Andre Geim

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Sir Andre Geim
Andre Geim 2010-1.jpg
Born Andre Konstantin Geim Russian: Андрей Константинович Гейм
(1958-10-21) 21 October 1958 (age 55)[1]
Sochi, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Residence Manchester, England
Citizenship Dutch and British
Fields Condensed matter physics
Institutions Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
Institute of Solid State Physics
Russian Academy of Sciences
University of Manchester
Radboud University Nijmegen
Alma mater Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
Thesis Investigation of mechanisms of transport relaxation in metals by a helicon resonance method (1987)
Doctoral advisor Victor Petrashov[2][3]
Doctoral students

Soren Neubeck[4]
Konstantin Novoselov[5]
Rashid Jalil[6]
Da Jiang[7]
Rahul Raveendran-Nair[8]
Ibtsam Riaz[9]

Gareth Young[10]
Known for Discovering graphene[11][12][13]
Levitating a frog[14]
Developing gecko tape[15]
Notable awards Ig Nobel Prize (2000)
Mott Prize (2007)
Fellow of the Royal Society (2007)
EuroPhysics Prize (2008)
Körber Prize (2009)
John J. Carty Award (2010)
Hughes Medal (2010)
Nobel Prize in Physics (2010)[16]
Knight Bachelor (2012)[1]
Copley Medal (2013)[2]
Spouse Irina V. Grigorieva[17][18]

Sir Andre Konstantin Geim, FRS (born 21 October 1958) is a Russian-born Dutch-British physicist working at the University of Manchester.[19] Geim was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics jointly with Konstantin Novoselov for his work on graphene.[20][21] He is Regius Professor of Physics and Royal Society Research Professor at the Manchester Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology.[22][23][24][25][26][27]


Andre Geim was born to Konstantin Alekseyevich Geim and Nina Nikolayevna Bayer in Sochi on 21 October 1958. Both his parents were engineers.[28][29] In 1965, the family moved to Nalchik, Russia,[30] where he studied at a high school.[30] After graduation, he applied to the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute.[31] He took the entrance exams twice, but was deliberately failed because of his German/Jewish ethnicity.[28] He then applied to the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), where he was accepted. He said that at the time he would not have chosen to study solid-state physics, preferring particle physics or astrophysics, but is now happy with his choice.[32] He received a diplom (MSc degree equivalent) from MIPT in 1982 and a Candidate of Sciences (PhD equivalent) degree in metal physics in 1987 from the Institute of Solid State Physics (ISSP) at the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) in Chernogolovka.[32][33] Russian Academy of Sciences is a major institution where mostly all Nobel Prize laureates of physics from Russia have done their studies and/or research works.[34]

Academic career[edit]

After earning his PhD with Victor Petrashov,[2] Geim worked as a research scientist at the Institute for Microelectronics Technology (IMT) at RAS, and from 1990 as a post-doctoral fellow at the universities of Nottingham (twice), Bath, and Copenhagen. He said that while at Nottingham he could spend his time on research rather than "swimming through Soviet treacle",[28] and determined to leave Russia.[35]

He obtained his first tenured position in 1994, when he was appointed associate professor at Radboud University Nijmegen, where he did work on mesoscopic superconductivity.[36] He later gained Dutch citizenship. One of his doctoral students at Nijmegen was Konstantin Novoselov, who went on to become his main research partner. However, Geim has said that he had an unpleasant time during his academic career in the Netherlands. He was offered professorships at Nijmegen and Eindhoven, but turned them down as he found the Dutch academic system too hierarchical and full of petty politicking. “This can be pretty unpleasant at times,” he says. “It’s not like the British system where every staff member is an equal quantity.””[35] On the other hand, Geim writes in his Nobel lecture that "In addition, the situation was a bit surreal because outside the university walls I received a warm-hearted welcome from everyone around, including Jan Kees and other academics." [37] (Dr. Jan Keas Maan was the research boss of Geim during his time at Radboud University Nijmegen).

