|State of India|
Montage of Andhra Pradesh
Clockwise from top left: Visakhapatnam Port view, Godavari Arch Bridge (Rajahmundry), Prakasam Barrage (Vijayawada), Pulicat Lake and Barrier Island of SHAR (Sriharikota, Nellore), Tirumala temple (Tirupati), Telugu Talli statue and Konda Reddy Fort in background (Kurnool).
|Nickname(s): Rice Bowl of India,
Egg bowl of Asia
Location of Andhra Pradesh (marked in red) in India
|Established||1 October 1953
1 November 1956 (re-organised for 1st time).
2 June 2014 (re-organised for 2nd time)
|Capital city||Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh Capital City (proposed)†|
|• Governor||E. S. L. Narasimhan|
|• Chief Minister||Nara Chandrababu Naidu (TDP)|
|• Legislature||Bicameral (175 + 58 seats)|
|• Lok sabha constituencies||25|
|• High Court||High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad|
|• Total||160,205 km2 (61,855 sq mi)|
|• Density||308/km2 (800/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+05:30)|
|Coastline||972 kilometres (604 mi)|
|Website||AP State Portal|
^† The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 states that Hyderabad is joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh states for a period of time not exceeding 10 years. A new capital is planned to be developed in Guntur District, between Guntur and Vijaywada.
|Symbols of Andhra Pradesh|
|Song||Maa Telugu Talliki|
|River||Godavari and Krishna|
Andhra Pradesh (/ /) is one of the 29 states of India, situated on the country's southeastern coast. The state is the eighth largest state in India covering an area of 160,205 km2 (61,855 sq mi). As per 2011 census of India, the state is tenth largest by population with 49,386,799 inhabitants. The new capital city of Andhra pradesh is proposed in Guntur District, north of Guntur City and will be developed under Capital Region Development Authority. In accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad will remain the de jure capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding 10 years.
The state has the second longest coastline of 972 km (604 mi) among all the states of India, second only to Gujarat. It borders Telangana in the northwest, Chhattisgarh in the north, Odisha in the northeast, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south and the water body of Bay of Bengal in the east. A small enclave of 30 km2 (12 sq mi) of Yanam, a district of Pondicherry, lies south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta to the northeast of the state.
There are two regions in the state namely Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema and hence, the two regions are more often referred as Seemandhra by the media. There are 13 districts with 9 in Coastal Andhra and 4 in Rayalaseema. Visakhapatnam is the largest city and a commercial hub of the state with a GDP of $26 billion followed by Vijayawada with a GDP of $3 billion. Guntur, Nellore, Kurnool, Kadapa, Tirupati, Rajahmundry , Kakinada , Ongole and Eluru are other important cities.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Climate
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Administrative divisions
- 6 Government and politics
- 7 Culture
- 8 Economy
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Tourism
- 11 Telugu cinema
- 12 Education and research
- 13 Sports
- 14 Newspapers and journals
- 15 See also
- 16 References
- 17 External links
The Andhras trace their history to the vedic age. Andhra was mentioned in the Sanskrit epics such as Aitareya Brahmana (800 BCE). According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig veda, Andhras left the "northern land of the Aryans" and migrated to South India.
The Early Satavahanas ruled Andhra. The puranas refer to Satavahanas as Andhra Bhrityas. The Purāṇas list 30 Andhra rulers. Many are known from their coins and inscriptions as well. Satavahanas made Amaravati as their capital.
Simuka (c. 230–207 BCE) After becoming independent around 230 BCE, Simuka, the founder of the dynasty, conquered the present-day Maharashtra and parts of Madhya Pradesh (including Malwa). He was succeeded by his brother Kanha (or Krishna) (r. 207–189 BCE), who further extended his state to the present day Andhra Pradesh. Later, Simuka made Srikakulam his capital.
Satakarni (c. 180–124 BCE)
His successor Sātakarnī I was the sixth ruler of the Satavahana. He is said to have ruled for 56 years. The Mauryans extended their rule over Andhra in the fourth century BCE. With the fall of the Maurya Empire in the third century BCE, the Satavahanas became independent. After the decline of the Satavahanas in 220 CE, the Ikshvaku dynasty, Pallavas, Ananda Gotrikas, Rashtrakutas, Vishnukundinas, Eastern Chalukyas, and Cholas ruled the land.
Andhra Ikshvakus (Sanskrit इक्ष्वाकु, Telugu ఇక్ష్వాకులు) were one of the earliest recorded ruling dynasties of the Guntur-Krishna regions of Andhra Pradesh.They ruled the eastern Andhra country along the Krishna river during the later half of the second century CE. Puranas called Andhra Ikshvakus Shri Parvatiya Andhras. Their capital was Vijayapuri (Nagarjunakonda). It is a strong common belief among some historians that Andhra Ikshvakus were related to the mythological Ikshvakus, while some believe Andhra Ikshvakus seem to be a local tribe who adopted the title.
Archaeological evidence has suggested that the Andhra Ikshvakus immediately succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna river valley. Ikshvakus have left inscriptions at Nagarjunakonda, Jaggayyapeta, Amaravati and Bhattiprolu.
During third century AD, there was utter political and military confusion in the coastal Andhra due to the invasion of the Abhiras and their allies on the last Ikshvaku remnants and the rise of the Brihatphalayanas, the Anandagotras and the Salankayanas on the other. Simha Varma of the Manchikallu stone inscription establishes the independent rule of the Pallavas in parts of the Krishna valley of Andhra Pradesh.
During the reign of Maharaja Sivaskanda Varma of the Mayidavolu, Hirahadagalli, the early Pallavas became dominant power in the first quarter of the fourth century AD Sivaskanda Varma was the first great ruler of the early Pallavas. He extended his dominions from the Krishna in the north to the south Pennar in the south and to the Bellary district in the West. He performed the Aswamedha and other Vedic sacrifices.
