General Andranik in Paris, 1921
February 25, 1865|
Şebinkarahisar, Ottoman Empire
|Died||August 31, 1927
Richardson Springs, California, United States
|Buried at||Yerablur, Yerevan|
|Allegiance||Armenian militia (1888–1904)
Kingdom of Bulgaria (1912–13)
Russian Empire (1914–18)
Armenian militia (1918–19)
|Years of service||1888–1919|
|Rank||Major general (in Russian Army)|
|Awards||see Awards and ranks|
Andranik Ozanian (Armenian: Անդրանիկ Օզանեան)[Note 1] (February 25, 1865 – August 31, 1927) was an Armenian military commander, fedayee leader and a key figure of the Armenian national movement in late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, aiming at creation of an Armenian state between the Ottoman and Russian empires. Andranik is greatly admired in Armenia as a national hero.
After losing his mother, later his wife and their newborn son, Andranik joined the fedayee movement in late 1880s, first fighting against the Turks and Kurds in ranks of Hunchaks, later as a Dashnak. His revolutionary activities lasted until 1904, when he left the Ottoman Empire. In 1907 Andranik left the Armenian Revolutionary Federation because of disagreement with cooperation with the Young Turks. In 1912–1913, together with Garegin Nzhdeh, Andranik led the Armenian volunteer company of the Macedonian-Adrianopolitan Volunteer Corps against the Ottomans duirng the First Balkan War.
During the First World War, Andranik stood at the head of the first Armenian volunteer battalions and later led them against the Ottoman army. After Armenia's declaration of independence in May 1918, Andranik fought in Nakhichevan, Karabakh and Zangezur against the Azerbaijani and Turkish armies.
General Andranik left Armenia in 1919, because of strong disagreements with the Dashnak authorities of Armenia. He spent his last years of life in Europe and the United States. He settled in Fresno, California in 1922 and died five years later in 1927, at age of 62.
Early life and revolutionary activities
Andranik Ozanian was born in Şebinkarahisar, Trebizond Vilayet, Ottoman Empire (today in Giresun Province, Turkey) to Mariam and Toros Ozanian. Andranik (Անդրանիկ) means "firstborn" in Armenian. His father's ancestors came from a nearby village named Ozan. The word ոզնի vozni in Armenian means a hedgehog and ozan is the possessive case of the local Armenian dialect. In the 18th century, villagers of Ozan settled in Şebinkarahisar to avoid persecution from the Turks. Many of them took the surname Ozanian in honor of their hometown. His mother died when he was one year old, so his elder sister Nazeli took care of him. Andranik finished the local Musheghian School and worked in his father's carpentry shop. Andranik got married at the age of 17. A year later his wife died while giving birth to their son, who died days later.
In 1888 young Andranik joined the Social Democrat Hunchakian Party (Hunchak) revolutionary groups and became its member in 1891. His activities for the Armenian national liberation movement were soon disrupted he was arrested and sentenced to a year in prison for beating up a Turk gendarme in 1889. He managed to escape from the prison of Mush and moved to Constantinople, but soon he returned to Western Armenia and traveled to Crimea and Caucasus to find weapons for the fedayees. After walking about 400 kilometers from Kars to Sasun, in winter of 1895, Andranik met fedayee commander Aghbiur Serob and joined his group. In 1894, Andranik left the Hunchak Party and joined the newly formed Armenian Revolutionary Federation, which he would later leave twice (from 1907–1914 and eventually in 1917) due to disagreements.
After Aghbiur Serob's death in 1899, Andranik became the leader of Armenian fedayee groups of Vaspurakan and Taron regions (Western Armenia). All his lieutenants accepted that Andranik possessed undisputed authority and superiority in military matters. Such was the popularity of Andranik that he earned among the men he led that they came to refer to him always by his first name – even on a formal basis, when he later held a general's rank in the Imperial Russian Army.
