Andragogical learning theory
Beginning in the 1950s Malcolm Knowles developed a new theory - which he called "Andragogy" - in the context of adult learners. This is often contrasted with the child's learning methods - pedagogical learning.
Among the key differences between pedagogical learning and andragogical learning is the minimized role of the educator in the latter. If someone fails to learn in an andragogical context, then it is not assumed to be the failure of the instructor.
The central idea in the context of adult learning is that it is only after convincing oneself of the rationale of learning that an adult will decide to (and be able to) learn. Hence, adults cannot be treated like children if one hopes to see learning. Therefore it is assumed that workshops and seminars organized by the students themselves create a better learning environment than those organized externally. This has led to a flurry of recent teaching innovations like student-led tutor groups and supplemental instruction programs led by above average students.
- Roberts, Michael (2007). "Applying the Andragogical Model of Adult Learning: A Case Study of the Texas Comptroller's Fiscal Management Division". Applied Research Project. Texas State University.
- Lloydene F Hill(2001) Pedagogical and Andragogical Learning