Most of the Pallava Prakrit and Sanskrit charters from the southern Andhra country intimately connects them with the history of southern Andhra. The influence of the Pallavas was still felt by Andhra till it was swept by the Western Chalukyan invasion led by Pulakesin II in the first quarter of the seventh century AD. The Pallavas were not a recognized political power before the 2nd century AD. Pallavas were originally executive officers under the Satavahana kings.
Since the fall of the Ikshvakus, the Vishnukundins were the first great dynasty, which held sway way over the entire Andhra country including Kalinga and parts of Telangana and played an important and imperial role in the history of Deccan during the fifth and sixth century AD.
The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna with their capital as Vengi, modern Pedavegi 12 km from Eluru in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India's from 300 to 440 AD. They were Brahmins and their name is derived from their symbol and gotra name, which stood for Nandi (the bull of Shiva).
The Chola dynasty ruled Andhra during the period of 1010–1200. The Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh.
The Reddy Kingdom (1325–1448 CE) was established in present day coastal Andhra Pradesh by Prolaya Vema Reddi in the early fourteenth century. The region that was ruled by this dynasty spanned present day coastal andhra from Vishakapatnam in the north to Kanchipuram in the south. Prolaya Vema Reddi was part of the confederation of states that started a movement against the invading Turkic Muslim armies of the Delhi Sultanate in 1323 CE and succeeded in repulsing them from Warangal. Today Reddys is a social group or caste of India, predominantly inhabiting the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.
The Vijayanagara Empire was an empire originated South India, in the Deccan Plateau region in the early fourteenth century. It was established in 1336 by Harihara Raya I and his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty. The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the thirteenth century. It lasted until 1646 although its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 to the Deccan sultanates. The empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka, India. The writings of medieval European travelers such as Domingo Paes, Fernão Nunes and Niccolò Da Conti, and the literature in local languages provide crucial information about its history. Archaeological excavations at Vijayanagara have revealed the empire's power and wealth. The region of Rayalaseema in the present day Andhra Pradesh got its name from the rulers of this dynasty who's name generally ended with raya, meaning raya ruled region (seema).
The empire's legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of which is the group at Hampi. The Vijayanagara emipre's time is considered as the golden era of South India in many aspects by historian be it prosperity, welfare, wealth, military might and nurturing of arts. The previous temple building traditions in South India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style. The mingling of all faiths and vernaculars inspired architectural innovation of Hindu temple construction, first in the Deccan and later in the Dravidian idioms using the local granite. Efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies such as water management systems for irrigation. The empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form. The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor.
Inspired by their success, the Vijayanagara Empire, one of the greatest empires in the history of Andhra Pradesh and India, was founded by Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal. In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in south India by Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the sixteenth century to the end of the seventeenth century.
In Colonial India, Northern Circars became part of the British Madras Presidency. Eventually this region emerged as the Coastal Andhra region. Later the Nizam rulers of Hyderabad ceded five territories to the British which eventually emerged as Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the princely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. However, Komaram Bheem, a tribal leader, started his fight against the erstwhile Asaf Jahi Dynasty for the liberation of Hyderabad State. Meanwhile, the French occupied Yanam, in the Godavari delta, and (save for periods of British control) would hold it until 1954.In 1947 Vizianagaram was the largest Hindu Princely state in Andhra Pradesh.
India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Nizam wanted to retain the independence of the Princely Hyderabad State from India, but the people of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad was forcibly joined to the Republic of India with Operation Polo in 1948.
In an effort to gain an independent state based on linguistic differences and to protect the interests of the Telugu-speaking people of Madras State, Potti Sreeramulu fasted until death in 1952. As Madras became a bone of contention, in 1949 a JVP committee report stated "Andhra Province could be formed provided the Andhras give up their claim on the city of Madras (now Chennai)". After Potti Sreeramulu's death, the Telugu-speaking areas, i.e. Andhra State, was carved out of Madras State on 1 October 1953, with Kurnool as its capital city.
On the basis of a gentlemen's agreement of 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act formed Andhra Pradesh by merging Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking areas of the already existing Hyderabad State. Hyderabad was made the capital of the new state. The Marathi-speaking areas of Hyderabad State merged with Bombay State and the Kannada-speaking areas were merged with Mysore State.
Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014
In February 2014, the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts. Hyderabad will remain as a joint capital for 10 years for both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. The new state of Telangana came into existence on 2 June 2014 after approval from the President of India. The formation of a new state named Telangana from Andhra Pradesh is not considered an amendment to the Constitution of India per article 3 and 4 of that document.
Geographically, Andhra Pradesh is bestowed with two mighty river systems of Krishna and Godavari. Its varied topography ranging from the hills of Eastern Ghats and Nallamallas to the shores of Bay of Bengal supports varied ecotypes, rich diversity of flora and fauna. The state has two regions Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema. The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. The coastal plains are for the most part of delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penna rivers. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line in the state's geography. The Kadapa Basin formed by two arching branches of the Eastern Ghats is a mineral-rich area. The Ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. The Rayalaseema region has semi-arid conditions. Lambasingi (or Lammasingi), a village in the Chintapalli Mandal of Visakhapatnam district is situated at 1000 meters above the sea level. It is the only place in South India which has snowfall and is also nicknamed as Kashmir of Andhra Pradesh. Throughout the year the temperature here ranges from 0 °C to 10 °C.
Andhra Pradesh Forest Department deals with protection, conservation and management of forests. The total forest cover of the state after the bifurcation is left with an area of 22,862 km2. The forest in the state can be broadly divided into four major biotic provinces. They are:
- Deccan Plateau
- Central Plateau
- Eastern Highland
- East Coastal Plains
Eastern Ghats region is home to dense tropical forests, while the vegetation becomes sparse as the Ghats give way to the Deccan Plateau, where shrub vegetation is more common. These ghats has rich biological diversity with wide variety of plants, birds and lesser forms of animal life. The vegetation found in the state is largely of dry deciduous type with a mixture of Teak, Terminalias, Dalbergias, Pterocarpus, Anogeissus etc. The State possesses some rare and endemic plants like Cycas beddomei, Pterocarpus santalinus, Terminalia pallida, Syzygium alternifolium, Shorea talura, Shorea tumburgia, Psilotum nudum etc.
