Andrea Doria-class battleship
Andrea Doria at anchor in Smyrna, 29 June 1919
|Operators:|| Regia Marina
|Preceded by:||Conte di Cavour class|
|Succeeded by:||Francesco Caracciolo class (planned)
Littorio class (actual)
|General characteristics (as built)|
|Displacement:||24,715 long tons (25,112 t) (deep load)|
|Length:||176 m (577 ft 5 in) (o/a)|
|Beam:||28 m (91 ft 10 in)|
|Draft:||9.4 m (30 ft 10 in)|
|Installed power:||30,000 shp (22,000 kW)
20 × Yarrow boilers
|Propulsion:||4 × shafts
4 × Parsons steam turbine sets
|Speed:||21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph)|
|Range:||4,800 nmi (8,900 km; 5,500 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph)|
969 enlisted men
|Armament:||3 × triple, 2 × twin 305 mm (12 in) guns
16 × single 152 mm (6 in) guns
19 × single 76 mm (3 in) guns
3 × 450 mm (17.7 in) torpedo tubes
|Armor:||Belt: 250 mm (9.8 in)
Gun turrets: 280 mm (11.0 in)
Casemates: 130 mm (5.1 in)
Deck: 98 mm (3.9 in)
Conning tower: 280 mm (11.0 in)
|General characteristics (after reconstruction)|
|Displacement:||28,882–29,391 long tons (29,345–29,863 t) (deep load)|
|Length:||186.9 m (613 ft 2 in)|
|Beam:||28.3 m (92 ft 10 in)|
|Draft:||10.3 m (33 ft 10 in)|
|Installed power:||75,000 shp (56,000 kW)
8 × Yarrow boilers
|Propulsion:||2 × Shafts
2 × Geared steam turbines
|Speed:||26 knots (48 km/h; 30 mph)|
|Range:||4,000 nmi (7,400 km; 4,600 mi) at 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph)|
The Andrea Doria class was a pair of dreadnought battleships built for the Royal Italian Navy (Regia Marina) during the early 1910s. Completed during World War I, neither ship saw any combat during the war.
The Andrea Doria-class ships were designed by Vice Admiral (Generale del Genio navale) Guiseppe Valsecchi and were ordered in response to French plans to build the Bretagne-class battleships. The design of the preceding Conte di Cavour-class battleships was generally satisfactory and was adopted with some minor changes. These mostly concerned the reduction of the superstructure by shortening the forecastle deck, the consequent lowering of the amidships gun turret and the upgrading of the secondary armament to sixteen 152-millimeter (6 in) guns in lieu of the eighteen 120-millimeter (5 in) guns of the older ships.
The ships of the Andrea Doria class were 168.9 meters (554 ft 2 in) long at the waterline, and 176 meters (577 ft 5 in) overall. They had a beam of 28 meters (91 ft 10 in), and a draft of 9.4 meters (30 ft 10 in). They displaced 22,956 long tons (23,324 t) at normal load, and 24,729 long tons (25,126 t) at deep load. They were provided with a complete double bottom and their hulls were subdivided by 23 longitudinal and transverse bulkheads. The ships had two rudders, both on the centerline. They had a crew of 31 officers and 969 enlisted men.
The ships were fitted with three Parsons steam turbine sets, arranged in three engine rooms. The center engine room housed one set of turbines that drove the two inner propeller shafts. It was flanked by compartments on either side, each housing one turbine set which powered the outer shafts. Steam for the turbines was provided by 20 Yarrow boilers, eight of which burned oil and twelve of which burned both oil and coal. Designed to reach a maximum speed of 22 knots (41 km/h; 25 mph) from 32,000 shaft horsepower (24,000 kW), neither of the ships reached this goal on their sea trials, only achieving speeds of 21 to 21.3 knots (39 to 39.4 km/h; 24 to 24.5 mph). The ships could store a maximum of 1,488 long tons (1,512 t) of coal and 886 long tons (900 t) of fuel oil that gave them a range of 4,800 nautical miles (8,900 km; 5,500 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph).
