Stable c. 100 metres north of Anderton Old Hall Farmhouse, grade II, built 1720, listed building number 184262
- Brown Low, New Lane, grade II, built 1907, listed building number 184585.,
|Adlington||Lower Rivington Reservoir|
Leisure & Tourism Leisure activities are today a feature of the area based at the Anderton Centre built on the site of Anderton New Hall, also known as Stoners Anderton Hall, now demolished. The centre was established in 1999 on the banks of the Lower Rivington reservoir and is a purpose built training facility and outdoor pursuit centre a for water activities with fantastic grounds and surrounding countryside for land activities offering a Restaurant, conference rooms, bedrooms and kitchen, veranda on 1st floor with a Boat house, small wooden jetty, private tree lined drive to the centre, open fields with wooded areas. Office arranged in "courtyard" arrangement. The area being next to Rivington, a popular tourist attraction benefits from the passing tourists. Parts of Anderton are popular with tourists, especially the roads and embankments near the Rivington reservoirs.
- Office for National Statistics : Census 2001 : Parish Headcounts : Chorley Retrieved 5 February 2010
- Rivington Services
- Billington, W.D. (1982). From Affetside to Yarrow. Egerton: Ross Anderson Publications. pp. 1–2. ISBN 0-86360-003-4.
- About Adlington, section on Anderton
- http://www.chorley.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=3510&p=0 Scheduled Monuments
- Press Excerpts, Book 1, D. A Owen, page 24, article 'Chorley Standard, 9 December 1865'
- Farrer, William; Brownbill, J., eds. (1911). "Anderton". A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 5. British History Online. pp. 220–222. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
- http://www.chorleyhistorysociety.co.uk/sys2004.htm Chorley Halls
- http://www.marple-uk.com/Oldknow1.htm http://www.marple-uk.com/Oldknow1.htm
- "Anderton CP/Tn: Total Population". Vision of Britain. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- Anderton St Joseph's Catholic Primary School, Chorley. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- St Joseph's Anderton. Retrieved on 25 August 2010.
- Rivington, M. D Smith, 1989, ISBN 0-9508772-8-X page 69
- More About Rivington, M.D Smith, ISBN 0-9526187-1-0, page 33
- More About Rivington, M.D Smith, ISBN 0-9526187-1-0, page 57
- About Rivington, John Rawlinson, Nelson Brothers Limited, Chorley, 1969, p42
- Listed Buildings, English Heritage, 2010, retrieved 23 August 2011
- http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Application.aspx?resourceID=5 English Heritage, Listed Buildings
- Leverhulme Era, M.D Smith
- http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=184485&resourceID=5 English Heritage, Listed Buildings, Listing Details for Brown Low
- http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=184259&resourceID=5 English Heritage, Listed Buildings, Listing Details for Roscoe Lowe
- http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=184260&resourceID=5 English Heritage, Listed Buildings, Listing Detail for Roscoe Lowe Barn
- http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=184252&resourceID=5 English Heritage, Listed Buildings, Listing Detail for Norris Fold
- http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=184253&resourceID=5 English Heritage, Listed Buildings, Listing Detail for Greenhalgh Farm
- http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=184254&resourceID=5 English Heritage, Listed Buildings, Listing Detail for Heskins Farmhouse
- http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=184256&resourceID=5 English Heritage, Listed Buildings, Listing Detail for Stocks
- http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=184257&resourceID=5 English Heritage, Listed Buildings, Listing Detail for Tan Pits Farmhouse
- http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=184258&resourceID=5 English Heritage, Listed Buildings, Listing Detail for Pigsty
- http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=184261&resourceID=5 English Heritage, Listed Buildings, Listing Detail for Barn near Anderton Old Hall Farm
- http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=184262&resourceID=5 English Heritage, Listed Buildings, Listing Detail for Stables north of Anderton Old Hall Farmhouse
- http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=184485&resourceID=5 English Heritage, Listed Buildings, Listing Detail for Brown Low
- http://www.unitedutilities.com/Outdooractivities.aspx United Utilities
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