Andrew Dickson White

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Andrew Dickson White
Andrew Dickson White 1885.jpg
White in 1885
1st President of Cornell University
In office
1866–1885
Succeeded by Charles Kendall Adams
16th United States Ambassador to Germany
In office
June 19, 1879 – August 15, 1881
Preceded by Bayard Taylor
Succeeded by Aaron Augustus Sargent
1st President of the American Historical Association
In office
1884–1885
Preceded by None
Succeeded by George Bancroft
41st United States Ambassador to Russia
In office
July 22, 1892 – October 1, 1894
Preceded by Charles Emory Smith
Succeeded by Clifton R. Breckinridge
24th United States Ambassador to Germany
In office
June 12, 1897 – November 27, 1902
Preceded by Edwin F. Uhl
Succeeded by Charlemagne Tower, Jr.
Personal details
Born (1832-11-07)November 7, 1832
Homer, New York 42°37′59″N 76°10′43″W / 42.633085°N 76.178657°W / 42.633085; -76.178657
Died November 4, 1918(1918-11-04) (aged 85)
A.D. White House, Ithaca, New York
Resting place Sage Chapel, Ithaca, New York
42°26′50″N 76°29′05″W / 42.447307°N 76.484592°W / 42.447307; -76.484592Coordinates: 42°26′50″N 76°29′05″W / 42.447307°N 76.484592°W / 42.447307; -76.484592
Citizenship American
Nationality American
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Mary A. Outwater (1859-1888)

Helen Magill (1890-1918)

Residence A.D. White House, Ithaca, New York
Alma mater Yale (A.B., M.A)
Religion Episcopalian[1]
Signature

Andrew Dickson White (November 7, 1832 – November 4, 1918) was a U.S. diplomat, historian, and educator, who was the co-founder of Cornell University.[2]

Biography[edit]

Family and personal life[edit]

Andrew Dickson White was born on November 7, 1832 in Homer, New York, to Clara (née Dickson) and Horace White.[3] Clara was the daughter of Andrew Dickson, a New York State Assemblyman in 1832 and his wife; and Horace was the son of Asa White, a farmer from Massachusetts, and his wife. Their once-successful farm was ruined by a fire when Horace was 13.[3] Despite little formal education and an impoverished background, Horace White became a wealthy merchant. In 1839 he opened what became a successful bank in Syracuse.[4] Andrew Dickson White and his brother were born to a childhood free of the poverty their father and paternal grandparents had suffered. Andrew was baptized in 1835 at the Calvary Episcopal Church on the town green in Homer.[5]

White married twice. He married first, on September 27, 1857, Mary Amanda Outwater (February 10, 1836 – June 8, 1887), daughter of Peter Outwater and Lucia M. Phillips of Syracuse. Mary's grandmother, Amanda Danforth, daughter of Asa Danforth, Jr., and wife of Elijah Phillips, Jr., was the first white child born in Onondaga County, New York; her great-grandfathers included General Asa Danforth, early settler in upstate New York and leader of the State Militia, and Elijah Philips, Sr., who responded to the alarm to Lexington, Massachusetts, in 1775 and later served as High Sheriff of Onondaga County. Andrew and Mary had three children together: Frederick Davies White, who committed suicide in 1901 after a prolonged series of illnesses while A.D. White was in Germany, Clara (White) Newbury, who died before her father; and Ruth (White) Ferry. After his wife Mary died in 1887, White went on a lecture tour and traveled in Europe with his close friend, Daniel Willard Fiske, librarian at Cornell.[6]

After two years as a widower, in 1890, White married Helen Magill, the daughter of Edward Magill, Swarthmore College's second president. She holds the distinction of being the first woman to earn a Ph.D. in the United States. Like her husband, Helen was a social scientist and educator; the two met at a conference where she was presenting. Together, Helen and Andrew had one daughter, Karin White.[6]

One of his cousins was Edwin White, an artist of the Luminism/Hudson River schools.[7] His nephew was Horace White, governor of New York.

Education[edit]

Beginning in the fall of 1849, White spent his first year of college at Geneva College (known today as Hobart and William Smith Colleges) at the insistence of his father.[8] He was inducted as member of Sigma Phi. In his autobiography, he recalled that he had felt that his time at Geneva was "wasted" by being at the small Episcopalian school, instead of at "one of the larger New England universities".[8] Rather than continue "wasting" his time, White dropped out in 1850. After a resulting period of estrangement from his father, White successfully convinced his father to allow him to transfer to Yale University.