The diversity of fauna includes tigers, panthers, hyenas, black bucks, cheetals, sambars, sea turtles and a number of birds and reptiles. The estuaries of river Godavari and Krishna support rich mangrove forests with fishing cats and otters as keystone species.
The climate of Andhra Pradesh varies considerably, depending on the geographical region. Monsoons play a major role in determining the climate of the state. Summers last from March to June. In the coastal plain, the summer temperatures are generally higher than the rest of the state, with temperature ranging between 20 °C and 41 °C.
July to September is the season for tropical rains in Andhra Pradesh. The state receives heavy rainfall from the Southwest Monsoon during these months. About one third of the total rainfall in Andhra Pradesh is brought by the Northeast Monsoon. October and November see low-pressure systems and tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal which, along with the Northeast Monsoon, bring rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state. November, December, January, and February are the winter months in Andhra Pradesh. Since the state has a long coastal belt the winters are not very cold. The range of winter temperature is generally 12 °C to 30 °C.
|Source:Census of India|
As of 2011[update] Census of India, the state had a population of 49,386,799 with a population density of 308/km2 (800/sq mi). The total population constitute, 70.4% of rural population with 34,776,389 inhabitants and 29.6% of urban population with 14,610,410 inhabitants. Children in the age group of 0–6 years are 5,222,384, constituting 10.6% of the total population, among them 2,686,453 are boys and 2,535,931 are girls. Visakhapatnam district has the largest urban population of 47.5% and Srikakulam district with 83.8%, has the largest rural population, among others districts in the state. The overall population of the state comprises 17.1% of Scheduled Caste and 5.3% of Scheduled Tribe population.
There are 24,738,068 male and 24,648,731 female citizens—a sex ratio of 996 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 926 per 1000. The average literacy rate stands at 67.41% with 29,772,532 literates, significantly lower the national average of 73.0%. West Godavari district has the highest literacy rate of 74.6% and Vizianagaram district has the least with 58.9%.
Andhra Pradesh ranks tenth of all Indian States in the Human Development Index scores with a score of 0.416. The National Council of Applied Economic Research district analysis in 2001 reveals that Krishna, West Godavari and Chittoor are the three districts in rural AP with the highest Human Development Index scores in ascending order.
The official language of Andhra Pradesh is Telugu. The Minister of Tourism and Culture has issued declaration of Telugu language as Classical Language. Other languages often spoken in the state include Tamil, Kannada and Oriya.
Andhra Pradesh state's population is around 92.25% Hindu with a Muslim minority of 6.9% along with smaller numbers of Christians, Jains, Sikhs, and Buddhists.
Andhra Pradesh is home to Shankaracharya of Pushpagiri Peetham. Other Hindu saints include Sadasiva Brahmendra, Bhaktha Kannappa, Yogi Vemana, Yogi Sri Potuluri Virabrahmendra Swami, who was born in the Vishwabrahmin (goldsmith) caste with Brahmin and Dalit disciples, Satya Saibaba and many others. Andhra Pradesh has several Hindu shrines. Most important and richest of them is Tirupati Tirumala Devasthanams.
Buddhism spread to Andra Pradesh early in its history. The Krishna River valley was "a site of extraordinary Buddhist activity for almost a thousand years." The ancient Buddhist sites in the lower Krishna Valley, including Amaravati, Nagarjunakonda and Jaggayyapeta "can be traced to at least the third century BCE, if not earlier."
The region played a central role in the development of Mahayana-buddhism, alongside with the Magadha-erea in northeastern India. A.K. Warder holds that "the Mahāyāna originated in the south of India and almost certainly in the Andhra country." According to Xing, "Several scholars have suggested that the Prajnaparamita probably developed among the Mahasamghikas in Southern India probably in the Andhra country, on the Krsna River." The Prajñāpāramitā Sutras belong to the earliest Mahayana Sutras.
The state is divided into two regions viz., Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema. It has a total of 13 districts, with nine in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema. These 13 districts are further divided into 664 mandals under the administration of 49 revenue divisions. There are as many as 6 revenue divisions in East Godavari district and only 2 in Vizianagaram district. Chittoor district has the most number of mandals with 66 and Srikakulam district has the least with 37.
Government and politics
Andhra Pradesh has a Vidhan Sabha (legislative assembly, lower house) of 175 seats, and a Vidhan Parishad (legislative council, upper house) of 58 members. In the Parliament of India Andhra Pradesh has 11 in the Rajya Sabha, the Upper House, and 25 in the Lok Sabha, the Lower House.
Until 1962, the CPI, along with socialist parties namely Praja Socialist Party and Krishi Lok Party played an important role in the 1950s. In the 1967 state assembly elections, all socialist parties were eliminated and CPI lost opposition party status. The first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh was Neelam Sanjiva Reddy who later served as President of India. In 1983, the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) won the state elections and N.T. Rama Rao became the chief minister of the state for the first time. This broke the long time single party monopoly enjoyed by the INC from 1956 until 1982. Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao is the founder of Telugu Desam party and served as the first chief minister from the party. The 1989 elections ended the rule of NTR, with the INC party returning to power with Marri Chenna Reddy at the helm. He was replaced by Janardhan Reddy in 1990, who was replaced by Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy in 1992.
N. Chandrababu Naidu held the record for the longest serving chief minister (1995 to 2004). In 1994, Andhra Pradesh gave a mandate to the Telugu Desam Party again, and NTR became the chief minister again. Nara Chandrababu Naidu, the son-in-law of NTR, came to power with the backing of a majority of the MLAs. The Telugu Desam Party won both the assembly and Lok Sabha election in 1999 under the leadership of Chandrababu Naidu.
