Andrew III of Hungary
|King of Hungary and Croatia|
|Coronation||23 July 1290|
|Spouse||Fenenna of Kuyavia
Agnes of Austria
|Issue||Elizabeth of Töss|
|Father||Stephen the Posthumous|
|Died||14 January 1301 (aged 35–36)
|Burial||Greyfriars' Church, Buda|
Andrew III the Venetian (Hungarian: III. Velencei András, Croatian: Andrija III. Mlečanin, Slovak: Ondrej III.; c. 1265 – 14 January 1301) was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1290 and 1301. His father, Stephen the Posthumous, was the son of Andrew II of Hungary, but his brothers considered him a bastard. Andrew grow up in Venice. He first arrived in Hungary upon the invitation of a rebellious baron, Ivan Kőszegi in 1278, but achieved nothing against Ladislaus IV.
Andrew, the last male member of the House of Árpád, was elected king after King Ladislaus's death in 1290. He was the first Hungarian monarch to issue a coronation diploma confirming the privileges of the noblemen and the clergy. At least three pretenders—Albert of Austria, Mary of Hungary, and an adventurer—challenged his claim to the throne. Andrew expelled the adventurer from the country and forced Albert of Austria to conclude a peace in a year. However, Mary of Hungary and her offspring never renounced their claim which was also supported by the leading Croatian and Slavonian lords.
Andrew was primarily supported by the local bishops and his Venetian mother's wealthy family, but Hungary was in a state of constant anarchy during his reign. The Kőszegis, the Csáks, and other powerful families autonomously governed their domains and rebelled against him almost every year. With his death, the House of Árpád became extinct. A civil war ensued which lasted for more than two decades, and ended with the victory of Charles Robert, a grandson of Mary of Hungary.
Childhood (c. 1265–1278)
He was the son of Stephen the Posthumous, who styled himself Duke of Slavonia, and his second wife, Tomasina Morosini. His father had been born to Beatrice D'Este, the third wife of Andrew II of Hungary, after the latter's death. King Andrew II's two elder sons, Béla IV of Hungary and Coloman of Halych, accused Beatrice D'Este of adultery and refused to acknowledge Stephen the Posthumous as their legitimate brother. Tomasina Morosini was the daughter of a wealthy Venetian patrician, Michele Morosini.
The exact date of Andrew's birth is unknown. Modern historians—Tibor Almási, Gyula Kristó and Attila Zsoldos—write that he was born in about 1265. Stephen the Posthumous, who died in 1272, nominated Tomasina Morosini's two kinsmen, including her brother Alberto, as his son's guardians.
The pretender (1278–1290)
Andrew first visited Hungary in the first half of 1278. He arrived upon the invitation of a powerful lord, Ivan Kőszegi, who attempted to play Andrew off against Ladislaus IV of Hungary. Andrew and Ladislaus the Cu were the last male members of the royal family. Andrew adopted the title of "Duke of Slavonia, Dalmatia and Croatia" and marched as far as the Lake Balaton. However, he achieved nothing and went back to Venice in autumn.
He returned at the turn of 1289 and 1290. On this occasion, in addition to Ivan Kőszegi, Lodomer, Archbishop of Esztergom had also urged him to come, because he attempted to dethrone the excommunicated Ladislaus IV. However, Arnold Hahót, an opponent of the Kőszegi family, invited Andrew to the fort of Štrigova and captured him. Arnold Hahót sent Andrew to Vienna where Albert of Habsburg, Duke of Austria, held him in captivity.
Coronation and pretenders (1290–1293)
Three Cuman assassins murdered Ladislaus IV on 10 July 1290. Archbishop Lodomer dispatched two monks to Vienna to inform Andrew of the King's death. With the monks assistance, Andrew left his prison in disguise and hastened to Hungary. His opponents tried to bribe Theodor, Prior of the Székesfehérvár Chapter, who held the Holy Crown of Hungary, to refuse to hand it over, but the Prior remained loyal to Andrew. Archbishop Lodomer crowned Andrew king in Székesfehérvár on 23 July. The lords and the prelates only swore loyalty to him, after he issued a charter, promising the restoration of internal peace and the respect of the privileges of the nobility and the clergymen. He appointed the most powerful noblemen, who had in fact administered their domains independently of the monarch, to the highest offices. Amadeus Aba, who dominated the northeastern parts of the kingdom, was nominated Palatine, Ivan Kőszegi, the lord of the western parts of Transdanubia, became Master of the treasury, and Roland Borsa remained the Voivode of Transylvania. Andrew held a Diet before 1 September. To put an end to anarchy, the "prelates, barons and noblemen" ordered the destruction of castles which had been erected without royal permission and the restoration of estates which had been unlawfully seized to their rightful owners. Andrew promised that he would held a Diet in each year.