As built, the ships' main armament comprised thirteen 46-caliber 305-millimeter guns, designed by Armstrong Whitworth and Vickers, in five gun turrets. The turrets were all on the centerline, with a twin-gun turret superfiring over a triple-gun turret in fore and aft pairs, and a third triple turret amidships, designated 'A', 'B', 'Q', 'X', and 'Y' from front to rear. The turrets had an elevation capability of −5 to +20 degrees and the ships could carry 88 rounds for each gun. Sources disagree regarding these guns' performance, but naval historian Giorgio Giorgerini claims that they fired 452-kilogram (996 lb) armor-piercing (AP) projectiles at the rate of one round per minute and that they had a muzzle velocity of 840 m/s (2,800 ft/s) which gave a maximum range of 24,000 meters (26,000 yd).[Note 1]
The secondary armament on the first two ships consisted of sixteen 45-caliber 152-millimeter (6 in) guns, also designed by Armstrong Whitworth, mounted in casemates on the sides of the hull underneath the main guns. Their positions tended to be a bit wet in heavy seas, especially the rear guns. These guns could depress to −5 degrees and had a maximum elevation of +20 degrees; they had a rate of fire of six shots per minute. They could fire a 22.1-kilogram (49 lb) high-explosive projectile with a muzzle velocity of 830 meters per second (2,700 ft/s) to a maximum distance of 16,000 meters (17,000 yd). The ships carried a total of 3,440 rounds for them. For defense against torpedo boats, the ships carried nineteen 50-caliber 76 mm (3.0 in) guns; they could be mounted in 39 different positions, including on the turret roofs and upper decks. These guns had the same range of elevation as the secondary guns, and their rate of fire was higher at 10 rounds per minute. They fired a 6-kilogram (13 lb) AP projectile with a muzzle velocity of 815 meters per second (2,670 ft/s) to a maximum distance of 9,100 meters (10,000 yd). The ships were also fitted with three submerged 45-centimeter (17.7 in) torpedo tubes, one on each broadside and the third in the stern.
The Andrea Doria-class ships had a complete waterline armor belt that had a maximum thickness of 250 millimeters (9.8 in), reducing to 130 millimeters (5.1 in) towards the stern and 80 millimeters (3.1 in) towards the bow. Above the main belt was a strake of armor 220 millimeters (8.7 in) thick that extended up to the lower edge of the main deck. Above this strake was a thinner one, 130 millimeters thick, that protected the casemates. The ships had two armored decks: the main deck was 24 mm (0.94 in) thick in two layers on the flat that increased to 40 millimeters (1.6 in) on the slopes that connected it to the main belt. The second deck was 29 millimeters (1.1 in) thick, also in two layers. Fore and aft transverse bulkheads connected the armored belt to the decks.
The frontal armor of the gun turrets was 280 millimeters (11.0 in) in thickness with 240-millimeter (9.4 in) thick sides, and an 85-millimeter (3.3 in) roof and rear. Their barbettes had 230 millimeters (9.1 in) armor above the deck that reduced to 180 millimeters (7.1 in) between the forecastle and upper decks and 130 millimeters below the upper deck. The forward conning tower had walls 320 millimeters (12.6 in) thick; those of the aft conning tower were 160 millimeters (6.3 in) thick.
Modifications and reconstruction
During World War I, a pair of 50-caliber 76-millimeter guns on high-angle mounts were fitted as anti-aircraft guns. In 1925 the number of 50-caliber 76-millimeter guns was reduced to 13, all mounted on the turret tops, and six new 40-caliber 76-millimeter guns were installed abreast the aft funnel. In addition two license-built 2-pounder anti-aircraft (AA) guns were also fitted. In 1926 the rangefinders were upgraded and a fixed aircraft catapult was mounted on the port side of the forecastle for a Macchi M.18 seaplane.
The sisters began an extensive reconstruction program in 1937 that lasted until July 1940 for Duilio and October 1940 for Andrea Doria. The existing bow was dismantled and a new, longer, bow section was built which increased their overall length by 10.91 meters (35 ft 10 in) to 186.91 meters (613 ft 3 in). Their beam increased to 28.03 meters (92 ft 0 in) and their draft at deep load increased to 10.3 meters (33 ft 10 in). All of the changes made during their reconstruction increased their displacement to 28,882 long tons (29,345 t) for Andrea Doria and 29,391 long tons (29,863 t) for Duilio at deep load. The ships' crews increased to 70 officers and 1,450 enlisted men.
Two of the propeller shafts were removed and the existing turbines were replaced by two sets of Belluzzo geared steam turbine rated at 75,000 shp (56,000 kW). The boilers were replaced by eight superheated Yarrow boilers. On their sea trials the ships reached a speeds of 26.9–27 knots (49.8–50 km/h; 31.0–31 mph), although their maximum speed was about 26 knots (48 km/h; 30 mph) in service. The ships now carried 2,530 long tons (2,570 t) of fuel oil which provided them with a range of 4,000 nautical miles (7,400 km; 4,600 mi) at a speed of 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph).