In the ensuing elections the party lost power to a resurgent INC and its allies and Y. S. Rajasekhar Reddy became the Chief Minister. Y. S. Rajasekhar Reddy became Chief Minister again by fending off the Praja Rajyam Party and a major alliance of TDP, TRS, CPI and CPM. He died on 2 September 2009 in a helicopter crash. Konijeti Rosaiah, former state finance minister, became the Chief Minister on 3 September 2009, who resigned on 24 November 2010 on the grounds of increased work pressure. Nallari Kiran Kumar Reddy was sworn in as the new Chief Minister, who was also the last Chief Minister of the united Andhra Pradesh. He resigned after the announcement of the state bifurcation. President's rule was imposed and the state assembly was dissolved.
In what would be the last elections held in the unified state, Telugu Desam Party got a mandate in their favor in the residuary (new)state. Nara Chandrababu Naidu, the chief of Telugu Desam Party became Chief Minister on 8 June 2014, for the new state of Andhra Pradesh.
The early dynasties which ruled this region had their influence on the culture of the state. The state is rich in its culture in terms of religious worships, literature, dance, music, arts and architecture, spicy cuisine. Some of the notable cultural aspects include paintings of Bapu, Annamayya's songs, famous Kuchipudi dance of the state, the harvest festival Sankranti and many more fairs as well.
Arts, crafts and artifacts
The village of Durgi is known for stone craft, producing carvings of idols in soft stone that must be exhibited in the shade because they are prone to weathering. Kalamkari is an ancient textile art form dating back to the Indus Valley Civilisation. Andhra Pradesh is famous for doll making. Dolls are made from wood, mud, dry grass, and lightweight metal alloys. Tirupati is famous for redwood carvings. Kondapalli is famous for wood toys with rich colors. The village of Etikoppaka, located in Visakhapatnam district, produces lacquered toys.
The state has many museums, which features a varied collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery and inscriptions, and religious artifacts such as the Archaeological Museum at Amaravati with features relics of nearby ancient sites, Visakha Museum in Visakhapatnam displays the history of the pre-Independence, and the Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada with large a good collection of artifacts.
Nannayya (c. eleventh century AD) was the earliest known poet and translator. He wrote the first treatise on Telugu grammar, called "Andhra Shabda Chintamani" in Sanskrit. There was no grammatical work in Telugu prior to that. Pothana is the poet who composed the classic Srimad Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatam, authored by Veda Vyasa in Sanskrit. The Telugu poet Vemana, a native of Kadapa, is notable for his philosophical poems. The Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya wrote Amuktamalyada.
Telugu literature after Kandukuri Veeresalingam (1848–1919) is termed as Adhunika Sahityam (Modern literature). He is known as Gadya Tikkana and was the author of Telugu social novel, Satyavati Charitam. Jnanpith Award winners include Sri Viswanatha Satya Narayana . The Andhra Pradesh native and revolutionary poet Sri Sri brought new forms of expressionism into Telugu literature.
Other modern writers include Gunturu Seshendra Sarma (second Nobel prize nominee in literature after Rabindranath Tagore), Puttaparthi Narayanacharyulu who wrote the books Sivatandavam and Panduranga Mahatyam. Srirangam Sreenivasarao, Gurram Jashuva, Chinnayasuri, Viswanatha Satyanarayana are also notable writers.
Art forms and festivals
Classical dance in Andhra can be performed by both men and women; women tend to learn it more often. Kuchipudi is the state's best-known classical dance form. The various classical dance forms (Śastriya Nrutyam) such as Kuchipudi, Andhra Natyam, Bhamakalapam, Veeranatyam and folk dances(Janapada Nrutyam) forms such as Butta bommalu, Tappeta Gullu, Lambadi, Dhimsa, and Chindu exists in Andhra Pradesh.
Jayapa Senani was the first person to write about the dances prevalent in Andhra Pradesh. Both Desi and Margi forms of dances are included in his Sanskrit treatise Nrutya Ratnavali.
Many composers of Carnatic music like Annamacharya, Tyagaraja, Kshetrayya, and Bhadrachala Ramadas were of Telugu descent. Modern Carnatic music composers like Ghantasala and M. Balamuralikrishna are also of Telugu descent. The Telugu film industry hosts many music composers and playback singers such as S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, P.Susheela, S. Janaki, P B Srinivas. Folk songs are popular in the many rural areas of the state. Forms such as the Burra katha and Poli are still performed today.
Harikathaa Kalakshepam (or Harikatha) involves the narration of a story, intermingled with various songs relating to the story. Harikatha was originated in Andhra. Harikatha Kalakshepam is most prevalent in Andhra Pradesh even now along with Burra katha. Haridasus going round villages singing devotional songs is an age-old tradition during Dhanurmaasam preceding Sankranti festival. Ajjada Adibhatla Narayana Dasu with his Kavyas and Prabandhas has made Harikatha a special art form.
Burra katha is a oral storytelling technique in the Katha tradition, performed in villages of Telangana and coastal Andhra Pradesh region. The troupe consists of one main performer and two co-performers. It is a narrative entertainment that consists of prayers, solo drama, dance, songs, poems and jokes. The topic will be either a Hindu mythological story or a contemporary social issue.
Ugadi is celebrated as the Telugu New Year. People listen to Panchanga recitals by Pundits on the day of Ugadi. This process is called as Panchanga Shravanam which is an important aspect of the festival. Makara Sankranti is also a famous harvest festival which is celebrated across the state. Just like in other parts of the country, many other festivals include – Dasara, Vinayaka Chaviti, Deepavali, Vasantotsavam, Maha Shivaratri, Attla Taddi etc. Muslim festivals include Bakrid, Ramadan and Christians celebrate Christmas and Easter.
Cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is famous for the rich seasoning and lots of variety. Rice is the staple food and is used in a wide variety of dishes. Typical meal includes rice, Pappu(Dal), vegetable curry, Relishes, pickles, chutneys and Curd. A lot of spices are produced in the region and hence the cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is considered spiciest of all. Tamarind and Red Chillies are the distinct flavor of local cuisine.
Pickles and chutneys (sauces) are made from chilli, ginger, coconut and other vegetables like tomato, brinjals, Gongura are served with meals. Aavakaaya is probably the best known of the pickles. Roselle leaves (Gongura), termed as Andhra Bhakshyam (or food of Andhra). Rayalaseema region too had its own variety which includes Jonna (Jowar), Ragi roti with ragi sangati, usually served with spinach.
The coastal region of the state has abundant seafood supply. The variety of fish curry recipes are famous. It is rich and aromatic, with a liberal use of exotic spices and ghee (clarified butter). Lamb, chicken are also the most widely used meats in the non-vegetarian dishes.
Sweets made up of milk are widely eaten. Payasam is one of them made with milk, rice or vermicelli pudding served both warm and cold. Pootharekulu, bobbattlu, mamidi tandra, kaja, ariselu (rice based vada using jaggery) etc., are famous sweets.
Andhra Pradesh has a very diverse geography which leads to a very diverse economy. As many as 9 of the 13 districts have sea coast along the Bay of Bengal, which has created manufacturing and export centric industry. The fertile river plans in the delta regions of major peninsular rivers of Godavari and Krishna are rich with agriculture-based industries and the mineral deposits found in the districts of Rayalaseema, Eastern Gats and neighboring states has led to large-scale ore exports.
The gross state domestic product (GSDP) of Andhra Pradesh was 2359.3 billion (US$37 billion) in 2012–13. The domestic product of agriculture sector accounts for 545.99 billion (US$8.6 billion) and Industrial sector for 507.45 billion (US$8.0 billion). The service sector of the state accounts more percentage of the GSDP with a total of 1305.87 billion (US$21 billion). In the 2010 list by Forbes magazine, there were several from Andhra Pradesh among the top 100 richest Indians.
Economy of the state is mainly based on agriculture and livestock. Andhra Pradesh is an exporter of many agricultural products and is also known as "Rice Bowl of India". Four important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna, Penna, and Thungabhadra, flow through the state, providing irrigation. Agriculture is the main occupation and 60 percent of population is engaged in agriculture and related activities. Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state.
Besides rice, farmers of this state also grow wheat, jowar, bajra, maize, minor millet, coarse grain, many varieties of pulses, oil seeds, sugarcane, cotton, chili pepper, mango nuts and tobacco. Crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam.
Livestock is also another profitable business which involves, rearing of cattle in an enclosed area for commercial purposes.
Fisheries contribute 10% of total fish and over 70% of the shrimp production of India. The geographical location of the state allows marine fishing as well as inland fish production. Most exported marine exports include Vannamei shrimp and are expected to cross $1 billion in 2013-14.
Visakhapatnam has emerged as a major industrial center and has major public and private sector establishments producing large scale industrial goods ranging from steel, metals, petroleum, polymers, fertilizers, heavy engineering equipment and also facilitates ship building, ports and fishing. Kakinada has multiple fertilizer refineries and produces large scale of natural gas from the offshore of KG basin. Kakinada also exports seafood and related products and produces agricultural products like rice and corn, edible oils, oilmeals, processed food products, chemicals, biofuel etc. Vijayawada is famous for processing of agricultural products, automobile body building, hardware, textile, consumer goods and small scale industries. Andhra Pradesh has one major port at Visakhapatnam and several medium-sized ports like Gangavaram, Kakinada & Krishnapatnam; which account to large export of cargo traffic. They are several large power plants and major ones are established at Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Kakinada, Krishnapatnam and Cuddapah.
The state is also emerging in information technology and biotechnology. The IT/ITES revenues of the city alone is at 14.45 billion (US$230 million) in 2012–13. The development of IT in Tier-II and Tier-III cities like Vijayawada, Kakinada and Tirupati are also improving. In the fiscal year 2012–13, Vijayawada's IT/ITeS revenues were 1152.6 million (US$18 million) crore while Tirupati with 693 million (US$11 million) and Kakinada with 615.4 million (US$9.7 million).
Other key sectors include pharma, power, banking & Financial, Automobile, Tourism, Textiles, Retail, Leather and tourism also constitute in the economy of the state.
Andhra Pradesh is listed top in the deposit and production of mica in India. Minerals found in the state include limestone, reserves of Oil and natural gas, manganese, asbestos, Iron Ore, Ball Clay, Fire Clay, Gold Diamonds, graphite, Dolomite, quartz, Tungsten, Steatitic, Feldspar, Silica Sand. It has about one third of India's limestone reserves and is known for large exclusive deposits of Barytes and Galaxy granite in the international market.
Mining is identified as one of the growth engines for the overall development of industry and infrastructure. The Tummalapalle Uranium mine in Andhra has confirmed 49,000 tonnes of ore and there are indications that it could hold reserves totaling three times its current size. 700 million tonnes of metal grade Bauxite deposits in close proximity to Visakhapatnam Port.
Reliance Industries Limited struck nine trillion cubic feet of gas reserves in the Krishna Godavari Basin, 150 km (93 mi) off the Andhra Pradesh coast near Kakinada. Discovery of large quantity of natural gas in KG Basin is expected to provide rapid economic growth.
There are both thermal and hydel power plants. Natural gas, one of the cheapest source in power generation is in abundance. APGENCO is the power generating organization of Andhra Pradesh. Thermal power plants with total capacity of 5610 MW are situated in the state which includes Dr Narla Tata Rao Thermal Power Station (1760 MW), Rayalaseema Thermal Power Station (1050 MW), Sri Damodaram Sanjeevaiah Thermal Power Station (800 MW) are of APGENCO, Simhadri Super Thermal Power Plant (2000 MW) of NTPC, and the Hydel power plants are having a capacity of 3693.20 MW. There are also non−conventional power generation plants contributing a small portion to the power generation in the state.