Andranik's first mission as the fedayee leader was to capture and kill Beshara Khalil, a Hamidiye Ottoman Kurd soldier and chief of the Kherzeni tribe who perpetrated Serob's murder. Khalil was supported by the Ottoman government and was notorious for sacking Armenian villages and committing atrocities against the population. Khalil had killed Serob and placed his head on a pole to parade it in the squares of Mush and Bitlis. The aim was to terrorize the Armenian population and demonstrate to the Armenian revolutionaries the consequences of not submitting to the Ottoman and Kurdish aghas. Andranik and his fedayees including Kevork Chavoush captured Khalil after a battle and then killed him.
The most famous battles of Andranik and his fedayees in that period were the Battle of Holy Apostles Monastery of Mush in 1901 and the Second Sasun Resistance in 1904. Andranik's intentions in both cases were to attract the attention of the foreign consuls at Mush to the plight of the Armenian peasants and to provide a glimmer of hope for the oppressed Armenians of the eastern provinces.
While the Turkish forces relentlessly pursued the fedayee on the plain of Mush, on November 20, 1901 Andranik came down from the mountains with 30 fedayees (Kevork Chavush, Hakob Kotoyan and others) and 8-10 peasants from Tsronk village, hardened in constant skirmishes, and barricaded himself in the Holy Apostles Monastery in the southern suburbs of Mush. Five Turkish battalions, commanded by Ferikh and Ali pashas, besieged the well-fortified monastery. The Turkish generals leading the army of twelve hundred men asked the fedayees to negotiate their surrender. During this period the Turkish army had great losses because of cold weather and epidemics.
After the nineteen days' resistance and long negotiations, in which Armenian clergy as well as the headman of Mush and foreign consuls took part, Andranik and his companions succeeded in leaving the Arakelots monastery and fleeing in small groups. According to Leon Trotsky, Andranik, dressed in the uniform of a Turkish officer, "went the rounds of the entire quard, talking to them in excellent Turkish", and "at the same time showing the way out to his own men." Fellow revolutionaries that participated with Andranik during the Battle of Holy Apostles Monastery included Kevork Chavush, Seydo Boghos, Haji Hagop, Haroutiun, and Ghazar. After breaking through the siege of the monastery Andranik gained legendary stature among provincial Armenians. In 1924 Andranik would write in his memoirs that "it was necessary to show to the Turkish and Kurdish peoples, that an Armenian can undertake a gun, that an Armenian heart can fight and protect his rights."
Andranik participated in the Second Sasun Resistance in 1904, then retreated with his men into Iran, resigned from the Dashnaktsutyun and thereafter traveled to Europe, where he participated in the First Balkan War. The outnumbered Armenian fedayees and their victory against the superior Ottoman army resulted in a boost of moral for all Armenians across the empire.
In 1904, after the Second Sasun Resistance, Andranik and his fedayees were forced into exile by local Armenian authorities, and pressured from Armenian leaders to allow temporary peace in the highly volatile eastern vilâyets. He moved to the Caucasus through Iran, where he met leading Armenian intellectuals in Baku and Tiflis. After leaving Russian Caucasus, he traveled in France, Switzerland, Belgium and England, where he was engaged in advocacy in support of the national liberation struggle of the Ottoman Armenians. In 1906, he published a book on military tactics in Geneva.
First Balkan War
Andranik finally settled in Bulgaria in 1907. During the 4th Congress of Armenian Revolutionary Federation in 1907, Andranik announced about his decision to leave the party, because of the disagreement with management actions aimed at establishing cooperation with the Young Turks.
In Sofia Andranik met revolutionist Boris Sarafov and the two pledged themselves to work jointly for the oppressed peoples of Armenia and Macedonia. Andranik participated in the First Balkan War of 1912–1913, within the Bulgarian army, alongside Garegin Nzhdeh as a Chief Commander of 12th Battalion of Lozengrad Third Brigade of the Macedonian-Adrianopolitan militia under the command of Colonel Aleksandar Protogerov. His detachment consisted of 273 Armenian volunteers.