In 2001 he became a professor of physics at the University of Manchester, and was appointed director of the Manchester Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology in 2002. Geim's wife and long-standing co-author, Irina Grigorieva, also moved to Manchester as a lecturer in 2001. The same year, they were joined by Novoselov who moved to Manchester from Nijmegen without finishing his PhD.[30] Geim served as Langworthy Professor between 2007 and 2013, leaving this endowed professorship to Dr Novoselov in 2012.[33] Also, between 2007 and 2010 Geim was an EPSRC Senior Research Fellow before becoming one of Royal Society Research Professors.[33][38] In 2010 Radboud University Nijmegen appointed him professor of innovative materials and nanoscience, extending Geim's long list of honorary professorships.[39]


Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon atoms.

Geim's achievements include the discovery of a simple method for isolating single atomic layers of graphite, known as graphene, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Manchester and IMT. The team published their findings in October 2004 in Science.[40][41][42]

Graphene consists of one-atom-thick layers of carbon atoms arranged in two-dimensional hexagons,[43][44] and is the thinnest material in the world, as well as one of the strongest and hardest.[45] The material has many potential applications and is considered a superior alternative to silicon.[46]

Geim said one of the first applications of graphene could be in the development of flexible touchscreens, and that he has not patented the material because he would need a specific application and an industrial partner.[47]

"Spider-Man test" of gecko tape[15]

Geim was involved in the development of a biomimetic adhesive which became known as gecko tape[15]—so called because of the adhesiveness of gecko feet—research of which is still in the early stages.[48] It is hoped that the development will eventually allow humans to scale ceilings, like Spider-Man.[49]

Geim's research in 1997 into the possible effects of magnetism on water scaling led to the famous discovery of direct diamagnetic levitation of water, and led to a frog being levitated.[50] For this experiment, he and Michael Berry received the 2000 Ig Nobel Prize.[14] "We were asked first whether we dared to accept this prize, and I take pride in our sense of humor and self-deprecation that we did".[28]

Geim has also carried out research on mesoscopic physics and superconductivity.[35][51]

He said of the range of subjects he has studied: "Many people choose a subject for their PhD and then continue the same subject until they retire. I despise this approach. I have changed my subject five times before I got my first tenured position and that helped me to learn different subjects."[32]

He named his favourite hamster, H.A.M.S. ter Tisha, co-author in a 2001 research paper.[40][52]

Honours and awards[edit]

Magnetically levitating a live frog, an experiment that earned Geim and Michael Berry the 2000 Ig Nobel Prize

Geim shared the 2000 Ig Nobel Prize in physics with Michael Berry for the frog experiment.[53] In 2006 he appeared on the Scientific American 50.[54] The Institute of Physics awarded him the 2007 Mott Medal and Prize "for his discovery of a new class of materials—free-standing two-dimensional crystals—in particular graphene".[55] In 2007 he was also elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.[56]

He shared the 2008 EuroPhysics Prize with Novoselov "for discovering and isolating a single free-standing atomic layer of carbon (graphene) and elucidating its remarkable electronic properties".[57] In 2009 he received the Körber European Science Award.[58] The United States National Academy of Sciences honoured him with the 2010 John J. Carty Award for the Advancement of Science "for his experimental realisation and investigation of graphene, the two-dimensional form of carbon".[59] He was awarded one of six Royal Society 2010 Anniversary Research Professorships.[60] The Royal Society added its 2010 Hughes Medal "for his revolutionary discovery of graphene and elucidation of its remarkable properties".[61] He was awarded honorary doctorates from Delft University of Technology,[62] ETH Zürich,[39] the University of Antwerp[63] and the University of Manchester. In 2010, Geim was appointed as Knight Commander of the Order of the Netherlands Lion for his contribution to Dutch Science.[64] Geim was furthermore made a Knight Bachelor in the 2012 New Year Honours for services to science.[65][66] He was elected a foreign associate of the US National Academy of Sciences in May 2012[67] and awarded the Copley Medal in 2013.