The center turret and the torpedo tubes were removed and all of the existing secondary armament and AA guns were replaced by a dozen 135-millimeter (5.3 in) 230 millimeters (9.1 in) guns in four triple-gun turrets and ten 90-millimeter (3.5 in) AA guns in single turrets. In addition the ships were fitted with fifteen 54-caliber Breda 37-millimeter (1.5 in) light AA guns in six twin-gun and three single mounts and sixteen 20-millimeter (0.8 in) Breda Model 35 AA guns, also in twin mounts. The 305-millimeter guns were bored out to 320 millimeters (13 in) and their turrets were modified to use electric power, a fixed loading angle of +12 degrees, and the guns could now elevate to +27 degrees. The 320-millimeter AP shells weighed 525 kilograms (1,157 lb) and had a maximum range of 28,600 meters (31,300 yd) with a muzzle velocity of 830 m/s (2,700 ft/s). In early 1942 the rearmost 20-millimeter guns mounts were replaced by twin 37-millimeter gun mounts and the 20-millimeter guns were moved to the roof of Turret 'B'. The forward superstructure was rebuilt with a new forward conning tower, protected with 260-millimeter (10.2 in) thick armor. Atop the conning tower there was a fire-control director fitted with three large rangefinders.
The deck armor was increased during reconstruction to a total of 135 millimeters (5.3 in). The armor protecting the secondary turrets was 120 millimeters (4.7 in) thick. The existing underwater protection was replaced by the Pugliese system that consisted of a large cylinder surrounded by fuel oil or water that was intended to absorb the blast of a torpedo warhead.
|Andrea Doria||Admiral Andrea Doria||La Spezia Arsenale, La Spezia||24 March 1912||30 March 1913||13 March 1916||Scrapped, 1961|
|Caio Duilio||Gaius Duilius||Castellammare Arsenale, Castellammare di Stabia||24 February 1912||24 April 1913||10 May 1915||Scrapped, 1957|
Both ships were assigned to the 2nd Division at Taranto after their completion and they saw no combat during the war. They were transferred to the 1st Division in 1918 and Andrea Doria served as the division's flagship that year.
Andrea Doria served at the First Battle of Sirte and as a convoy escort until interned after the armistice in September 1943. She served as the Italian flagship in the 1950s.
Caio Duilio was damaged at the Battle of Taranto by British aircraft. Because of fuel shortages, she was out of the war following the armistice. She was later a training ship and flagship of the Italian Navy until scrapped.
- Friedman provides a variety of sources that show armor-piercing shell weights ranging from 416.92 to 452.3 kilograms (919.16 to 997.2 lb) and muzzle velocities around 861 m/s (2,820 ft/s).
- Giorgerini, p. 278
- Gardiner & Gray, p. 260
- Giorgerini, pp. 270, 272
- Giorgerini, pp. 272–73, 278
- Preston, p. 179
- Friedman, p. 234
- Giorgerini, pp. 268, 276, 278
- Friedman, pp. 233–34
- Friedman, p. 240
- Giorgerini, pp. 268, 277–78
- Whitley, p. 162
- Giorgerini, p. 271
- Whitley, p. 164
- Whitley, pp. 162, 164
- Brescia, p. 62
- Whitley, pp. 158, 164–65
- Campbell, p. 322
- Whitley, p. 165
- Whitley, p. 158
- Silverstone, p. 294
- Silverstone, p. 294
- Silverstone, p. 297
- Silverstone, p. 296
- Brescia, Maurizio (2012). Mussolini's Navy: A Reference Guide to the Regia Marina 1930–45. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-544-8.
- Campbell, John (1985). Naval Weapons of World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-459-4.
- Cernuschi, Ernesto; O'Hara, Vincent P. (2010). "Taranto: The Raid and the Aftermath". In Jordan, John. Warship 2010. London: Conway. pp. 77–95. ISBN 978-1-84486-110-1.
- Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7.
- Gardiner, Robert; Gray, Randal, eds. (1984). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1921. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-85177-245-5.
- Gardiner, Robert; Chesneau, Roger, eds. (1980). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1922–1946. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-913-8.
- Giorgerini, Giorgio (1980). "The Cavour & Duilio Class Battleships". In Roberts, John. Warship IV. London: Conway Maritime Press. pp. 267–79. ISBN 0-85177-205-6.
- Preston, Antony (1972). Battleships of World War I: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Battleships of All Nations 1914–1918. New York: Galahad Books. ISBN 0-88365-300-1.
- Rohwer, Jürgen (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945: The Naval History of World War Two (Third Revised ed.). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-119-2.
- Silverstone, Paul H. (1984). Directory of the World's Capital Ships. New York: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-88254-979-0.
- Stille, Mark (2011). Italian Battleships of World War II. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84908-831-2.
- Whitley, M. J. (1998). Battleships of World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-184-X.
- Fraccaroli, Aldo (1970). Italian Warships of World War I. London: Ian Allan. ISBN 978-0-7110-0105-3.
Media related to Andrea Doria-class battleship at Wikimedia Commons