Andijan

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Andijan
Andijon/Андижон
Andijan/Andizhan
The Mausoleum of Babur in Andijan
The Mausoleum of Babur in Andijan
Andijan is located in Uzbekistan
Andijan
Andijan
Location in Uzbekistan
Coordinates: 40°47′N 72°20′E / 40.783°N 72.333°E / 40.783; 72.333Coordinates: 40°47′N 72°20′E / 40.783°N 72.333°E / 40.783; 72.333
Country Flag of Uzbekistan.svg Uzbekistan
Province Andijan Province
First mention 10th century
Area
 • Total 74,3 km2 (287 sq mi)
Elevation 450 m (1,480 ft)
Population (2000)
 • Total 333,400
 • Density 450/km2 (1,200/sq mi)
Postal code 170100[1]
Area code(s) +998 74[1]

Andijan or Andizhan (Uzbek: Andijon/Андижон; Russian: Андижан) is a city in Uzbekistan. It is the administrative, economic, and cultural center of Andijan Province. Andijan is located in the south-eastern edge of the Fergana Valley in eastern Uzbekistan, near the border with Kyrgyzstan.

Andijan is one of the oldest cities in the Fergana Valley. In some parts of the city archeologists have found items dating back to the 7th and 8th centuries. Historically, Andijan was an important city on the Silk Road. The city is perhaps best known as the birthplace of Babur who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty in the Indian Subcontinent and became the first Mughal emperor.

Andijan is an important industrial city in the country. Some of the things produced in the city include chemicals, domestic appliances, electronics, foodstuffs, furniture, plows, pumps, shoes, spare parts for farming machines, various engineering tools, and wheelchairs.

History[edit]

Toponymy[edit]

The origin of the name of the city is uncertain. Arab geographers of the 10th century referred to Andijan as "Andukan," "Andugan," or "Andigan."[2] The traditional explanation links the name of the city to the Turkic tribal names "Andi" or "Adoq" ("azoq").[3]

Early and recent history[edit]

Babur attempts to liberate Andijan.[4]

Andijan is one of the oldest cities in the Fergana Valley. In some parts of the city archeologists have found items dating back to the 7th and 8th centuries.[3] Historically, Andijan was an important city on the Silk Road.[5]

The city is perhaps best known as the birthplace of Babur who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty in the Indian Subcontinent and became the first Mughal emperor.[6] During the reign of the Timurids, especially Babur, Andijan was a large and important city in the region. During that period, art and culture developed profusely in the city.

After the formation of the Khanate of Kokand in the 18th century, the capital was moved from Andijan to Kokand. In mid-19th century, the Russian Empire began occupying the area of present-day Central Asia. In 1876, the Russians conquered the of Khanate of Kokand and the city of Andijan along with it.

Andijan was the center and flashpoint of the Andijan Uprising of 1898, in which the followers of Sufi leader Madali Ishan attacked the Russian barracks in the city, killing 22 and injuring 16-20 more. In retaliation, 18 of the participants were hanged and 360 exiled.[7] On December 16, 1902, much of the city was leveled by a severe earthquake, which destroyed up to 30,000 homes in the region, and killed as many as 4,500 residents.[5][8] After Soviet rule was established in Andijan in 1917, the city quickly became an important industrial city in the Uzbek SSR.

Modern history[edit]

During the Soviet Union, Andijan was separated from its historical hinterland when the present borders were created, dividing the Ferghana Valley between three separate Soviet republics. Andijan itself became part of the Uzbek SSR. The borders did not make much difference during the Soviet period, as the entire region was mainly developed to grow crops such as cotton and silk.

Andijan on Independence Day

During World War II many Soviet citizens were evacuated to Andijan and the surrounding republics. Of the Jewish refugees fleeing Nazi-occupied Poland and banished by the Soviets to Siberia and Central Asia, some relocated to Andijan starting in 1941.[9]

In the 1990s, though, the Andijan and the surrounding region became much more unstable. Poverty and an upsurge in Islamic fundamentalism produced tensions in the region. The town, and the region as a whole, suffered a severe economic decline following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. Repeated border closures badly damaged the local economy, worsening the already widespread poverty of Andijan's inhabitants. Islamic fundamentalists established a presence in the city. In May 2003, a local man named Azizbek Karimov was arrested and accused of carrying out terrorist bombings on behalf of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan. He was convicted and executed in April 2004.

