Andrew Cuomo

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Andrew Cuomo
Andrew Cuomo by Pat Arnow cropped.jpeg
56th Governor of New York
Incumbent
Assumed office
January 1, 2011
Lieutenant Robert Duffy
Preceded by David Paterson
64th Attorney General of New York
In office
January 1, 2007 – December 31, 2010
Governor Eliot Spitzer
David Paterson
Preceded by Eliot Spitzer
Succeeded by Eric Schneiderman
11th United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
In office
January 29, 1997 – January 20, 2001
President Bill Clinton
Preceded by Henry Cisneros
Succeeded by Mel Martinez
Assistant United States Secretary of
Housing and Urban Development for
Community Planning and Development
In office
1993–1997
President Bill Clinton
Personal details
Born Andrew Mark Cuomo
(1957-12-06) December 6, 1957 (age 56)
Queens, New York City,
New York
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Kerry Kennedy (1990–2005)
Children Cara
Michaela
Mariah
Residence Executive Mansion
Alma mater Fordham University (B.A.)
Albany Law School (J.D.)
Profession Lawyer
Religion Roman Catholic[1]

Andrew Mark Cuomo (/ˈkwm/; born December 6, 1957) is an American politician who is the 56th and current Governor of New York. A member of the Democratic Party, Cuomo was elected Governor in 2010, holding the same position his father Mario Cuomo once held.

Born in Queens, New York, Cuomo is a graduate of Albany Law School. Cuomo began his career working as an assistant district attorney in New York City before entering private practice. He founded the Housing Enterprise for the Less Privileged and was appointed Chairman of the New York City Homeless Commission, where he served from 1990 to 1993.

Cuomo then joined the Clinton Administration in 1993 where he was appointed assistant secretary for Community Planning and Development in the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). He then served as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development from 1997 to 2001.

After a failed campaign for Governor in 2002, Cuomo was elected to one term as Attorney General of New York in 2006; serving until 2011. After incumbent Governor David Paterson announced that he would not seek reelection, Cuomo announced his intentions to run for the Democratic nomination in May 2010. He won in an uncontested primary and faced Republican Carl Paladino in the general election, where he won with 62% of the vote. Cuomo was sworn into office on January 1, 2011.

Early life, education, and early career[edit]

Cuomo was born in Queens, New York, the eldest son of Matilda (née Raffa) and Governor Mario Cuomo, and is a resident of New York State.[2] He is the older brother of CNN journalist Chris Cuomo.[3] His parents are both of Italian descent; his paternal grandparents were from Nocera Superiore and Tramonti in South Italy, while his maternal grandparents were both from Sicily (his grandfather from Messina).[2][4]

Cuomo graduated from Saint Gerard's School in 1971 and Archbishop Molloy High School in 1975. He received his B.A. from Fordham University in 1979, and his J.D. from Albany Law School in 1982. During his father's 1982 campaign for Governor, Cuomo was his top aide. He then joined the Governor's staff as one of his father's top policy advisors, earning $1 a year.[5]

From 1984 to 1985, Cuomo was a New York assistant district attorney, and briefly worked at the law firm of Blutrich, Falcone & Miller. Cuomo founded Housing Enterprise for the Less Privileged (HELP) in 1986 and left his law firm to run HELP full-time in 1988.[5][6] From 1990 to 1993, during the administration of Mayor of New York City David Dinkins, Cuomo served as Chairman of the New York City Homeless Commission, which was charged with developing policies to address the homeless issue in the city and to develop more housing options.[7]

Secretary of HUD[edit]

Cuomo as HUD Secretary

Andrew Cuomo was appointed to the Department of Housing and Urban Development as Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and Development in 1993, a member of President Bill Clinton's administration.[8] After the departure of Secretary Henry Cisneros at the end of Clinton's first term under the cloud of an FBI investigation,[9] Cuomo succeeded him as Secretary of HUD in January 1997 after being unanimously confirmed by the United States Senate, serving until 2001 when Clinton's administration ended.[8]

In 2000, Cuomo led HUD efforts to negotiate an agreement with the United States' largest handgun manufacturer, Smith & Wesson, that required Smith & Wesson to change the design, distribution and marketing of guns to make them safer and to help keep them out of the hands of children and criminals.[8] Budgets enacted during his term contained initiatives to increase the supply of affordable housing and home ownership, and to create jobs and economic development. These included new rental assistance subsidies, reforms to integrate public housing, higher limits on mortgages insured by the Federal Housing Administration, a crackdown on housing discrimination, expanded programs to help homeless people get housing and jobs, and creation of new Empowerment Zones.