On October 20, 1912 the Bulgarian Second Army, composed of Macedonian-Adrianopolitan militia and Andranik's volunteer detachment, tight circle around Edirne and surrendered Yaver Pasha's forces. On November 4, 1912 the Macedonian-Adrianopolitan militia with the support of Andranik's volunteer detachment defeated numerically exceeding Turks near Momchilgrad. On January 6, 1913, in a small town church in Rodosto, Aleksandar Protogerov awarded all Armenian fighters for bravery. Andranik Ozanyan was honored with the Order of Bravery.
Leon Trotsky in his correspondence from a Balkan battlefield wrote:
... at the head of the Armenian volunteer troops formed in Sofia stood Andranik, the hero of song and legend ... The Armenians were under his command, the Turks were afraid of him, Sultan's troops pursued his footsteps ... He's great in his dark gray khaki suit and high astrakhan hat and soldier boots, which sticks out from the whip, the symbol of informal power. On the side of his glasses and Browning on the chest - a whole bunch of tape with the words: "Freedom or Death", it is - a gift from Armenian women of the Committee of the Red Cross ..."I'm not a nationalist -he says in explanation of his campaign, I only recognize one nation: the nation of the oppressed.
In mid-June 1913, he retired to Galata, Varna, on the Black Sea, where he lived with his sister until 1914, the outbreak of World War I. Foreseeing war between Bulgaria and Serbia, Andranik disbanded his men, for he would only fight against the Turks. He retired to a village in Armenia, living there as a farmer until the World War I began.
World War I
During World War I Andranik participated in the Caucasus Campaign and was appointed as general of the Armenian volunteer units of the Russian Caucasian Army. He participated in 20 different offensives where he gained fame due to his courage and the tactics he employed to defeat the Ottoman forces. The Russian authorities made Andranik a Major General in 1918 and decorated him six times for gallantry.
Andranik was the commanding officer of the first Armenian volunteer detachment (about 1,200 soldiers), which helped lift the Siege of Van on May 6, 1915. He also commanded the battalion that defeated Ottoman forces of Halil Pasha during the Battle of Bitlis in 1916.
General Nikolai Yudenich, the Chief of Staff of the Russian Caucasus Army, described Andranik as "brave to madness". In recognition of lieutenant general Theodore G. Chernozubov the successes of Russian army in Ashnaka, Vrush-Khoran, Khanika, Kotur, Saray, Molla-Hasan, Belenjik and Garateli are significantly associated with the fighting of the 1st Armenian militia, headed by Andranik. Chernozubov praised Andranik as a brave and experienced chief, who well understood the combat situation, described him as always at the head of militia, enjoying great prestige among the volunteers. The brigade under the command of Andranik valiantly participated in the Battle of Dilman, April 15–18, 1915 in which the Caucasus was rescued from enemy invasion.
In March 1916 General Yudenich decided to disband the Armenian volunteer battalions and incorporate them into the Russian Army, an act which led to Andranik's resignation and departure from the front. In 1916–1917 Andranik was in Tiflis and Northern Caucasus, where he tried to find aid for Armenian refugees from the Ottoman Empire. From May 2–11, 1917 the First Congress of Western Armenians was organized by his initiative. From 1917 to 1918 the newspaper Hayastan (Armenia) was published by Andranik in Tiflis with Vahan Totovents as its editor.
The February Revolution of 1917 caused chaos among Russian soldiers in the Caucasus Front and by the end of that year most Russian soldiers left the front and returned to their homes. In July 1917 six Armenian regiments were created in the Caucasus Front with support of Armenian organizations in Petrograd and Tiflis. As of October 1917 two Armenian divisions were already created, with Tovmas Nazarbekian at their head. As of early 1918 only few thousand Armenian volunteers under the command of two hundred officers opposed the Turkish offenses.