Nobel Prize in Physics[edit]

On 5 October 2010, Geim was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics jointly with Novoselov "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene".[68] Upon hearing of the award he said, "I'm fine, I slept well. I didn't expect the Nobel Prize this year", and that his plans for the day would not change.[69] The lecture for the award took place on 8 December 2010 at Stockholm University.[70] He said he hopes that graphene and other two-dimensional crystals will change everyday life as plastics did for humanity.[71] A colleague of Geim said that his award shows that people can still win a Nobel by "mucking about in a lab".[72] The award made him the first person to win, as an individual, both a Nobel Prize and an Ig Nobel Prize.[73] On winning both a Nobel and Ig Nobel, he has stated that

"Frankly, I value both my Ig Nobel prize and Nobel prize at the same level and for me Ig Nobel prize was the manifestation that I can take jokes, a little bit of self-deprecation always helps."[2]

View and opinions[edit]

Geim was one of 38 Nobel laureates who signed a declaration in 2010 issued by Scholars for Peace in the Middle East condemning international attempts to boycott Israeli academics, institutions, and research centers.[74]

At the Nobel Minds symposium in December 2010, with regards towards the Nobel Peace Prize committee's choice of Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo as patronising[clarification needed]. Geim responded saying, "In the past ten years, China has developed not only economically, but even the strongest human rights supporter would agree also human rights have improved. Why do we need to distort this?"[75][76]

Geim has written several opinion pieces for The Financial Times, examples of which can be found on his university webpage


Geim has a complex ancestry which is described in detail in his Nobel Prize autobiography.[28] In there, Geim has stated that most of his family are ethnic Germans where his father descended from Volga Germans and his mother was mostly an ethnic German as well. Both his father and paternal grandfather had spent many years of their lives as prisoners in Siberia in Stalin's Gulags, and "some of the family had been prisoners in German concentration camps". He also states that he "suffered from anti-Semitism in Russia because my name sounds Jewish".[77] Geim summarizes his identity as follows. "To the best of my knowledge, the only Jew in the family was my great-grandmother, with the rest on both sides being German. Having lived and worked in several European countries, I consider myself European and do not believe that any further taxonomy is necessary, especially in such a fluid world as the world of science."[28][78][79]