Cuomo, as HUD Secretary holding a press conference with then Treasury Secretary Larry Summers

During Cuomo's tenure as HUD Secretary, he called for an increase in home ownership.[10] He also pushed government-sponsored lenders Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to buy more home loans issued to poor homeowners, in an attempt to end discrimination against minorities.[11] Some believe that this helped lead to the current subprime mortgage crisis.[6][10][12] Edward J. Pinto, former chief credit officer at Fannie Mae, said "they should have known the risks were large. Cuomo was pushing mortgage bankers to make loans and basically saying you have to offer a loan to everybody."[10] But others disagree with the assessment that Cuomo caused the crisis. Dean Baker, co-director of the Center for Economic and Policy Research, said Cuomo "was a contributor in terms of him being a cheerleader, but I don't think we can pin too much blame on him."[10]

According to libertarian author and critic James Bovard, Cuomo was obsessed with changing HUD's image, as Cuomo declared, "The PR is the important thing I do...Eighty percent of the battle is communications." He championed a new program called Community Builders, created without appropriation by Congress, for 800 new HUD employees with state-of-the-art computers to be paid as much as $100,000. In a June 16, 1999, speech, Cuomo declared that one purpose of the program was to fight against HUD's abolition. In August 1999, Community Builders distributed a letter to community groups to fight against proposed tax cuts. One HUD official declared that Community Builders were seen as "Democratic ward heelers who act as a pipeline between Democratic city officials, party leaders, and the administration and the Democratic National Committee." In 1998, Clinton-appointed HUD Inspector General Susan Gaffney testified to a Senate committee that she was the victim of "'escalating' attacks on her office by Cuomo and 'his key aides,' including cooked-up charges of racism, insubordination, malfeasance, and general dirty-dealing." In 1999, Gaffney's office concluded that "most (15 out of 19) Community Builders' goals were activities rather than actual accomplishments." and that Cuomo's initiatives "had a crippling effect on many of HUD's ongoing operations."[13]

New York Attorney General[edit]

Election[edit]

Cuomo declared his candidacy for the Democratic nomination for New York State Attorney General in 2006, and on May 30, 2006, captured the Democratic Party's endorsement, receiving 65% of the delegates. Though Cuomo won the endorsement, former New York City Public Advocate Mark J. Green, two-time candidate for lieutenant governor Charlie King, also earned places on the Democratic ballot.[14] King dropped out of the race before the primary and endorsed Cuomo.[15]

Cuomo won the primary with a majority of the vote, defeating his nearest opponent by over 20%. Clinching the Democratic party nomination was considered a significant rebound following his unsuccessful and unpopular 2002 gubernatorial campaign and at the nominating convention, June O'Neill, the Democratic chairwoman of St. Lawrence County, called him "New York's own Comeback Kid."[14] He won the general election against the Republican nominee, former Westchester District attorney, Jeanine Pirro on November 7, 2006, winning 58% of the vote.

