Andira

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Andira
Andira humilis.jpg
Andira humilis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Genus: Andira
Lam.[1]
Species

See text.

Synonyms
  • Andira Juss.
  • Lumbricidia Vell.

Andira is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. It is distributed in the tropical Americas, except for A. inermis, which also occurs in Africa.[2] It was formerly assigned to the tribe Dalbergieae, but recent molecular phylogenetic evidence has placed it in a unique clade named the Andira clade.[3][4]

Compared to other Faboideae the genus has unusual systems of root nodules[2] and fruits, which are drupes. In most species the fruits are dispersed by bats, and in some they are dispersed by rodents. They may also be dispersed on water.[5]

Plants of the genus are used in traditional medicine in Brazil to treat fever and as purgatives and vermifuges. The treatments are toxic in high doses, however. Chemical compounds isolated from the genus include isoflavones, flavanols, glycosides, pterocarpans, chromone, and ursolic acid.[6]

Species[edit]

Andira comprises the following species:[6][7][8][9]

Nomina Dubia[edit]

The following species are of uncertain validity:[7]

  • Andira chigorodensis R.T.Penn.
  • Andira chiricana Pittier
  • Andira harfieldii Leschenault de la Tour
  • Andira jaliscensis R.T. Penn.
  • Andira macrocarpa R.T.Penn.
  • Andira microcarpa Griseb.
  • Andira oblonga Benth.
  • Andira praecox Arroyo ex R.T. Penn.
  • Andira taurotesticulata R.T. Penn.
  • Andira tervequinata R.T. Penn., G.A. Aymard & Cuello

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pennington RT. (2002). "(1533) Proposal to change the authorship of Andira, nom. cons. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) and to conserve it with a conserved type". Taxon 51 (2): 385–386. doi:10.2307/1554939. 
  2. ^ a b Pennington RT. (2003). "A monograph of Andira (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae)". Syst Bot Monogr 64: 1–145. doi:10.2307/25027903. 
  3. ^ Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wykd B-E, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 
  4. ^ Cardoso D, de Queiroz LP, Pennington RT, de Lima HC, Fonty É, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2012). "Revisiting the phylogeny of papilionoid legumes: new insights from comprehensively sampled early-branching lineages". Am J Bot 99 (12): 1991–2013. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380. 
  5. ^ Pennington RT, Gemeinholzer B. (2000). "Cryptic clades, fruit wall morphology and biology of Andira (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae)". Bot J Linn Soc 134 (1–2): 267–86. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2000.tb02354.x. 
  6. ^ a b da Silva VC, de Carvalho MG, da Cunha e Silva SL. (2007). "Chemical constituents from roots of Andira anthelmia (Leguminosae)". Rev Latinoamer Quím 35 (1–2): 13–19. 
  7. ^ a b "The Plant List entry for Andira". The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  8. ^ "ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Andira". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Last edited on 1 November 2005 (rebuilt on 24 April 2013). Retrieved 15 February 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  9. ^ USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Andira". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  10. ^ Some sources treat Andira frondosa as a synonym of Andira legalis.
  11. ^ Different sources disagree on whether the binomial Andira humilis or the binomial Andira laurifolia has priority.
  12. ^ Some sources treat Andira pisonis as a synonym of Andira fraxinifolia.