The state is well connected other states with road, rail. It is also connected to other countries by means airways and seaports as well. With a long seacoast along the Bay of Bengal, it also has many ports for sea trade. The state has one of the largest railway junctions at Vijayawada and one of the largest seaport at Visakhapatnam.
Roads in Andhra Pradesh comprises National Highways and state highways with district roads as well. NH 5, with a highway network of around 1,000 km (620 mi) in the state, is a part of Golden Quadrilateral Project undertaken by National Highways Development Project. It also forms part of AH 45 which comes under the Asian Highway Network.
The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is the major public bus transport owned by the state government which runs thousands of buses connecting different parts of the state. Pandit Nehru Bus Station (PNBS) in Vijayawada is one of the largest bus terminals in Asia.
Andhra Pradesh has a railway network of 5,046 km (3,135 mi) and have played a significant role in boosting the economy of the state alongside developing the industrial and the tourism sectors. One of the highest broad gauge tracks in the world is in eastern ghats route that runs from Visakhapatnam to Anantagiri. Most of Andhra Pradesh falls under with Guntur, Vijayawada , Guntakal (South Central Railway zone and Waltair (East Coast Railway zone) divisions. The serves the north coastal districts.
Waltair Railway Division under ECoR zone, is fourth largest revenue earning division in India. Vijayawada railway station is the highest grosser in the SCR zone and one of busiest railway junctions in India.
Nowadays, there is a public demand in the State of Andhra Pradesh, to make Visakhapatnam as a major Railway Station, for the state, also in demand of New Railway Zone to it, urging the Government of India.
Visakhapatnam Airport, is the only airport in the state now with international connectivity. There are Three domestic airports at Vijayawada Airport at Gannavaram, Rajahmundry Airport at Madhurapudi, Tirupati Airport at Renigunta and a Private Airport at Puttaparthi. There are also 17 small air strips located in the state.
Andhra Pradesh has one of the country's largest port at Visakhapatnam in terms of (cargo handling). The other famous ports are Krishnapatnam Port(Nellore), Gangavaram Port and Kakinada Port. Gangavaram Port is a deep seaport which can accommodate ocean liners up to 200,000–250,000 DWT. There are 14 notified non-major ports at Bheemunipatnam, S.Yanam, Machilipatnam, Nizampatnam, Vadarevu etc.
The seacoast of the state extends along the Bay of Bengal from Srikakulam to Nellore district. The coastline has many beaches, namely Ramakrishna, Rushikonda, Bheemli, Suryalanka, Krishnapatnam, Vodarevu beach, Uppada beaches etc. The state tourism board APTDC promotes tourism in the state.
Borra Caves in the Ananthagiri Hills of the Eastern Ghats, near Vishakapatnam are famous for million-year-old stalactite and stalagmite formations. Belum Caves in Kurnool district are the second largest natural caves of 3.229 km (2.006 mi) in length on the Indian subcontinent.
Valleys and Hills
Araku Valley is the famous hill station in Visakhapatnam district with thick forests, coffee plantations and waterfalls. Horsley Hills is a summer hill resort in the Chittoor district, situated at an elevation of 1.265 km (0.786 mi), has natural flora and fauna. Papi Hills in East Godavari district is famous for its scenic beauty of the location in the river Godavari with.
The state has rich forests, diverse flora & fauna that provides ample scope for promoting ecotourism. The state has many Sanctuaries, National Parks, Zoological Parks such as Coringa, Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve, Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary, Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park, Indira Gandhi Zoological Park etc. Atapaka Bird Sanctuary and Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary attracts many migratory birds.
Apart from these, the state is home to many pilgrim destinations. It has many temples and shrines, mosques, and churches. Some famous temples, mosques, Buddhist shrines and churches of religious importance which are often visited by many tourists include Tirumala Temple, Simhachalam Temple in Visakhapatnam District, Dwaraka Tirumala in West Godavari District, Srisailam temple, Kanaka Durga Temple of Vijayawada, Srikalahasti temple, Shahi jamia masjid in Adoni, Gunadala Church in Vijayawada, Buddhist centres at Amaravati, Nagarjuna Konda etc., and many more as well.
In the early 1990s, the Telugu film industry had largely shifted from Chennai to Hyderabad. The Telugu film culture (or, "Tollywood") is the second-largest film industry in India next to Bollywood Film Industry. Prolific film producer from the state, D. Ramanaidu holds a Guinness Record for the most number of films produced by a person.
In the years 2005, 2006 and 2008 the Telugu film industry, has produced the largest number of films in India exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood. The industry holds the Guinness World Record for the largest film production facility in the world.
Education and research
Andhra Pradesh has an overall literacy rate of 91.01% (2014). According to the report of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (2011–12) and Statistical Abstract (2012–13), 37,45,340 children out of 38,05,791 (98.4%), were enrolled in Primary schools with a teacher/student ratio of 29.3%. 21,01,928 children out of 21,56,577 (97.5%), were enrolled in Upper Pimary schools with a teacher/student ratio of 24.6%. Schools in Andhra Pradesh require Telugu to be learned. Apart from thousands of schools ranging from the pre-primary to the senior secondary ones, the state is home to a number of institutes, which impart higher education.