Tenure[edit]

Police surveillance[edit]

On July 23, 2007, Cuomo's office admonished the Spitzer administration for ordering the State Police to keep special records of then-Senate majority leader Joseph L. Bruno's whereabouts when he traveled with police escorts in New York City.[16] At the discretion of top officials of the Spitzer administration, the New York State Police created documents meant to cause political damage to Bruno.[17] Spitzer responded by accepting responsibility and issuing an apology to Bruno.[16][18]

Student loan inquiry[edit]

In 2007, Cuomo was active in a high-profile investigation into lending practices and anti-competitive relationships between student lenders and universities. Specifically, many universities steered student borrowers to a "preferred lender," which resulted in the borrowers' incurring higher interest rates. This led to changes in lending policy at many major American universities. Many universities also rebated millions of dollars in fees back to affected borrowers.[19][20]

Cuomo with Representative Gary Ackerman

Usenet[edit]

On June 10, 2008, Cuomo announced that three major Internet service providers (Verizon Communications, Time Warner Cable, and Sprint), would "shut down major sources of online child pornography" by no longer hosting many Usenet groups. Time Warner Cable ceased offering Usenet altogether, Sprint ended access to the 18,408 newsgroups in the alt.* hierarchy, and Verizon limited its Usenet offerings to the approximately 3,000 Big 8 newsgroups. The move came after Cuomo's office located 88 different newsgroups to which child pornography had been posted.[21][22][23]

United States Senate[edit]

After Hillary Rodham Clinton became Barack Obama's choice for U.S. Secretary of State, Governor David Paterson was charged with appointing a temporary replacement until a special election. Cuomo was seen as a leading contender for this appointment.[24][25] Caroline Kennedy (the first cousin of Cuomo's ex-wife) was another leading contender, but withdrew for personal reasons two days before Paterson was set to announce his choice, leaving Cuomo and US Representative Kirsten Gillibrand as the most likely appointees.[25][26] On January 23, Paterson announced he would appoint Gillibrand to the Seat.[27]

Governor of New York[edit]

Elections[edit]

2002[edit]

Cuomo first ran for the Democratic nomination for Governor in 2002. He was initially the favorite for nomination, and led in fund-raising and polls, but his campaign took serious damage after a gaffe when Cuomo said (in reference to the aftermath of the September 11 attacks) "Pataki stood behind the leader. He held the leader's coat. He was a great assistant to the leader. But he was not a leader. Cream rises to the top, and Rudy Giuliani rose to the top." His remarks were widely derided, and even his father, former governor Mario Cuomo later admitted it was a blunder.[28]

On the eve of the state convention, Cuomo withdrew from consideration after concluding that he had little chance of support as opposed to the favored party candidate, State Comptroller Carl McCall.[29] McCall went on to lose the general election to George Pataki.

County results of the 2010 election

2010[edit]

On September 18, 2009, advisors to President Barack Obama informed Governor David Paterson that the President believed he should withdraw his 2010 gubernatorial candidacy, stepping aside for "popular Attorney General Andrew Cuomo."[30] On January 23, 2010, the New York Daily News reported that Cuomo would announce plans for a gubernatorial campaign at the end of March.[31] Later reports indicated Cuomo would announce his gubernatorial campaign coinciding with the state Democratic Convention in late May.[32] On May 22, 2010, Cuomo announced his run for Governor in a video posted to his campaign website. Cuomo announced his choice for Lt. Governor on May 26, 2010: Mayor of Rochester, Robert Duffy.[33]

In the November 2, 2010, general election, Cuomo faced Republican Carl Paladino, a Buffalo-based businessman who had been heavily supported by the Tea Party movement. Cuomo won the election for Governor by a landslide, winning 62.6% of the vote. Paladino performed strongly in his native Buffalo area, while Cuomo performed well in the Eastern part of the state as well as downstate.[34]

2014[edit]

Cuomo is up for re-election in November 2014. While he has not specifically announced that he is running, he has started his campaign entitled "Andrew Cuomo 2014" and has distributed promotional materials. He is considered the favorite for re-election based on current polling. On March 5, 2014, Westchester County Executive Rob Astorino announced that he will run on the Republican ticket against Cuomo for Governor.[35]

Tenure[edit]

Cuomo assumed the office of Governor at 12:01 a.m. on January 1, 2011, succeeding David Paterson.[36][37]