Rudolf I of Germany claimed that Hungary escheated to him after Ladislaus IV's childless death, because Ladislaus IV's grandfather, Béla IV of Hungary had sworn fidelity to Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor under the Mongol invasion of Hungary. Although Pope Innocent IV had years before freed Béla IV of his oath, Rudolf I of Germany bestowed Hungary to his own son, Albert of Austria, with Hungary on 31 August. Claiming to be identical with Ladislaus IV's younger brother, Andrew, Duke of Slavonia, who had in 1278 died, an adventurer also challenged Andrew's right to the crown and stormed into Hungary from Poland. He was in short forced to return to Poland where he was murdered.
Andrew married Fenenna, the daughter of Ziemomysł of Kuyavia, the duke of a lesser Polish principality, before the end of the year. Andrew held a general assembly for the barons and the noblemen of five counties to the east of the river Tisza—Bihar, Kraszna, Szabolcs, Szatmár, and Szolnok—at Nagyvárad (now Oradea in Romania) in early next year. The assembly outlawed Stephen Balogsemjén, a former staunch supporter of Ladislaus IV, for major trespass. Andrew hastened to Gyulafehérvár (now Alba Iulia in Romania) where he issued the decrees of his 1290 Diet at the assembly of the noblemen, Saxons, Székelys and Romanians in February or March. Around the same time, Andrew dismissed Amadeus Aba, appointing Iván Kőszegi Palatine.
Ladislaus IV's sister, Mary, wife of Charles II of Naples, announced her claim to the throne in April 1291. In short, the Babonići, the Frankopans, the Šubići and other Croatian and Slavonian noble families accepted her as the lawful monarch. Around that time, Andrew was mainly concerned to compel his other opponent, Albert of Austria, to renounce Hungary. He invaded Austria, forcing Albert to withdraw his garrisons from the towns and fortresses—including Pressburg (now Bratislava in Slovakia) and Sopron—that he had seized during Ladislaus IV's reign. The Peace of Hainburg, which concluded the war, was signed on 26 August, and three days later the two monarchs confirmed it at their meeting in Köpcsény (now Kopčany in Slovakia). The peace treaty also ordered the destroy of fortresses that the Kőszegis had held before their conquest by the Austrians. The Kőszegis rose up in open rebellion against Andrew in spring 1292, acknowledging Queen Mary of Naples's son, Charles Martell of Salerno as King of Hungary. Although the royal troops subdued the rebellion by July, the Kőszegis seized and imprisoned Andrew during his journey to Slavonia in August. Andrew was liberated within four months, after his partisans sent their relatives as hostages to the Kőszegis.
Rebellions and attempts to consolidate (1293–1298)
Upon Andrew's request, his mother, Tomasina moved to Hungary in 1293. Andrew appointed her to administer Croatia, Dalmatia and Slavonia. The Babonići and the Šubići, and the Dalmatian towns in short acknowledged Andrew's rule. Andrew visited the northern parts of Hungary and ordered the revision of former land grants in February. After his return to Buda, he again appointed Amadeus Aba Palatine. He arranged a marriage between his niece, Constance Morosini, and Vladislav, son of Stefan Dragutin of Serbia, who had earlier supported Charles Martell, in August.
Roland Borsa besieged and captured the Benedict, Bishop of Várad's fortress at Fenes (now Finiș in Romania) on 23 May 1294. Andrew held a general assembly and outlawed Roland Borsa.  According to historian Attila Zsoldos, he appointed Nicholas Kőszegi Palatine on this occasion. Andrew laid siege Roland Borsa's fort at Adorján (now Adrian in Romania). The siege lasted for three months before the fort fell to Andrew in October. Andrew replaced Roland Borsa with Ladislaus III Kán as Voivode of Transylvania, but the former preserved all his domains in the lands to the east of the Tisza.
The Croatian Paul Šubić again turned against Andrew and joined the camp of Charles Martell in early 1295, but the pretender died in August. Within two months the Babonići also rebelled against Andrew. Andrew, whose first wife died in autumn 1295, visited Vienna early next year where the marriage of Andrew and a daughter of Albert of Austria, Agnes, was decided. The Kőszegis soon rose up in open rebellion. Andrew declared war on the rebels and Archbishop Lodomer excommunicated them. Andrew and his father-in-law jointly seized the Kőszegis' main fort at Kőszeg in October, but could not subdue them. Andrew's mother seems to have died at the end of the year, because references to her activities disappeared from the contemporaneous documents.
Matthew III Csák, who had been in 1296 appointed Palatine, turned against Andrew at the end of 1297. Andrew's staunch supporter, Archbishop Lodomer, died around that time. The King visited his father-in-law in Vienna and promised to support him against Adolf of Nassau, King of Germany in the first days of February. Andrew sent an auxiliary troop to Albert of Austria who overcame King Adolf in the Battle of Göllheim on 2 July.