The Ministry of Human Resource Development has sanctioned The Indian Institute of Management (IIM) at Visakhapatnam which will start functioning from the academic year 2015-16 The Government of Andhra Pradesh has established Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies (RGUKT) in 2008 to cater to the educational needs of the gifted rural youth of Andhra Pradesh. The higher education includes many colleges, universities and research institutes providing professional education in the fields of arts, humanities, science, engineering, law, medicine, business, and veterinary sciences, with undergraduate and post graduation. K L University, GITAM, Vignan University are the Deemed Universities. Some of the major state funded universities include:
- Acharya Nagarjuna University at Guntur
- Vignan University at Guntur
- KL University at Guntur
- Andhra University at Vishakapatnam
- Damodaram Sanjivayya National Law University at Vishakapatnam
- Dr. N.T.R. University of Health Sciences at Vijayawada
- JNTU Kakinada & JNTU Anantapur & JNTU Pulivendula & JNTU Vizianagaram
- Sri Krishnadevaraya University at Anantapur
- Sri Venkateswara University at Tirupati
- Rayalaseema University, Kurnool
Research Research institutes have been set up by the central government in the state. Some of them include:
- School of Planning and Architecture, Vijayawada, an autonomous research institute under Ministry of Human Resource Development of Govt. of India.
- National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), carry out fundamental and applied research in Atmospheric and Space Sciences.
Space research organization
Indian Space Research Organisation (or Sriharikota Range (SHAR)) at barrier island of Sriharikota in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh is a satellite launching station. It is India's primary orbital launch site. India's lunar orbiter Chandrayaan-1 was launched from the centre at 6:22 AM IST on 22 October 2008.
Government of India through Ministry of Human Resource Development, also announced National Institute of Technology, which is to be constructed in the West Godavari District of State of Andhra Pradesh and an IIT Indian Institute of Technology in the Chittoor District.
The Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh, is the governing body which looks after the infrastructure development in Cricket, Field hockey, Association Football, Olympic weightlifting, Chess, Water Sports, Tennis, Badminton, Table Tennis, Cycling etc. Sports like kho kho, kabaddi and volleyball are played mostly in Andhra Pradesh.
One of the most popular sports in Andhra Pradesh is cricket. The ACA-VDCA Stadium in Visakhapatnam is the home to the Andhra Pradesh cricket team. These venues regularly hosts international as well as domestic matches. Notable cricketers from Andhra Pradesh, include Maharajkumar of Vizianagram, M. V. Narasimha Rao, M. S. K. Prasad, V.V.S. Laxman, Tirumalasetti Suman, Arshad Ayub, Ambati Rayudu, Venkatapathy Raju, Sravanthi Naidu, Yalaka Venugopal Rao etc.
Other accomplished sports-persons include, A. Ramana Rao, Karnam Malleswari(Weight Lifting), Pullela Gopichand(Badminton), Chetan Anand (badminton),Kamineni Eswara Rao (Arjuna Award winner) etc. Grandmasters in Chess like, Humpy Koneru, Pendyala Harikrishna, Dronavalli Harika hail from the state.
Newspapers and journals
The electronic media with wide range of news channels and print media that cover many national newspapers enlightens the people of Andhra Pradesh with all important political, economic and social news of national as well as international importance. Some of the notable Telugu newspapers are Eenadu, Andhra Jyothy, Sakshi, Andhra Bhoomi, Vaartha etc. and English daily includes Deccan Chronicle, The Times of India, The Hindu etc. For the purpose of business related news the print media has certain publishers namely The Economic Times, Business Line.
- Index of Andhra Pradesh-related articles
- India – Wikipedia book
- List of people from Andhra Pradesh
- Middle kingdoms of India
- Part One of the Constitution of India
- States and union territories of India
- India Today. ABC-CLIO. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-313-37462-3. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- Mohanty, Muktikanta (2010). Macmillan's General Knowledge Manual 2010. Macmillan. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-230-32874-7. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- Andhra State Act, 1953. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
- "Census of Andhra Pradesh 2011" (PDF). Andhra Pradesh State Portal. Government of India. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- "Literacy of AP (Census 2011)" (PDF). AP govt. portal. p. 43. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
- "Andhra Pradesh unveils road map for new capital city". The Economic Times. 30 October 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- "Administrative and Geographical Profile" (PDF). AP state portal. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
- "Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority Act, 2014" (PDF). News19. Municipal Administration and Urban Development Department. 30 December 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
- Times of India (3 November 2014). "Capital in Guntur". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- Business Standard (3 November 2014). "Action Plan". Business Standard. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- Sanchari Bhattacharya (1 Jun 2014). "Status of Hyderabad". ndtv. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "Geographic profile of AP" (PDF). Department of Land Resources. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "Yanam of Puducherry". Gov.t of Yanam. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- "India’s top 15 cities with the highest GDP". Yahoo Finance. 15 July 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- Nicole Bippen (17 February 2014). "The 10 Richest Indian Cities". The Richest. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- "Dance Dialects of India". Ragini Devi. Motilal Bansarsi Dass. ISBN 81-208-0674-3. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
- "History of Andhra Pradesh". AP Online. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "Ancient and medieval history of Andhra Pradesh". P. Raghunadha Rao. Sterling Publishers, 1993. p. iv. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
- "Age of Telugu language". The Hindu. 20 December 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
- Salomon, Richard (1998). Indian epigraphy : a guide to the study of inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan languages (1. publ. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 106. ISBN 0-19-509984-2.
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- "A Journey Through India's Past". Chandra Mauli Mani. Northern Book Centre. ISBN 81-7211-194-0. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
- G. Durga Prasad, History of the Andhras up to 1565 AD, P.G. Publishers, Guntur, p. 116
- "History of the Andhras". Durga Prasad. P. G. PUBLISHERS. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
- "Andhra Ikshvaku inscriptions". The Hindu.
- Ancient India, A History Textbook for Class XI, Ram Sharan Sharma, National Council of Educational Research and Training, India , pp 212
- "Ancient and medieval history of Andhra Pradesh". P. Raghunadha Rao. Sterling Publishers, 1993. p. 68. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
- "Ancient and medieval history of Andhra Pradesh and telangana". P. Raghunadha Rao. Sterling Publishers, 1993. p. 70. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
- Ancient Indian History and civilization By S. N. Sen.