During his first year as Governor, Cuomo worked to pass an on-time budget[38][39] that cut spending without raising taxes,[40][41] made a new deal with a large state-employee union,[42] signed ethics reform legislation,[43] passed a property tax cap,[44] worked to enact a same-sex marriage bill with bipartisan support,[45][46] and restructured New York's tax code.[47][48] There has been media speculation about a 2016 presidential run.[49][50][51]

Runaway youth controversy[edit]

In early 2011, Cuomo came under criticism for proposing cutting all funding for New York State programs that support homeless and runaway youth from $6.1 million to $2.3 million: a level not seen since the 1980s. The 70% cut from two years before would leave thousands of youth in New York City without shelter.[52] Carl Siciliano, who runs a New York shelter, said "Governor Cuomo's budget proposal is bad news for the 1,600 homeless LGBT youth stranded on the streets of New York each night without access to a shelter bed. These youth, who suffer horribly and whose lives are in danger, deserve the attention and concern of their governor no less than the other members of our community."[53] Critics also pointed out that according to the US Justice Department, one in three runaway teens without a place to sleep is forced into prostitution within 48 hours.[52]

Same-sex marriage[edit]

Cuomo at New York City's Gay Pride in 2013

In keeping with a campaign promise, Cuomo signed same-sex marriage legislation on June 24, 2011, following an "intense public and private lobbying campaign."[54] After same-sex marriage legislation passed the New York State Senate, Cuomo remarked, "The other states look to New York for the progressive direction... What we said today is, you look to New York once again. New York made a powerful statement, not just for the people of New York, but for people all across this nation."[54] In a post-vote press release, he added, "New York has finally torn down the barrier that has prevented same-sex couples from exercising the freedom to marry and from receiving the fundamental protections that so many couples and families take for granted... With the world watching, the Legislature, by a bipartisan vote, has said that all New Yorkers are equal under the law. With this vote, marriage equality will become a reality in our state, delivering long overdue fairness and legal security to thousands of New Yorkers."[54]

Cuomo was lauded for his efforts to pass same-sex marriage legislation.[55][56][57] One prominent same-sex marriage advocate stated that "for gay Americans, Mr. Cuomo was "the only national politician with hero status."[56] In the fall of 2011, Cuomo made a speech calling for all states to legalize same-sex marriage; Cuomo stated that "We need marriage equality in every state in this nation... Otherwise, no state really has marriage equality, and we will not rest until it is a reality."[57] Following the passage of the Marriage Equality Act, Cuomo was criticized for describing the viewpoints of same-sex marriage opponents as being "anti-American."[58][59] On July 25, 2011, a lawsuit was filed in the New York Supreme Court seeking an injunction against the Marriage Equality Act, alleging corruption and violations of the law in the process of passing the bill.[60] The trial court held that the plaintiffs' case could proceed, stating that "clear arm-twisting by the Executive on the Legislative permeate[d the] entire process" by which the same-sex marriage law was passed.[61] But on appeal, the Appellate Division reversed the trial court's decision, holding, "It is ADJUDGED and DECLARED that defendant New York State Senate did not violate the Open Meetings Law (Public Officers Law art. 7) in enacting the Marriage Equality Act (L. 2011, ch. 95, § 3) and that marriages performed thereunder are not invalid."[62]

Public employees[edit]

On July 16, 2011, Cuomo finalized a five-year deal with the Public Employees Federation to end pay raises, implement furlough days, and require additional contributions to health insurance accounts.[63] In an interview with The New York Times, Cuomo stated his top goal in 2012 is the reduction of public employee pensions.[64]

Taxes[edit]

Cuomo received accolades for his 2011 restructuring of the New York State tax code.[65][66][67] Cuomo also received criticism for including tax increases for high earners,[68][69] and for allegedly requesting a unanimous Assembly vote in favor of the proposal and threatening to campaign against Assembly members who voted "no"[70] - a charge Cuomo denied.[70] Cuomo also received criticism from voices on the left who felt that the Governor's tax reform was not far-reaching enough.[69]

Hurricane Sandy and subsequent controversy[edit]