Between March and April 1918 Andranik was the governor of the Administration for Western Armenia (the Armenian provisional government, a provisional administrative entity centered near Lake Van and other areas formerly occupied by the Russians. His military leadership was instrumental in allowing the Armenian population of Van to escape the Ottoman Army and flee to Eastern Armenia. The territory later became the Democratic Republic of Armenia.
After the formation of the Republic of Armenia in May 1918 Andranik fought alongside volunteer units to combat the Ottoman army. By July interethnic warfare had started in Zangezur. Armenian couriers dispatched to Yerevan pleaded for officers and materiel. Turkish armies poised just a few miles from the capital, the Republic couldn't support irregular forces fighting in the south. At the critical moment General Andranik arrived in Zangezur with an irregular division estimated with about 3 to 5 thousand men and 40,000 refugees from Western Armenia and the occupied provinces of Russian Armenia. As the commander of Armenian forces in Nakhichevan, Andranik protected in the name of the Armenian Army against the peace treaty with Turkey, and has declared that his army is determined to continue the war against Turks. His activities were concentrated at the link between the Ottoman Empire and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic at Karabakh, Nakhchivan and Zangezur.
According to Antranig Chalabian, Azerbaijan accused Andranik of massacring innocent Azerbaijani peasants in Zangezur and demanded to withdraw Armenian units from Zangezur, while, if his Special Striking Division not been in the area, "the Tartars and the Turks would undoubtedly have exterminated the sixty thousand Armenians of Zangezur as well. Andranik did not massacre peaceful Tatars." Donald Bloxham supports another view that Andranik initiated the process of transforming Zangezur into a solidly Armenian land by destroying Muslim villages and tried ethnically homogenize key areas of the Armenian state.
Andranik tried several times to seize Shusha, the most important city of Karabakh at the time. Just before the Armistice of Mudros was signed, Andranik was on the way from Zangezur to Shusha, to control the main city of Karabakh. In January 1919 Armenian troops advancing, the British general William M. Thomson ordered Andranik back to Zangezur, and gave him assurances that a favorable treaty would be reached at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919.
Retirement and death
In April 1919 Andranik reached Etchmiadzin, the seat of Catholicos of All Armenians, was somehow beyond the jurisdiction of Katchaznouni's government, just 15 kilometers away. A 5,000-strong division had dwindled to 1,350 soldiers. As a result of disagreements Andranik had with the Dashnak government and the diplomatic machinations of the British in the Caucasus, Andranik disbanded his division and handed over his belongings and weapons to the Catholicos of All Armenians George V.
In Tiflis Andranik met with Evgeni Gegechkori and discussed the Georgian–Armenian War with translation of Hovhannes Tumanyan. Andranik then left for Constantinople via Batum. He arrived to Cyprus to lead the Armenian Legion, but the French refused his entrance to Cilicia. From 1919 to 1922, Andranik wandered in Europe and the United States trying to find support for the Armenian refugees.
In late 1919 Andranik led a delegation to the United States to lobby its support for a mandate for Armenia He was accompanied by General Jaques Bagratuni, Captain Haig Bonapartian, and Lieutenant Ter-Pogossian. In Fresno he directed a campaign in which he raised $500,000 for the relief of Armenian war refugees. When he visited America, all the Armenians, from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast, gave him an enthusiastic reception. Americans were amazed and they asked: "Who is this man?". "He is the George Washington of Armenians", was the answer everywhere, and the Americans honored him by letting him sit on George Washington's chair, which was an unprecedented honor. In Paris the president of the French Republic, Poincaré also paid him tribute by giving a reception in honor of him.