- Pran Nath Chopra (1982). Religions and communities of India. Vision Books. p. 136. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
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- Government Of Madras Staff; Government of Madras (1 January 2004). Gazetteer of the Nellore District: brought upto 1938. Asian Educational Services. p. 52. ISBN 978-81-206-1851-0. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
- The History of Andhras, Durga Prasad (http://igmlnet.uohyd.ernet.in:8000/gw_44_5/hi-res/hcu_images/G2.pdf
- By James Mansel Longworth page 204
- edited by J C morris page 261
- By Om Gupta, page 428-429
- Nilakanta Sastry (1955), p216
- Kamath (2001), p160
- "Master Plan for Hampi Local Planning Area".
- Historians such as P. B. Desai (History of Vijayanagar Empire, 1936), Henry Heras (The Aravidu Dynasty of Vijayanagara, 1927), B.A. Saletore (Social and Political Life in the Vijayanagara Empire, 1930), G.S. Gai (Archaeological Survey of India), William Coelho (The Hoysala Vamsa, 1955) and Kamath (Kamath 2001, pp157–160)
- Robert Sewell, A Forgotten Empire (Vijayanagar): A contribution to the history of India, Chapter 2 Gutenberg.org
- Richards, J. F. (1975). "The Hyderabad Karnatik, 1687–1707". Modern Asian Studies 9 (2): 241–260. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00004996.
- "Tributes paid to Telangana martyrs". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 18 September 2005.
- "HYDERABAD: The Holdout". Time. 30 August 1948. Archived from the original on 22 May 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
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- "Know Hyderabad: History". Pan India Network. 2010. Archived from the original on 21 September 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- "Telangana bill passed by upper house". Times of India. Retrieved 20 Feb 2014.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- Telangana is India’s 29th state as Rajya Sabha passes Bill amidst chaos
- "Telangana state formation gazette". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
- "Constitution of India Sub-section". March 4, 2014. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
- "Andhra Pradesh Geography". Maharashtraweb.com. Archived from the original on 29 September 2010. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
- "Kadapa basin". Directorate General of Hydrocarbons. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- Ganguly, Nivedita (17 September 2014). "Lambasingi set to become tourist hotspot". The Hindu (Visakhapatnam). Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "Lambasingi records 2º c". Deccan Chronicle (Visakhapatnam). 16 December 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "Forests in AP facts.". AP Forest department. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- "Natural vegetation and wildlife". AP Forest Department. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- Aptdc, Andhra Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation (27 May 2010). "APTDC – Andhra Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation". Tourisminap.com. Archived from the original on 6 August 2010. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
- "AP census 2011". Census of India. pp. 13–34. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- "ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOGRAPHICAL PROFILE" (pdf). AP State Portal. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "INDIA AT A GLANCE : CENSUS 2011". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "Human Development Report 2007". APonline.gov.in. Archived from the original on 19 September 2010. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
- "AP Online, Index.html" (PDF). Andhra Pradesh official website. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- Fatihi, A. R. (4 April 2003). Thirumalai, M. S., ed. LANGUAGE IN INDIA : Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow (Volume 3 ed.).
- "Classical Language". Press Information Bureau. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
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- "Sri Potuluri Veera Brahmendra Swami". Mihira.com. Archived from the original on 20 November 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2008.
- Davidson, Ronald. Tibetan Renaissance. Columbia 2005, pp. 29.
- Padma, Sree. Barber, Anthony W. Buddhism in the Krishna River Valley of Andhra. SUNY Press 2008, pg. 2.
- Padma, Sree. Barber, Anthony W. Buddhism in the Krishna River Valley of Andhra. SUNY Press 2008, p.1
- Peter Harvey (2013), An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices, Cambridge University Press, p.108
- Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. p. 313
- Guang Xing. The Concept of the Buddha: Its Evolution from Early Buddhism to the Trikaya Theory. 2004. pp. 65–66
- Williams, Paul. Buddhist Thought. Routledge, 2000, pages 131.
- Williams, Paul. Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations 2nd edition. Routledge, 2009, pg. 47.
- "Part-I State Administrative Divisions 2001-2011" (PDF). Census of India. p. 6. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- "List of Mandals" (PDF). Andhra Pradesh State Portal. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly".
- "The Hindu, November 25, 2012". Chennai, India. 25 November 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- "The Hindu, on the election and Presidency". Chennai, India. 15 June 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- "Telugu Desam turns 29.". Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- "Length of time as Chief Minister". Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- "CBN to be sworn as CM of Andhra on June 8th". Deccan-Journal. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- "Durgi Stone Craft". Cesdeva. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- "Archaeological Museum, Amaravati – Archaeological Survey of India". Asi.nic.in. Retrieved 19 August 2010.
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- Gopavaram, Padmapriya; Subrahmanyam, Korada (2011). "1". A Comparative Study Of Andhrasabdachintamani And Balavyakaranam. Hyderabad: University of Hyderabad.
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- Manorma Sharma (2007). Musical Heritage of India. APH. pp. 19–32. ISBN 81-313-0046-3.
- Thoomati Donappa. Telugu Harikatha Sarvasvam. OCLC 13505520.
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- Appaji Reddem. "Rice bowl of India". The Hindu. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
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- AP top producer of shrimp: MPEDA - The Hindu
- "Vannamei Hatcheries". Coastal Aquaculture Authority. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
- The $ Billion Andhra Shrimp exports « Vizag Industrial Scan
- "IT/ITES revenues". Times of India. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- "Industrial & Fertilizer minerals" (PDF). Geological Survey of India portal. CGPB Committee-IV. pp. 17–44. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
- "Krishna Godavari Basin: Oil & Gas Resource". kgbasin.in. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- "Natural Gas in Krishna-Godavari basin". Times of India. 3 Oct 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
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