May 2005 Massacre[edit]

On May 13, 2005, Uzbekistan's military opened fire on a mass of people who were protesting against poor living conditions and corrupt government.[10][11][12] Estimates of those killed on 13 May range from 187, the official count of the government, to several hundred.[10][13] A defector from the SNB alleged that 1,500 were killed.[14] The bodies of many of those who died were allegedly hidden in mass graves following the massacre.[15]

The Uzbek government at first said the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan organized the unrest and the protesters were members of Hizb ut-Tahrir.[16] Critics argue that the Islamist radical label is just a pretext for maintaining a repressive regime in the country. Whether troops fired indiscriminately to prevent a color revolution or acted legitimately to quell a prison break is also disputed.[17][18][19][20] Another theory is that the dispute was really an inter-clan struggle for state power.[12] The Uzbek government eventually acknowledged that poor economic conditions in the region and popular resentment played a role in the uprising.[21]

Geography[edit]

Andijan is located 450 metres (1,480 ft) above sea level, in the south-eastern edge of the Fergana Valley in eastern Uzbekistan, near the border with Kyrgyzstan.[3] By road it is 22 kilometres (14 mi) northeast of Asaka and 68.6 kilometres (42.6 mi) southeast of Namangan.[22] Andijonsoy flows along the city.

Climate[edit]

Andijan has a cool semi-desert climate (Köppen climate classification BSk), with cold winters and hot summers. Rainfall is generally light and erratic. Summers are particularly dry.

Climate data for Andijan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 3.2
(37.8)
6.3
(43.3)
14.6
(58.3)
23.2
(73.8)
28.7
(83.7)
33.8
(92.8)
34.7
(94.5)
32.6
(90.7)
28.5
(83.3)
21.3
(70.3)
13.0
(55.4)
5.6
(42.1)
20.46
(68.83)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.9
(28.6)
0.9
(33.6)
8.4
(47.1)
16.4
(61.5)
21.7
(71.1)
26.2
(79.2)
27.2
(81)
24.7
(76.5)
19.6
(67.3)
12.8
(55)
6.0
(42.8)
0.7
(33.3)
13.56
(56.42)
Average low °C (°F) −5.8
(21.6)
−3.3
(26.1)
3.3
(37.9)
10.2
(50.4)
14.8
(58.6)
18.3
(64.9)
19.5
(67.1)
17.1
(62.8)
11.9
(53.4)
6.3
(43.3)
0.9
(33.6)
−2.8
(27)
7.53
(45.56)
Precipitation mm (inches) 26
(1.02)
33
(1.3)
37
(1.46)
28
(1.1)
21
(0.83)
8
(0.31)
6
(0.24)
2
(0.08)
4
(0.16)
26
(1.02)
22
(0.87)
25
(0.98)
238
(9.37)
 % humidity 84 81 72 62 54 46 50 57 60 68 77 86 66.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 87.7 100.6 151.7 206.3 277.2 334.3 357.7 339.3 289.7 216.6 139.6 77.4 2,578.1
Source: NOAA (1961-1990)[23]

Demographics[edit]

The population of Namangan in 2000 was 333,400.[3] Representatives of many ethnic groups can be found in the city. Uzbeks are the largest ethnic group.

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1897 57,000 —    
1939 105,000 +84.2%
1959 161,000 +53.3%
1970 188,000 +16.8%
1985 275,000 +46.3%
2000 333,400 +21.2%
Source: [3][5][24]

Economy[edit]

Andijan has been an important craft and trade center in the Fergana Valley since the 15th century. After annexation by the Russians in 1876, the economy of the city started to grow significantly. Several industrial plants were built in Andijan after the city was connected with Russia with a railway line in 1889.[24] Several hospitals, pharmacies, banks, and printing houses were established in the city during that period. After Soviet rule was established in late December 1917, both light and heavy industries increased significantly. Andijan is the first city in Uzbekistan that was fully supplied with natural gas.[24]

Currently Andijan remains an important industrial city in independent Uzbekistan. There are 48 large industrial plants and about 3,000 small and medium enterprises in the city.[3] Some of the things produced in the city include chemicals, domestic appliances, electronics, foodstuffs, furniture, plows, pumps, shoes, spare parts for farming machines, various engineering tools, and wheelchairs. Andijan is also home to over 50 international companies. Five of them produce spare parts for UzDaewoo.