When he returned to Europe Andranik married Nevarte Kurkjian in Paris on May 15, 1922. Boghos Nubar was their best man. Andranik and Nevarte moved to the United States and settled in Fresno, California. In his 1936 short story Antranik of Armenia famous American writer William Saroyan described Andranik's arrival: "General Antranik came to my home town [Fresno]. It looked as if all Armenians of California were at the Southern Pacific depot at the day he arrived." Then Saroyan continues, "he was a man of about fifty in a neat Armenians suit of clothes. He was a little under six feet tall, very solid and very strong. He had an old-style Armenian mustache that was white. The expression of his face was both ferocious and kind."
In his 1979 novel Call of the Plowmen, which was written based on Makhluto's memories, Khachik Dashtents, describes Andranik's life Fresno. Note that Andranik's name is changed into Shapinand in the novel.
After clashing with the leaders of the Araratian Republic and leaving Armenia, Shapinand settled in the city of Fresno, California. The basement of his house was converted into a hotel. His sword, Mosin rifle and military uniform hung from the wall. This is also where he kept his horse, which he had brought to America aboard a steamship. Those weapons, that uniform, the grey papakhi, the black boots, and lion-like steed – this was the personal wealth he had come to possess throughout his life. His business no longer had to do with weapons. Shapinand spent his free time making small wooden chairs in his hotel. Many people, refusing to buy the quality American armchairs, bought his simple ones, some for use, others as souvenirs.
In February 1926 Andranik left Fresno to reside in San Francisco in an unsuccessful attempt to regain his health. According to his death certificate found in the Butte County records, Andranik passed away on August 31, 1927 at Richardson Springs, near Chico in Northern California. Angina pectoris was indicated as cause of death. On September 7, 1927 a city-wide public attention was accorded him at his funeral in the Ararat Cemetery, Fresno. The New York Times reported that more than 2,500 members of the Armenian community attended memorial services in Carnegie Hall in Midtown Manhattan. His remains were then moved to Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris in early 1928.
Legacy and memory
Andranik's remains were originally to be buried in Armenia, but Soviet authorities refused entry. His body eventually returned to Armenia on February 17, 2000 and was reburied at the Yerablur military cemetery on February 20. In his speech during the reburial ceremony President Robert Kocharyan described Andranik as "one of the greatest sons of the Armenian nation".
In 1995 General Andranik's Museum was founded in Komitas Park of Yerevan, but was soon closed, because the building was privatized. It was reopened on September 16, 2006 by Ilyich Beglarian as the Museum of Armenian Fedayee Movement named after Andranik Ozanian.
Andranik's memory is still held in high regard among Armenians. Contemporaries, such as the noted Armenian poet Hovhannes Tumanyan, politician Avetis Aharonyan, Bolshevik leaders Stepan Shahumyan, Anastas Mikoyan, and Soviet Armenian Marshal Ivan Bagramyan were fulsome in their praise for the military commander, something the The Literary Digest highlighted in a January 1920 artilce, describing him as "Armenia's Robin Hood, Garibaldi, and Washington, all in one. He is the ideal patriot of whom broadside ballads are published, and whose name inspires songs sung by the Armenian at his workbench, by the Armenian housewife at her tasks, by their children at play."
During the Soviet era, little was written about Andranik, especially for a new generation of Armenians born in the decades following Armenia's sovietization. On June 30, 1963 Paruyr Sevak, a prominent Soviet Armenian author, wrote an essay about Andranik after reading one of his soldier's notes. Sevak lamented that his generation knew "little about Andranik, almost nothing." He continues, "because knowing nothing about Andranik means to know nothing about modern Armenian history."
Many statues and memorials of Andranik exist not only in Armenia, but also in Bucharest (1936), Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris (1945), Nicosia (1990), Le Plessis-Robinson, Paris (2005), Varna (2011), and Armavir, Russia.