  1. ^ a b "GEIM, Prof. Andre Konstantin". Who's Who 2013, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 2013; online edn, Oxford University Press. (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b c d "BBC Radio 4 - Andre Geim Profile by Helen Grady, first broadcast 2013-07-27". 
  3. ^ "Mentor of two Nobel Prize winners teaches at Royal Holloway". Archived from the original on 2013-07-31. 
  4. ^ Neubeck, Soeren (2010). Scanning probe investigations on graphene (PhD thesis). University of Manchester. 
  5. ^ Novoselov, Konstantin S. (2004). Development and applications of mesoscopic hall microprobes (PhD thesis). Radboud University Nijmegen.  ISBN 9090183663
  6. ^ Jalil, Rashid (2012). Novel Substrates for Graphene based Electronics (PhD thesis). University of Manchester. 
  7. ^ Jiang, Da (2006). Fabrication, characterization and measurement of atomically thin carbon devices (PhD thesis). University of Manchester. 
  8. ^ Raveendran-Nair, Rahul (2010). Atomic structure and properties of graphene and novel graphene derivatives (PhD thesis). University of Manchester. 
  9. ^ Riaz, Ibtsam (2012). Graphene and Boron Nitride : Members of Two Dimensional Material Family (PhD thesis). University of Manchester. 
  10. ^ Young, Gareth (2005). Investigation into the ferromagnetic properties of graphite (PhD thesis). University of Manchester. 
  11. ^ Geim, A. K.; Kim, P. (2008). "Carbon Wonderland". Scientific American 298 (4): 90–97. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0408-90. PMID 18380146.  edit
  12. ^ Geim, A. K.; MacDonald, A. H. (2007). "Graphene: Exploring Carbon Flatland". Physics Today 60 (8): 35. Bibcode:2007PhT....60h..35G. doi:10.1063/1.2774096.  edit
  13. ^ Novoselov, K. S.; Geim, A. K.; Morozov, S. V.; Jiang, D.; Zhang, Y.; Dubonos, S. V.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Firsov, A. A. (2004). "Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films". Science 306 (5696): 666–669. doi:10.1126/science.1102896. PMID 15499015.  edit
  14. ^ a b Berry, M. V.; Geim, A. K. (1997). "Of flying frogs and levitrons". European Journal of Physics 18 (4): 307. Bibcode:1997EJPh...18..307B. doi:10.1088/0143-0807/18/4/012.  edit
  15. ^ a b c Geim, A. K.; Dubonos, S. V.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Novoselov, K. S.; Zhukov, A. A.; Shapoval, S. Y. (2003). "Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair". Nature Materials 2 (7): 461–463. Bibcode:2003NatMa...2..461G. doi:10.1038/nmat917. PMID 12776092.  edit
  16. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010". Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  17. ^ "BBC iPlayer - Beautiful Minds: Series 2: Professor Andre Geim". Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  18. ^ "Dr Irina V. Grigorieva, research profile - personal details (The University of Manchester)". Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. 
  19. ^ "Professor Andre Geim, FRS (Condensed Matter Physics Group - The University of Manchester)". Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. 
  20. ^ Geim, A. K. (2009). "Graphene: Status and Prospects". Science 324 (5934): 1530–1534. doi:10.1126/science.1158877. PMID 19541989.  edit
  21. ^ Geim, A. K.; Novoselov, K. S. (2007). "The rise of graphene". Nature Materials 6 (3): 183–191. Bibcode:2007NatMa...6..183G. doi:10.1038/nmat1849. PMID 17330084.  edit
  22. ^ Andre Geim from the Scopus bibliographic database
  23. ^ Andre Geim in Google Scholar
  24. ^ Hargittai, I. N. (2010). "Graphene 2010". Structural Chemistry 21 (6): 1151–1154. doi:10.1007/s11224-010-9680-0.  edit
  25. ^ Novoselov, K. S.; Geim, A. K.; Dubonos, S. V.; Hill, E. W.; Grigorieva, I. V. (2003). "Subatomic movements of a domain wall in the Peierls potential". Nature 426 (6968): 812–816. doi:10.1038/nature02180. PMID 14685231.  edit
  26. ^ Arthur, Charles. "Scientists magnetised by levitating frog". The Independent. 12 April 1997. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  27. ^ Novoselov, K. S. et al. (2004). "Room-temperature electric field effect and carrier-type inversion in graphene films". Submitted to Nature on 5 February 2004.
  28. ^ a b c d e f Nobel Autobiography
  29. ^ "RG-RB – 42". Retrieved 30 October 2010. 
  30. ^ a b c Translated from the German by Alex Herzog, "Andre Geim, a German Russian, is Awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics", Germans from Russia Heritage Collection, North Dakota State University, October 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  31. ^ "най наших: лауреатом Нобелевской премии по физике стал российский немец" (Russian) (Google Translate). 6 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  32. ^ a b c Murphy, John. "Renaissance scientist with fund of ideas". Scientific Computing World. June/July 2006. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  33. ^ a b c Geim's CV Nuvola-inspired File Icons for MediaWiki-fileicon-doc.pngDOC (56.5 KB). University of Manchester. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  34. ^ "Nobel Prize laureates affiliated with the Russian Academy of Sciences".
  35. ^ a b c "A physicist of many talents". Physics World. February 2006. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  36. ^ Geim, A.; Dubonos, S.; Palacios, J.; Grigorieva Iv, I.; Henini, M.; Schermer, J. (2000). "Fine Structure in Magnetization of Individual Fluxoid States". Physical Review Letters 85 (7): 1528–1531. arXiv:cond-mat/0001129. Bibcode:2000PhRvL..85.1528G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.1528. PMID 10970546.  edit
  37. ^ Nobel lecture
  38. ^ "Grants awarded to Andre Geim by the EPRSC". Archived from the original on 2013-07-31. 
  39. ^ a b "Discoverer of graphene back at Radboud University as professor". Radboud University Nijmegen. 15 February 2010. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  40. ^ a b (October 2009). "22 October 2004: Discovery of Graphene" PDF (2.14 MB). APS News (American Physical Society) 18 (9): 2. See the online version here [1].