White as a junior or senior at Yale, wearing his Skull and Bones pin

At Yale, he was a classmate of Daniel Coit Gilman, who would later serve as first president of Johns Hopkins University. The two were members of the Skull and Bones[9] secret society and would remain close friends, traveling together in Europe after graduation and serving together on the Venezuela Boundary Commission (1895–96). His roommate was Thomas Frederick Davies, Sr., third bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Michigan, 1889–1905.[4] Other members of White's graduating year included Edmund Clarence Stedman, the poet and essayist, Wayne MacVeagh, Attorney General of the United States and U.S. Ambassador to Italy, and Hiram Bingham II, the missionary, collectively comprising the so-called "famous class of '53".[10] According to White, a great influence on his academic career was Professor Noah Porter (later, Yale's president), who personally instructed him in rhetoric and remained a close personal friend until Porter's death.[11]

Alpha Sigma Phi inducted White as a member in 1850 and he served as editor of the fraternity's publication, The Tomahawk. White remained active in the fraternity for the rest of his life, founding the Cornell chapter and serving as the national president from 1913 to 1915.[12] He also served as an editor of The Lit., known today as the Yale Literary Magazine and belonged to Linonia, a literary and debating society.[4] As a junior, White won the Yale literary prize for the best essay, writing on the topic "The Greater Distinctions in Statesmanship", a great shock to the campus as a senior traditionally wrote the winning essay.[4][13] Also as a junior, he joined the junior society Psi Upsilon. In his senior year, White won the Clark Prize for English disputation and the De Forest prize for public oratory, speaking on the topic "The Diplomatic History of Modern Times". A medal valued at $100, the De Forest prize was, at the time, the largest prize of its kind at any educational institution American or otherwise.[14] In White's honor, an anonymous donor later gave money endowing a prize for the best senior essay in American, European, or Third World history to be awarded in his name annually.[15][16] In addition to academic pursuits, White was on the Yale crew team and competed in the first running of the Harvard–Yale Regatta in 1852.[17]

After graduation, White left with his classmate Daniel Coit Gilman to travel and study further in Europe. Between 1853 and 1854, he studied at the Sorbonne, the Collège de France, and the University of Berlin and served as the translator for Thomas H. Seymour, the U.S. Ambassador to Russia, following Gilman's term as translator, despite not having studied French (the language of diplomacy and the Russian royal court) prior to his studies in Europe. After he returned the United States, White re-enrolled at Yale to earn an M.A. in History and be inducted into Phi Beta Kappa in 1856.[18]

Early professional life[edit]

In October 1858, White accepted a position as a Professor of History and English literature at the University of Michigan, where he remained on faculty until 1863.[19] White made his lasting mark on the grounds of the university by enrolling students to plant elms along the walkways on The Diag.[20] Between 1862 and 1863, he traveled to Europe to lobby France and England to assist the United States in the American Civil War or, at least, not come to the aid of The Confederacy.[19]

Cornell University[edit]

Further information: History of Cornell University
White, in 1865, when he co-founded Cornell University with Ezra Cornell.

In 1863, White returned to reside in Syracuse for business reasons and, in November, was elected to the New York State Senate running on the Union Party ticket.[21] In the senate, White made the acquaintance of fellow upstate senator Ezra Cornell, a self-taught Quaker farmer from Ithaca who had made a modest fortune in the telegraph industry.[6] Around this time, the task came upon the senators to decide how to best use the higher education funding provided by the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act, which allocated money in the form of timber land in the midwest that could be sold as states saw fit. Through effective management by Cornell, New York generated about $2.5 million (~$43 million in 2008 dollars) from its allotted scrip, a greater yield per acre than any state, except, perhaps, California.[22] The initial push in the senate was to divvy the funds amongst the numerous, small state colleges. White fervently opposed this proposal, arguing that the money would be more effectively used if it endowed only one university. Ezra Cornell agreed, telling White "I have about half a million dollars more than my family will need: what is the best thing I can do with it for the State?" To which, White immediately replied "The best thing you can do with it is to establish or strengthen some institution of higher learning."[6] The two thus combined their efforts to form a new university.