In 1967, secretly from the Soviet authorities, a statue by Mikayel Avetisyan was erected in the village of Ujan. Since the independence in 1991, many statues have been erected throughout Armenia: in Voskevan (1990) and Navur villages (early 1990s) of Tavush, in Gyumri's Victory Park (1994) and in front of the Arteni village school (2011). Three Andranik statues can be found in the Armenian capital Yerevan: in Malatia-Sebastia district (by Rafik Sargsyan, 2000), near the St. Gregory Cathedral (by Ara Shiraz, 2002) and outside the Fedayee Movement Museum (2006). In 2000 a memorial was built in Yerablur military cemetery, where his body was buried after being transferred from Paris.
In May 2011 a statue of Andranik by Marat Minasyan was to opened in Volonka village near Sochi, Russia, but the it was removed on May 27, under pressure from Turkey, which earlier announced that they would boycott the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics if the statue remains standing.
A great number of schools, streets, squares both in Armenia (in Yerevan and other major cities) and abroad: Córdoba, Argentina, Plovdiv and Varna in Bulgaria, Meudon, Paris and a section of Connecticut Route 314 state highway running entirely within Wethersfield, Connecticut are named after Andranik. General Andranik Station of the Yerevan Metro was opened in 1989 as Hoktemberyan Station and was renamed for Andranik in 1992.
On September 11, 2012, during the Bulgaria vs Armenia football match in Sofia's Levski National Stadium, Armenian fans have bought a giant poster with pictures of General Andranik and Armenian officer Gurgen Margaryan, who was brutally murdered in 2004 by Azeri leitenant Ramil Safarov during the NATO English-language courses. The text on the poster read: "Andranik's children are also heroes... The work will be done".
Awards and ranks
Andranik was known as a fedayee leader (ֆիդայապետ fidayapet or հայդուկապետ haydukapet) to Armenians since Aghbiur Serob's death in 1899. They also gave him the nickname Andranik pasha, referring to his high reputation among his soldiers and Armenian population of Western Armenia.
During the World War I Andranik was the commander of Armenian volunteers of the Russian Army and became known as General Andranik (Զորավար Անդրանիկ Zoravar Andranik) since then. He was appointed a major general by the Russians in 1918. Andranik was also honored with four Russian medals during WWI: Order of St. Vladimir (IV class), Order of St. Stanislaus (II class), Cross of St. George (IV class), and Order of St. George (III, IV classes). In 1919, during his visit to France, Andranik was also bestowed the title of Legion of Honor Officier by President Raymond Poincaré.
In popular culture
|The Bravehearts of the Caucasus performed by Sahak Sahakyan on YouTube|
Andranik has figured prominently in Armenian literature. The Western Armenian writer Siamanto wrote a poem entitled "Andranik" in 1903 in Paris. William Saroyan, the famed Armenian American writer, wrote a story called Antranik of Armenia, which was included in his collection of short stories Inhale and Exhale (1936).
During the 1960s and 1980s Western Armenian author Souren Sahagian collected folk stories and completed a novel, "Tale about Andranik" (Ասք Անդրանիկի մասին), which was first published in Yerevan by the "Ararat"Center of Strategic Research in 2008. A number of documentaries were also produced of the Armenian commander, including, Andranik (1928), an Armena-film Studio, Paris and the first foreign full-length silent feature film on Armenian topic, directed by Asho Shakhatuni, who also played the main role.; General Andranik (1989), a documentary directed by Levon Mkrtchyan, with Khoren Abrahamyan reading the text.; and Andranik Ozanian (2010), a 53 minute-long documentary by the Public Television of Armenia.
His name has also been memorialized in songs and Andranik is one of the main figures featured in Armenian patriotic songs, mostly performed by Sahak Sahakyan, Nersik Ispiryan and Harout Pamboukjian. There are dozens of songs dedicated to him, including Like an Eagle by ashugh Sheram, 1904 and Andranik pasha (by gusan Hayrik). Andranik also features in the popular song The Bravehearts of the Caucasus (Կովկասի քաջեր, circa 1903) and other pieces of patriotic folklore.