After hurricane Sandy's wrath of October 29–31, which was to go on record as the deadliest and most destructive storm of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season, many New York residents had homes damaged beyond habitability. Governor Cuomo worked closely with President Barack Obama and with Governor Chris Christie of New Jersey, which was even more hard-hit, to come to their aid. Cuomo allowed New York voters, via a specific provision aimed at accommodating those displaced, to cast provisional ballots for the 2012 election anywhere in New York state. "Just because you're displaced doesn't mean you should be disenfranchised.", Cuomo said.[71] He also appointed a commission to examine the responses of New York utilities to damage caused by the storm.[72] Controversy erupted as the Cuomo administration essentially raided $140 million of these funds, which had been intended to help lower the energy costs of residents affected by the damage, in order to pay for the broadcast of national TV ads promoting his "New New York" slogans, outside of New York.[73][74]

Gun control[edit]

On January 15, 2013, in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting in Newtown, Connecticut, Cuomo signed the NY SAFE Act into law.[75] He has described the law as the toughest gun control law in the United States.[76] On July 5, 2013, Cuomo signed an amendment to the NY SAFE Act which exempts retired police officers from some of the Act's ownership restrictions.[77]

Controversial remarks about conservatives[edit]

In a January 17, 2014, interview with Susan Arbetter on WCNY's The Capital Pressroom, Cuomo stated,

You have a schism within the Republican Party. ... They're searching to define their soul, that's what's going on. Is the Republican party in this state a moderate party or is it an extreme conservative party? That's what they're trying to figure out. It's a mirror of what's going on in Washington. The gridlock in Washington is less about Democrats and Republicans. It's more about extreme Republicans versus moderate Republicans. You're seeing that play out in New York. The Republican Party candidates are running against the SAFE Act — it was voted for by moderate Republicans who run the Senate! Their problem is not me and the Democrats; their problem is themselves. Who are they? Are they these extreme conservatives who are right-to-life, pro-assault-weapon, anti-gay? Is that who they are? Because if that's who they are and they're the extreme conservatives, they have no place in the state of New York, because that's not who New Yorkers are. If they're moderate Republicans like in the Senate right now, who control the Senate — moderate Republicans have a place in their state. George Pataki was governor of this state as a moderate Republican; but not what you're hearing from them on the far right.[78]

This remark has received a major reaction in the conservative community. Radio host Glenn Beck wrote a letter to the governor regarding the remarks from the interview.[79] Fox News contributor and radio/tv show host, Sean Hannity mentioned emigrating along with all of his assets from the state if the governor does not apologize from the remarks.[80] Cardinal Timothy M. Dolan, the Archbishop of New York, said during a radio broadcast that the governor's remarks were "most unfortunate at best. Are there pro-lifers who are extremist? Yes, there are. But I think they are a distinct minority."[81]

Support for declared disaster areas[edit]

In 2009, a flash flood devastated the village of Gowanda, New York, causing two deaths. Four-foot-deep flood waters swept through the village, causing significant damage.[82][83] The village was declared both a state and federal disaster area.[82][83] In January 2014, Cuomo announced the award of $700,000 in compensation monies for the village from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) as a result of the flood.[82][83] In making the anouncement, Cuomo said:

This funding will go a long way to offset recovery costs incurred by the village of Gowanda when it was struck by severe flooding in August 2009. After several years of advocating for FEMA to release this funding, I am pleased that the village is receiving this long-overdue and deserved support. This will allow Gowanda to move on from the damage that was incurred, and continue to reimagine their community for the new reality of extreme weather.[82][83]

Personal life[edit]

Cuomo married Kerry Kennedy, the seventh child of Robert F. Kennedy and Ethel Skakel Kennedy. They have three children: Cara, Michaela and Mariah Cuomo. They separated in 2003 and divorced in 2005 after 13 years of marriage. In 2011, Cuomo began living with Food Network host Sandra Lee. The two reside in Westchester County, New York.[84][85][86][87][88][89]

References[edit]

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Political offices
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Henry Cisneros
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1997–2001
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