Andrew III of Hungary

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Andrew III
III Andras Thuroczy.jpg
King of Hungary and Croatia
Reign 10 July 1290 – 14 January 1301
Coronation 23 July 1290 in Esztergom
Predecessor Ladislaus IV
Successor Ladislaus V
Spouse Fenenna of Kuyavia
Agnes of Austria
Issue Elizabeth of Töss
Dynasty Árpád dynasty
Father Stephen the Posthumous
Mother Tomasina Morosini
Born c. 1265
Venice, Italy
Died 14 January 1301 (aged 35)
Buda, Hungary

Andrew III the Venetian (Hungarian: III. Velencei András, Croatian: Andrija III. Mlečanin, Slovak: Ondrej III.; c. 1265 – 14 January 1301) was King of Hungary[1][2] (1290–1301). He was the last member of the Hungarian Árpád dynasty on the paternal line.

Early years[edit]

He was born in Venice, the grandson of Andrew II of Hungary (reigned 1205–35) and the only son of Andrew II's youngest and posthumous son, Stephen, who was born of the old king's third marriage with Beatrice d'Este. His mother was Tomasina Morosini, descendant of a Venetian patrician family. After the death of his father (1272), he was educated with his Venetian relatives.

In 1278, Ivan Kőszegi, an aristocrat who held several strongholds in the Western part of the kingdom of Hungary, invited him. Having arrived to the kingdom, Andrew claimed the government of the duchy of Slavonia, but King Ladislaus IV of Hungary refused him. After this failure, Andrew returned to Venice.

In the beginning of 1290 Ivan Kőszegi and Archbishop Lodomer of Esztergom, who had excommunicated King Ladislaus IV, invited Andrew to Hungary and offered him the crown. Andrew accepted the offer, but he was arrested by a Hungarian noble, Arnold de genere Hahót who handed him over to Duke Albert I of Austria.

King of Hungary[edit]

On 10 July 1290 King Ladislaus IV was assassinated by his own Cuman followers; thus the main branch of the Árpád dynasty became extinct. Andrew, having been informed on the king's death, escaped from Vienna and went to Esztergom, where Archbishop Lodomer crowned him with the Holy Crown on 23 July 1290. After his coronation an assembly of the 'prelates, barons and nobles' of the kingdom of Hungary in Óbuda authorized the new king to re-examine his predecessor's donations. Andrew was hastily married to a Polish princess, Fennena of Kujavia.

The legitimacy of Andrew's rule was soon questioned, since his father had been declared bastard by his brothers; therefore the new king had to face several pretenders during his reign. On 31 August 1290 King Rudolph I of Germany, who considered that Hungary belonged to the Holy Roman Empire, invested his son, Duke Albert I of Austria, with the kingdom. This claim had no practical validity. An adventurer from Poland also claimed the kingdom, pretending to be Prince Andrew of Slavonia, the younger brother of king Ladislaus IV of Hungary, but his troops were defeated by Andrew's followers. In April 1291, Queen Mary of Naples, the assassinated king's sister, also announced her claim to the kingdom. She later transferred her claim to her son, Charles Martel of Anjou, and after his death (1295) to her grandson Charles Robert.

In early 1291 Andrew III visited the Eastern part of his kingdom, where the assemblies of the local nobility held in Oradea (Nagyvárad) and Alba Iulia (Gyulafehérvár) accepted his rule. Afterwards he led his armies against Austria and defeated the Austrian troops. Duke Albert I of Austria, in the peace concluded on 26 August 1291 in Hainburg, renounced his claim to Hungary. In compensation Andrew III promised to demolish several smaller fortresses, held by the Kőszegi clan, on the border of the two countries; thereupon Miklós Kőszegi rebelled against Andrew, in alliance with the Babonić (Babonics) and Frankopan (Frangepán) families, followers of the queen of Naples. The king tried to pacify the rebellion, but he was captured by Miklós Kőszegi and had to pay ransom to regain his freedom.

In 1293 Andrew III invited his mother to Hungary. She successfully negotiated with several rebellious barons (Henrik Kőszegi, Stefan Dragutin), who accepted her son's rule. During 1294 and 1295 Andrew III and his mother lead several campaigns against the followers of Charles Martel of Anjou.

After the death of his first wife, on 6 February 1296 Andrew III married Agnes of Austria, the daughter of Duke Albert I of Austria. Afterwards, with his father-in-law's support, he managed to defeat the revolt of Miklós Kőszegi and Matthew III Csák, and occupy the castles of Kőszeg and Pozsony. In 1298 Andrew supported with troops his father-in-law's revolt against King Adolf of Germany.

However, Andrew III never managed to strengthen his position in Hungary, because major parts of the kingdom were held by powerful barons like Miklós Kőszegi, Matthew Csák, and László Kán. Moreover, the new Archbishop of Esztergom, Gergely Bicskei, appointed by Pope Benedict VIII in 1298, supported the claims of the Neapolitan pretenders. Although the assembly of the 'prelates, nobles, Saxons and Cumans', held in August, 1298 at Pest, re-confirmed Andrew's reign, the Archbishop soon began to organise the party of the Neapolitan prince, Charles Robert among the prelates. When in the next year the Archbishop openly refused to appear at the assembly held by the 'prelates and nobles', Andrew occupied the estates of the Archbishopric.

In August 1300, Charles Robert landed in Split and managed to take Zagreb with the support of his Croatian followers. Andrew was prevented from counter-attacking by the sudden death of his mother and later by his own mortal disease. He was buried in the Greyfriars Church in Buda.

The death of Andrew III on 14 January 1301, at Buda, ended the male line of the Árpáds on the throne. One of his contemporaries called him "the last golden twig of the Árpáds".

Marriages and children[edit]

#1. 19 August/24 September 1290: Fenenna of Kuyavia (c. 1276 – c. 1295), daughter of prince Ziemomysł of Kujavia and his wife, Salome of Pommerellen

#2. 13 February 1296: Agnes of Austria (1281-1364) (18 May 1281 – 10 Juny 1364, Königsfelden), daughter of duke Albert I of Austria (later king Albert I of Germany) and his wife, Elisabeth of Tirol.

Ancestors[edit]

Legacy[edit]

An interregnum followed Andrew's death. Otto III, Duke of Bavaria (Bela V), the future Venceslas III of Bohemia and Charles Robert of Anjou (Charles I) were proclaimed kings by different factions.

After a short interregnum the Angevin dynasty seized power and Charles Robert (grandson of Maria of Hungary, sister of Ladislaus IV of Hungary, and son and heir to Charles Martel) became the recognized king.

Titles[edit]

King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Rama, Croatia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Bulgaria and Cumania

Andrew III of Hungary
Born: c. 1265 Died: 14 January 1301
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ladislaus IV
King of Hungary
1290–1301
Succeeded by
Wenceslaus
Preceded by
Charles I
King of Croatia
1295–1301
Succeeded by
Charles II

References[edit]

  1. ^ Andrew III. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 24 April 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/23977/Andrew-III
  2. ^ "Andrew III". Probertencyclopaedia.com. Retrieved 2014-01-14.