White pressed that the university should be located on the hill in Syracuse (the current location of Syracuse University) due to the city's attractive transportation hub, which would ease the recruitment of faculty, students, and other persons of note. However, as a young carpenter working in Syracuse, Cornell had been robbed of his wages,[23] and thereafter considered Syracuse a Sodom and Gomorrah and insisted that the university be located in Ithaca on his large farm on East Hill, overlooking the town and Cayuga Lake. White ultimately relented and convinced Cornell to give his name to the university "in accordance with [the] time-honored American usage" of naming universities after their largest initial benefactors.[6] On February 7, 1865, White introduced a bill "to establish the Cornell University" and, on April 27, 1865, after a many month long debate, Governor Reuben E. Fenton signed into law the bill endowing Cornell University as the state's Land-Grant institution.

White became the school's first president and served as a professor in the Department of History. He commissioned Cornell's first architecture student William Henry Miller to build his mansion on campus.

In 1891, Leland and Jane Stanford asked White to serve as the first president of the university they had founded in Palo Alto, California, Stanford University. Although he refused their offer, he did recommend his former student David Starr Jordan.

Diplomatic career and later work[edit]

White's official portrait as ambassador to Russia (1892-94)

While at Cornell, in 1871, White took leave to serve as a Commissioner to Santo Domingo along with Benjamin Wade and Samuel Howe at the request of President Grant in order to determine the feasibility of an American annexation of the Dominican Republic. Though their report (available here) supported the annexation, Grant failed to gain political support to take further action. Later, White was the U.S. Ambassador to Germany (1879–1881), and first president of the American Historical Association (1884–1886). Upstate New York Republicans unsuccessfully attempted to nominate him for governor in 1876 and for congress in 1886. Following his resignation as Cornell's President in 1885, White served as Minister to Russia (1892–1894), President of the American delegation to The Hague Peace Conference (1899), and again as Ambassador to Germany (1897–1902).[24] Cornell's third president, Jacob Gould Schurman, would also hold this same position in Germany from 1925 to 1929.

In 1904, White published his Autobiography, which he had authored during a period of time relaxing in Italy following his retirement from the U.S. Foreign Service.

At the onset of World War I, White, an American with strong professional and emotional ties to Germany, vocally supported the German cause, but, by the summer of 1915, he retreated from this position, refraining from offering support, publicly or privately.[25] In the fall of 1916, President Woodrow Wilson appointed White to a peace commission to author a treaty with China.[26] As of December 1916, White had resigned from the Smithsonian Board of Regents and the Carnegie Institution trustees.[26]

Bibliophile[edit]

The A.D. White Reading Reading Room holds part of White's book collection today

Over the course of his career, White amassed a sizable book collection. His library was probably best known for its extensive section on architecture, which comprised, at the time, the largest architecture library in the United States. He donated all 4,000 of these books to the Cornell University Library for the purpose of teaching architecture, as well as the remainder of his 30,000 book collection.[27] In 1879, White enlisted George Lincoln Burr, a former undergraduate grader for a seminar White had taught, to manage the rare books collection. Though Burr would later hold other positions at the university, such as Professor of History, he remained White's collaborator and head of this collection until 1922—traveling Europe: locating and amassing books that White wanted. In particular, he built the collections on the Reformation, witchcraft, and the French Revolution.[28] Today, White's collection is housed primarily in the Cornell Archives and in the Andrew Dickson White Reading Room (formally known as the "President White Library of History and Political Science") at Uris Library on the Ithaca Campus. The A.D. White Reading Room was designed by William Henry Miller, who had also designed White's mansion on campus.

While serving in Russia, White made the acquaintance of author Leo Tolstoy. Tolstoy's fascination with Mormonism sparked a similar interest in White, who had previously regarded the Latter-Day Saints (LDS) as a dangerous, deviant cult. Upon his return to the United States, White took advantage of Cornell's proximity to the religion's birthplace in Palmyra to amass a collection of LDS memorabilia (including many original copies of the Book of Mormon) unmatched by any other institution save the church itself and its university, Brigham Young University.

Death[edit]

White's sarcophagus features important institutions in his life including nations where he had been an ambassador and universities where he had studied

On October 26, 1918, White suffered a slight paralytic stroke following a severe illness of several days.[6] On the morning of Monday, November 4, White died at home in Ithaca.[29] Three days later, on November 7, on what would have been White's 86th birthday, White was interred at Sage Chapel on the Cornell campus. The chapel was filled to capacity by faculty, trustees, and other well-wishers.[30] White's body resides in the Memorial Room with other people deemed influential in the founding and early years of the university, including co-founder Ezra Cornell and benefactor Jennie McGraw-Fiske. The Art Nouveau marble sarcophagus that holds his body features crests of countries and institutions that played important roles in White's life. For example, the picture on the right shows the crests of the two countries where White was an ambassador; the coat of arms of Imperial Germany is on left and Saint George, a variation on the coat of arms of Moscow, representing Russia, is on the right.