- Մարտական հրահանգներ: Առաջարկներ, նկատողութիւններ եւ խորհուրդներ [Combat commands: suggestions, remarks, recommendations]. Geneva: Armenian Revolutionary Federation publishing. 1906.
- Զորավար Անդրանիկը կը խոսի [General Andranik Speaks]. Paris: Abaka weekly. 1921.
- Առաքելոց վանքին կռիւը (Հայ յեղափոխութենէն դրուագ մը [The Battle of Arakelots (An Episode of Armenian Revolution)]. Boston: Baikar. 1924.
- Memoirs of Andranik were written down by Levon K. Lyulejian. The 1992 edition in Armenian is available here
- Անդրանիկի հուշերը [Andranik's Memoirs]. Beirut. 1935.
- Due to dialectical differences, in Western Armenian his named is spelled Անդրանիկ Օզանեան and pronounced [ɑntʰɾɑniɡ ɔzɑnjɑn]. In Eastern Armenian his name is spelled Անդրանիկ Օզանյան and pronounced Armenian: [ɑndɾɑnik ɔzɑnjɑn] ( listen). His first name is sometimes spelled Antranik or Antranig and his last name is rarely spelled Ozanyan.
- (Armenian) ՀԱՅՈՐԴԻ, ԱՐԹՈՒՐ (March 2012). "ԳԱՐԱՀԻՍԱՐՈՒ ՀՈՒՍՈ ԱՍՏՂ ԱՆԴՐԱՆԻԿ ...". «Զինվոր» #08 (924). Retrieved July 6, 2012.
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- Chalabian, Antranig. "Bold and fiercely determined, Andranik Ozanian spent most of his life as a revolutionary for his fellow Armenians," Military History, June 1995, p. 10.
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- The Armenians: history of a genocide, by Yves Ternon - 1990, p. 114
- The war correspondence of Leon Trotsky: The Balkan Wars 1912–13, 1980, p. 250.
- The Battle of Holy Apostles' Monastery, by General Antranig Ozanian, As related to Levon G. Louledgian, trans. Ara Stepan Melkonian. London: Taderon Press, 2009, p. 59.
- Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East & North Africa: A-C, by Philip Mattar- p. 195
- Historical Dictionary of Armenia, by Rouben Paul Adalian, 2010, p. 79
- "1906". Hakob Meghapart Project. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
- Jon Kirakosyan, The Armenian genocide: the Young Turks before the judgment of history, Sphinx Press, 1992, p. 106
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- The Fresno Bee, Death Claims Famous General, Once Of Fresno, August 31, 1927
- General Antranik, Noted Fight Dies; Commanded Armenian and Russian Forces Against Those of the Turks; Was in 59 Engagements, Several Horses Shot Under Him Kept Fighting After the Czar's Army Collapsed, New York Times, September 2, 1927, p. 17
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- Hacikyan, Jack Hagop and Gabriel Basmajian, Edward S. Franchuk. The Heritage of Armenian Literature: Vol. 3, From the Eighteenth Century to Modern Times. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2005, p. 935.
- Cahoon, Ben (2000). "Turkey". WorldStatesmen. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- Hovannisian, Richard G. The Republic of Armenia: The First Year, 1918–1919. Berkeley: University of California, 1971, pp. 86–87.
- "More British in Russia," New York Times, August 17, 1918, p. 1.
- Hovannisian 1971, p. 87.
- General Andranik and the Armenian Revolutionary Movement, by Antranig Chalabian, 1988, Library of Congress, p. 545
- Bloxham, Donald. The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 2005, pp. 103–105
- Hovannisian. Republic of Armenia, pp. 88–90.
- Hovannisian 1971, pp. 190-192.
- Chalabian 2009, p. 119.
- Chalabian 2009, pp. 119-120.
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- "General Antranig, The Armenian Leader". Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, University of Minnesota. 2009. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
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