  41. ^ "Radical fabric is one atom thick". BBC News. 22 October 2004. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  42. ^ Novoselov, K. S.; Geim, A. K.; Morozov, S. V.; Jiang, D.; Zhang, Y.; Dubonos, S. V.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Firsov, A. A. (2004). "Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films". Science 306 (5696): 666–669. doi:10.1126/science.1102896. PMID 15499015.  edit
  43. ^ Sanderson, K. (2007). "Carbon makes super-tough paper". News@nature. doi:10.1038/news070723-7.  edit
  44. ^ Palmer, Jason. "Bendy gadget future for graphene". BBC News. 14 January 2009. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  45. ^ Overbye, Dennis. "Physics Nobel Honors Work on Ultra-Thin Carbon". The New York Times. 5 October 2010. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  46. ^ Waters, Darren. "Nano switch hints at future chips". BBC News. 17 April 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  47. ^ Brumfiel, G. (2010). "Andre Geim: In praise of graphene". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2010.525.  edit
  48. ^ Black, Richard. "Gecko inspires sticky tape". BBC News. 1 June 2003. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  49. ^ Highfield, Roger. "Gecko lizards inspire 'Spiderman gloves'". The Daily Telegraph. 23 January 2008. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  50. ^ "The Frog That Learned to Fly". Radboud University Nijmegen. Retrieved 19 October 2010. For Geim's account of diamagnetic levitation, see Geim, Andrey. "Everyone's Magnetism PDF (688 KB). Physics Today. September 1998. pp. 36–39. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  51. ^ Geim, A. K.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Dubonos, S. V.; Lok, J. G. S.; Maan, J. C.; Filippov, A. E.; Peeters, F. M. (1997). "Phase transitions in individual sub-micrometre superconductors". Nature 390 (6657): 259. doi:10.1038/36797.  edit
  52. ^ Geim, A. K.; Ter Tisha, H. A. M. S. (2001). "Detection of earth rotation with a diamagnetically levitating gyroscope". Physica B: Condensed Matter. 294-295: 736. doi:10.1016/S0921-4526(00)00753-5.  edit
  53. ^ "Winners of the Ig Nobel Prize". Ig Nobel Prize. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  54. ^ "Scientific American 50: SA 50 Winners and Contributors". Scientific American. 12 November 2006. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  55. ^ "2007 Mott medal and prize". Institute of Physics. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  56. ^ "Fellows". Royal Society. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  57. ^ Johnston, Hamish. "Graphene pioneers bag Europhysics prize". Physics World. 2 September 2008. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  58. ^ "Graphene pioneer wins major international prize". University of Manchester. 21 April 2009. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  59. ^ "John J. Carty Award for the Advancement of Science". United States National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  60. ^ "Top researchers receive Royal Society 2010 Anniversary Professorships". Royal Society. 16 October 2009. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  61. ^ "The Hughes Medal (1902)". Royal Society. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  62. ^ "TU Delft honorary doctorate Geim wins Nobel Prize for graphene research". Delft University of Technology. 5 October 2010. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  63. ^ "Prizes and awards". University of Antwerp. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  64. ^ "Hoge Koninklijke onderscheiding voor Nobelprijswinnaars" (in Dutch). Public Information Service of the Government of the Netherlands. Retrieved 25 August 2013. 
  65. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 60009. p. 1. 31 December 2011.
  66. ^ "Knighthoods for Nobel-winning graphene pioneers". BBC News. 31 December 2011. 
  67. ^ "National Academy of Sciences Members and Foreign Associates Elected". National Academy of Sciences. 1 May 2012. 
  68. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010". Nobel Prize. Retrieved 26 October 2010. For a video of the announcement, see "Announcement of the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics". Nobel Prize. Retrieved 26 October 2010. For the interview with Geim following the award, see "Telephone interview with Andre Geim". Nobel Prize. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
  69. ^ "Materials breakthrough wins Nobel". BBC News. 5 October 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  70. ^ "Nobel Lecture". Nobel Prize. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
  71. ^ "Research into graphene wins Nobel Prize". CNN. 5 October 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  72. ^ Alleyne, Richard. "'Mucking about' with pencil lead and sticky tape wins Nobel Prize for Physics". The Daily Telegraph. 5 October 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  73. ^ "Geim becomes first Nobel & Ig Nobel winner". Improbable Research. 5 October 2010. Archived from the original on 9 October 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2010. 
  74. ^ Statement. Scholars for Peace in the Middle East. 28 October 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
  75. ^ "2010 Nobel Minds". Passage begins at about 19:00. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
  76. ^ Bannerman, Lucy. "Liu Xiaobo wrong man for Nobel Peace Prize, say laureates". The Australian. 13 December 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
  77. ^ Gali Weinreb Nobel Laureate Geim: Life sciences suited for small countries Globes 16 November 10 [2]
  78. ^ Nobel laureate: Life sciences ...JPost - Business - Business News
  79. ^ What? Not All Jews Are Geniuses? –

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Graphene, 15 September 2010, BBC Radio program Discovery