The sarcophagus was completed in 1926 by sculptor Lee Oskar Lawrie (1877–1963) who also created sculptures adorning Myron Taylor Hall at Cornell. Lawrie is perhaps best known for his creation of the Atlas at Rockefeller Center.[31]

In his will, White left $500,000 (over $7 million in 2008 dollars) to Cornell University. White had already donated considerable sums to Cornell earlier in his life.

Legacy[edit]

Conflict thesis[edit]

At the time of Cornell's founding, White announced that it would be "an asylum for Science—where truth shall be sought for truth's sake, not stretched or cut exactly to fit Revealed Religion".[32] Up to that time, America's private universities were exclusively religious institutions, and generally focused on the liberal arts and religious training (though they were not explicitly antagonistic to science).

In 1869 White gave a lecture on "The Battle-Fields of Science", arguing that history showed the negative outcomes resulting from any attempt on the part of religion to interfere with the progress of science. Over the next 30 years he refined his analysis, expanding his case studies to include nearly every field of science over the entire history of Christianity, but also narrowing his target from "religion" through "ecclesiasticism" to "dogmatic theology."

The final result was the two-volume A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom (1896), whose primary contention was the conflict thesis. Initially less popular than John William Draper's History of the Conflict between Religion and Science (1874), White's book became an extremely influential text on the relationship between religion and science. In this book, White argued that "the great majority of the early fathers of the Church, and especially Lactantius, had sought to crush it beneath the utterances attributed to Isaiah, David, and St. Paul."[33] White's conflict thesis has been widely discredited among contemporary historians of science.[34][35][36] The warfare depiction remains a popular view among critics of religion and the general public, and the debate between creationists and evolutionary scientists demonstrates its contemporary relevance.[37]

Cornell University[edit]

