Neveu studied in Paris at the École Normale Supérieure (ENS). In 1969 he received his diploma (Thèse de Troisieme Cycle) at Université Paris-Sud 11 in Orsay with Philippe Meyer and Claude Bouchiat and in 1971 he completed his doctorate (Thèse d'Etat) there. In 1969 he and his classmate from ENS and Orsay, Joël Scherk, together with John H. Schwarz and David Gross at Princeton University, examined divergences in one-loop diagrams of the bosonic string theory (and discovered the cause of tachyon divergences). From 1971 to 1974 Neveu was at the Laboratory for High Energy Physics of the University of Paris XI where he and Scherk showed that spin-1 excitations of strings could describe Yang–Mills theories. In 1971, Neveu with John Schwarz in Princeton developed, at the same time as Pierre Ramond (1971), the first string theory that also described fermions (called RNS String Theory after its three originators). This was an early appearance of the ideas of supersymmetry which were being developed independently at that time by several groups. A few year later, Neveu, working in Princeton with David Gross, developed the Gross–Neveu model. With Roger Dashen and Brosl Hasslacher, he examined, among other things, quantum-field-theoretic models of extended hadrons and semiclassical approximatons in quantum field theory which are reflected in the DHN method of the quantization of solitons. From 1972 to 1977 Neveu was at the Institute for Advanced Study while spending half of the time in Orsay. From 1974 to 1983 he was at the Laboratory for Theoretical Physics of the ENS and from 1983 to 1989 in the theory department at CERN. From 1975 he was Maitre de recherche in the CNRS and from 1985 Directeur de recherche. From 1989 he was at the Institute (Laboratory) for Theoretical Physics of the University of Montpellier II (now L2C, Laboratory Charles Coulomb). In 1994/5 he was a visiting professor in the University of California, Berkeley.
In 1973, Neveu received the Paul Langevin Prize of the Société Française de Physique. In 1988 he received the Gentner-Kastler Prize awarded jointly by the Société Française de Physique and the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (DPG).
Neveu is married and has three children.
- Neveu, A. (1988), "Introduction to Strings and Superstrings", Physikalische Blätter 44: 195, doi:10.1002/phbl.19880440709 (On the occasion of the awarding of the Gentner-Kastler Prize)
- Neveu, A. (1982), "Dual resonance models and strings in QCD", in Zuber, Jean-Bernard; Stora, Raymond, Recent Advances in Field Theory and Statistical Mechanics, Les Houches, France, Aug 2 – Sep 10, 1982, Les Houches Summer School Proceedings 39, p. 760
- Gross, David J.; Neveu, A.; Scherk, J.; Schwarz, John H. (1970), "Renormalization and Unitarity in the Dual-Resonance Model", Phys. Rev. D 2: 697–710, Bibcode:1970PhRvD...2..697G, doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.2.697
- Neveu, A.; Scherk, J. (1972), "Connection between Yang-Mills fields and dual models", Nuclear Physics B 36: 155–161, Bibcode:1972NuPhB..36..155N, doi:10.1016/0550-3213(72)90301-X
- Neveu, A.; Schwarz, J. H. (1971), "Factorizable dual model of pions", Nuclear Physics B 31: 86–112, Bibcode:1971NuPhB..31...86N, doi:10.1016/0550-3213(71)90448-2; Neveu, A.; Schwarz, J. H. (1971), "Tachyon-free dual model with a positive intercept trajectory", Physics Letters B 34: 517–518, Bibcode:1971PhLB...34..517N, doi:10.1016/0370-2693(71)90669-1; Neveu, A.; Schwarz, John H. (1971), "Quark Model of Dual Pions", Phys. Rev. D 4: 1109–1111, Bibcode:1971PhRvD...4.1109N, doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.4.1109; Neveu, A.; Schwarz, J. H.; Thorn, C. B. (1971), "Reformulation of the Dual Pion Model", Physics Letters B 35: 529–533, Bibcode:1971PhLB...35..529N, doi:10.1016/0370-2693(71)90391-1. The version of Neveu and Schwarz differed from that of Ramond in the boundary terms. By the choice of the boundary terms they obtained fermion pairs to produce a model of the pion, a boson. An important advantage of this string theory at that time was also that the unphysical tachyon of the bosonic string theory was eliminated.
- A quantum-field-theoretic model of Dirac fermions with a four-fermion interaction vertex and unitary symmetry in one spatial dimension. It is renormalizable and asymptotically free. In this model phenomena such as dynamic bulk production and spontaneous symmetric breaking can be studied.Gross, David J.; Neveu, André (1974), "Dynamical symmetry breaking in asymptotically free field theories", Phys. Rev. D 10: 3235–3253, Bibcode:1974PhRvD..10.3235G, doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.10.3235
- "Liste exhaustive de tous les récipiendaires de prix SFP". Société française de physique. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
- "Preisträger Gentner–Kastler". Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. Retrieved 23 January 2011.