Education[edit]

There are four higher education institutions in Andijan city. The Andijan Medical Institute is the largest of the four. The city is also home to four colleges, one academic lyceum, 21 vocational schools, 47 secondary schools, three music and art schools, nine sports schools, and 86 kindergartens.[24]

Notable people[edit]

  • Choʻlpon (1897-1938) — an influential poet, playwright, novelist, and literary translator[27]
  • Abbos Bakirov (1910-1974) — a film actor and director, People's Artist of Uzbekistan (1939)[28]
  • Halima Nosirova (1913-2003) — an influential opera singer, People's Artist of Uzbekistan (1937)[29]
  • Mukarram Turgʻunboyeva (1913-1978) — dancer, People's Artist of Uzbekistan (1937); generally regarded as the founder of modern Uzbek stage dance[30]
  • Muhammad Yusuf (1954-2001) — poet and a member of the Supreme Assembly of Uzbekistan, People's Poet of Uzbekistan (1998)[33]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Chust Yellow Pages". SPR. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  2. ^ Pospelov, E. M. (1998). Geographical Names of the World. Toponymic Dictionary (Географические названия мира. Топонимический словарь) (in Russian). Moscow: Русские словари. p. 36. ISBN 5-89216-029-7. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Ziyayev, Baxtiyor (2000–2005). "Andijon". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 
  4. ^ unknown (1590s). "1499, Babur's siege of Andijan". Baburnama. 
  5. ^ a b c "Andijon". Ensiklopedik lugʻat (in Uzbek) 1. Toshkent: Oʻzbek sovet ensiklopediyasi. 1988. pp. 42–43. 5-89890-002-0. 
  6. ^ Manz, Beatrice Forbes (1987). "Central Asian Uprisings in the Nineteenth Century: Ferghana under the Russians". Russian Review 46: 267–281. 
  7. ^ Khalid, Adeeb (1998). The Politics of Muslim Cultural Reform: Jadidism in Central Asia. Comparative studies on Muslim societies. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 59. ISBN 0-520-21355-6. 
  8. ^ Kislov, D. (13 July 2007). "Paging Through Old Journals: Ecidence of the 1902 Andijan Earthquake (Листая старые журналы: Свидетельства андижанского землетрясения 1902 года)". Фергана.Ру (in Russian). Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  9. ^ Holdings Registry file No. 2165, Ghetto Fighters' House Archives
  10. ^ a b "Preliminary Findings on the Events in Andijan, Uzbekistan, 13 May 2005". Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe. Warsaw. 20 June 2005. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  11. ^ Beehner, Lionel (June 26, 2006). "Documenting Andijan". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  12. ^ a b Burnashev, Rustam; Irina Chernykh. "Changes in Uzbekistan’s Military Policy after the Andijan Events". China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly 5 (I): 67–73. 
  13. ^ Usmanova, Dilya. [Andijan: A Policeman's Account "Andijan: A Policeman's Account"]. Institute for War and Peace Reporting. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  14. ^ "Former Uzbek Spy Accuses Government Of Massacres, Seeks Asylum". RFE/RL. 1 September 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  15. ^ "The Andijan massacre a year after". Columbia Radio News. 10 June 2007. Archived from the original on 20 Aug 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  16. ^ "Border situation between Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan returns to normal". ReliefWeb. 26 May 2005. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  17. ^ C. J. Chivers; Ethan Wilensky-Lanford (17 May 2005). "Uzbeks Say Troops Shot Recklessly at Civilians". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  18. ^ "Uzbek troops clash with protesters". CNN. 13 May 2005. Archived from the original on 28 Sep 2013 03. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  19. ^ ""Bullets Were Falling Like Rain" The Andijan Massacre, May 13, 2005". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  20. ^ Chivers, C. J. (23 May 2005). "Toe Tags Offer Clues to Uzbeks' Uprising". Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  21. ^ "Uzbekistan: Karimov Reappraises Andijon". RFE/RL. 19 October 2006. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  22. ^ "Andijan". Google Maps. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  23. ^ "Climate Normals for Andizan". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 10 February 2013. 
  24. ^ a b c d Moʻminov, Ibrohim, ed. (1971). "Namangan". Oʻzbek sovet ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek) 1. Toshkent. pp. 359–360. 
  25. ^ Muhammadjonov, Abdulahad; Abdugʻafurov, Abdurashid (2000–2005). "Bobur". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 
  26. ^ Qodirova, Mahbuba (2000–2005). "Nodira". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 
  27. ^ Karimov, Naim (2000–2005). "Choʻlpon". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 
  28. ^ "Bakirov Abbos". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 2000–2005. 
  29. ^ "Nosirova Halima". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 2000–2005. 
  30. ^ Qodirov, Muhsin (2000–2005). "Turgʻunboyeva Mukarram". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 
  31. ^ "Boruxova Fotima". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 2000–2005. 
  32. ^ "Rahimova Shahodat". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 2000–2005. 
  33. ^ "Muhammad Yusuf". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 2000–2005. 
  34. ^ "Chagayev Ruslan Shamilevich". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 2000–2005. 

External links[edit]