Until at least the mid-20th century, Cornell undergraduates with the surname 'White' were traditionally given the nickname 'Andy,' in reference to Andrew Dickson White. Notably, E.B. White, author of the world-famous children's book Charlotte's Web, continued to go by the nickname 'Andy' for the rest of his life after his undergraduate years at Cornell.[38]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Andrew Dickson White". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved May 20, 2009. 
  2. ^ "Dr. A.D. White Dies; A Cornell Founder; President of University for 18 Years Dies in Ithaca Close to His 86th Birthday. Twice Envoy to Germany; Educator Who Sought to Broaden Scope of Colleges Had Also Served as Minister to Russia. Fought for Reform in Colleges. Spent Many Years in Education.". New York Times. November 5, 1918. Retrieved March 31, 2010. "Dr. Andrew D. White, first President of Cornell University, former Ambassador to Germany, and Minister to Russia, died at 8:30 o'clock this morning after a short illness following a stroke of paralysis." 
  3. ^ a b "'The White Family'". 'The Political Graveyard'. Retrieved May 15, 2009. 
  4. ^ a b c d "'ANDREW DICKSON WHITE, M.A., LL.D., L.H.D.'". 'Rootsweb'. Retrieved May 15, 2009. [dead link]
  5. ^ "Homer, N.Y.: A Town and its Hall". Village of Homer, New York. Retrieved May 15, 2009. [dead link]
  6. ^ a b c d e f Andrew Dickson White. Cornell Alumni Magazine. November–December 1918. Retrieved May 20, 2009. 
  7. ^ Appleton's Cyclopædia of American Biography edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske (D. Appleton and Company, 1889), pp. 467-8. With etching image of ADWhite, and signature reproduction.
  8. ^ a b White (1904), pg. 54
  9. ^ *"Bonesmen 1833-1899". Fleshing Out Skull and Bones. 
  10. ^ Henry Sweetser Burrage, Albert Roscoe Stubbs (1909). Genealogical and family history of the state of Maine. p. 1174. 
  11. ^ White (1904), 31
  12. ^ ΑΣΦ. "ΑΣΦ - Rockledge". Retrieved May 22, 2009. 
  13. ^ White (1904), pg. 32
  14. ^ , "Yale College--The De Forest Prize.", New York Times, June 18, 1853, [1]
  15. ^ "Other Undergraduate Honors". Yale Bulletin and Calendar. May 21 – June 21, 1999. Archived from the original on April 23, 2009. Retrieved May 24, 2009. 
  16. ^ Tom Tryniski. "Old Fulton Postcards". Retrieved May 21, 2009. 
  17. ^ White (1904), pg. 33-4
  18. ^ Charles Elliott Fitch (1916). Encyclopedia of biography of New York. American Historical Society. pp. 321–326. 
  19. ^ a b Finch, pg. 7
  20. ^ http://michigantoday.umich.edu/2008/04/trees.php
  21. ^ "The State. Miscellaneous Returns" (PDF). New York Times. November 4, 1863. Retrieved May 27, 2009. 
  22. ^ Clarence J. Karier (1986). The Individual, Society, and Education. University of Illinois Press. p. 68. 
  23. ^ Goldwin Smith, Reminiscences(New York, 1911), p.371;quoted in Morris Bishop(1962), p.11, A History of Cornell. Cornell University Press
  24. ^ http://rmc.library.cornell.edu/presidents/view_item.php?sec=3&sub=8 Retrieved January 30, 2008.
  25. ^ Finch, pg. 65
  26. ^ a b Finch, pg. 66
  27. ^ "Architecture Clientele". Cornell University Fine Arts Library. 
  28. ^ "Andrew Dickson White Library". Cornell University Library. 
  29. ^ "Cornell University-Office of the President-Andrew Dickson White". Cornell University Office of the President. Retrieved May 20, 2009. 
  30. ^ Jacob Gould Schurman (1918). 26th Annual Report of the President. Cornell University. p. 5. 
  31. ^ Cited from a page from the Lee Lawrie Archives, Manuscripts Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., Gregory Paul Harm, contributor.
  32. ^ Lindberg and Numbers 1986, pp. 2–3
  33. ^ http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/andrew_white/Chapter2.html#I
  34. ^ Quotation: "The conflict thesis, at least in its simple form, is now widely perceived as a wholly inadequate intellectual framework within which to construct a sensible and realistic historiography of Western science". (p. 7), Colin A. Russell "The Conflict Thesis", Science & Religion: A Historical Introduction, Gary Ferngren, ed., Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8018-7038-0".
  35. ^ Quotation: "In the late Victorian period it was common to write about the ‘warfare between science and religion’ and to presume that the two bodies of culture must always have been in conflict. However, it is a very long time since these attitudes have been held by historians of science". (p. 195) Shapin, S. (1996). The Scientific Revolution. University of Chicago Press Chicago, Ill. 
  36. ^ Quotation: "In its traditional forms, the conflict thesis has been largely discredited." (p. 42) Brooke, J.H. (1991). Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives. Cambridge University Press. 
  37. ^ ". . . while [John] Brooke's view [of a complexity thesis rather than an historical conflict thesis] has gained widespread acceptance among professional historians of science, the traditional view remains strong elsewhere, not least in the popular mind". p. x, Science & Religion: A Historical Introduction, Gary Ferngren, ed., Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8018-7038-0.
  38. ^ Stephen, Charles. "Review: 'Story of Charlotte's Web' tells of author's love affair with the creatures of the natural world". Lincoln Journal Star. Retrieved August 12, 2011. 

Sources[edit]

Selected works by White[edit]

For a more comprehensive list, see Bibliography of Andrew Dickson White.
  • Outlines of a Course of Lectures on History (1861).
  • Syllabus of Lectures on Modern History (1876).
  • A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom, 2 vols. (1896), online at Gutenberg text file.
  • Seven Great Statesmen in the Warfare of Humanity with Unreason (1910).
  • The Autobiography of Andrew Dickson White (1911), online at Autobiography of Andrew Dickson White: Vol. 1, Vol. 2
  • Fiat Money Inflation in France (1912), e-text

Works about White[edit]

External links[edit]

Cornell University links

Other links

New York State Senate
Preceded by
Allen Munroe
New York State Senate
22nd District

1864–1867
Succeeded by
George N. Kennedy
Academic offices
Preceded by
(none)
President of Cornell University
1866–1885
Succeeded by
Charles Kendall Adams
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Bayard Taylor
United States Ambassador to Germany
1879–1881
Succeeded by
Aaron Augustus Sargent
Preceded by
Charles Emory Smith
United States Ambassador to Russia
1892–1894
Succeeded by
Clifton R. Breckinridge
Preceded by
Edwin F. Uhl
United States Ambassador to Germany
1897–1902
Succeeded by
Charlemagne Tower, Jr.