Last years (1298–1301)
Andrew held an assembly of the prelates, noblemen, Saxons, Székelys and Cumans in Pest in summer 1298. The preamble to the decrees passed at the Diet did not fail to refer to "the laxity of the lord king". The decrees authorized the monarch to destroy forts built without permission and ordered the punishment of those who had seized landed property with force, but also threatened Andrew with excommunication in case he did not apply the decrees. He appointed his uncle, Albertino Morosini, Duke of Slavonia. After the closing of the Diet, Andrew entered into formal alliance with five influential noblemen, including Amadeus Aba, who stated that they were willing to supportt the King even against the Pope and the bishops.
Gregory Bicskei, the Archbishop-elect and Apostolic Administrator of Esztergom, forbade the prelates to participate at the Diet of 1299, threatening them with excommunication. The prelates ignored his menaces and Andrew deprived him of Esztergom County. However, a group of powerful lords—the Šubići, the Kőszegis, the Csákis, and others—urged Charles I of Naples to sent his grandson, the 12-year-old Charles Robert, to Hungary. Charles Robert disembarked in Split in August 1300. Most Croatian and Slavonian lords and all Dalmatian towns but Trogir recognized him as king, and he marched to Zagreb. However, in short the Kőszegis and Matthew Csák were reconciled with Andrew. According to a letter by Andrew's envoy, neither did Pope Boniface VIII support Charles Robert's adventure. Andrew, who had been in poore health for a while, was planning to capture the pretender, but he died in Buda Castle on 14 January 1301. According to historians Attila Zsoldos and Gyula Kristó, the contemporaneous gossip suggesting that Andrew was poisoned cannot be proven.
Andrew was buried in the Franciscan Church in Buda. Years later Palatine Stephen Ákos referred to him as "last golden branch" of the tree of King Saint Stephen's family, because with Andrew's death the House of Árpád, the first royal house of Hungary, became extinct. A civil war between various claimants to the throne—Charles Robert, Wenceslaus of Bohemia, and Otto of Bavaria—followed his death, which lasted for seven years. The civil war ended with Charles Robert's victory, but he was forced to continue fighting against the Kőszegis, the Abas, Matthew Csák and other powerful lords up to the early 1320s.
|Ancestors of Andrew II of Hungary|
Andrew's first wife, Fenenna of Kuyavia, who died in 1295, gave birth to a daughter, Elisabeth in 1291 or 1292. Elisabeth was engaged to Wenceslaus, the heir to Wenceslaus II of Bohemia, in 1298, but the betrothal was broken in 1305. She joined the Dominican convent at Töss where she died as a saintly nun on 5 May 1338. She is now venerated as Blessed Elisabeth of Töss. Andrew's second wife, Agnes of Austria, was born in 1280. She survived her husband, but did not marry again; she died in the Königsfelden Monastery of the Poor Clares in 1364.
- Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 282, Appendix 4.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 282.
- Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 282.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 123.
- Zsoldos 2003, pp. 124-125.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 124.
- Almási 2012, p. 100.
- Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 283.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 125.
- Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 173.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 135.
- Berend, Urbańczyk & Wiszewski 2013, p. 473.
- Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 181.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 136.
- Engel 2001, p. 110.
- Bartl et al. 2002, p. 34.
- Bartl et al. 2002, p. 23.
- Kontler 1999, p. 84.
- Zsoldos 2003, pp. 147-148.
- Zsoldos 2003, pp. 143-144, 147-148.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 134.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 163.
- Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 182.
- Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 286, Appendix 4.
- Zsoldos 2003, pp. 164-165.
- Sălăgean 2005, p. 241.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 169.
- Magaš 2007, p. 59.
- Fine 1994, p. 207.
- Zsoldos 2003, pp. 170-171.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 173.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 177.
- Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 183.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 183.
- Fine 1994, pp. 207-208.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 187.
- Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 184.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 188.
- Fine 1994, p. 208.
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- Zsoldos 2003, p. 203.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 204.
- Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 185.
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- Zsoldos 2003, p. 206.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 207.
- Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 186.
- Zsoldos 2003, pp. 211, 213.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 214.
- Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, pp. 186-187.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 218-219.
- Fine 1994, pp. 208-209.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 220.
- Zsoldos 2003, pp. 220-221.
- Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 187.
- Zsoldos 2003, p. 221.
- Kristó & Makk 1996, pp. 287-288.
- Engel 2001, p. 124.
- Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 288.
- Engel 2001, pp. 128-130.
- Kontler 1999, pp. 87-88.
- Engel 2001, pp. 130-134.
- Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 282, Appendices 3-4.
- Runciman 1989, p. 345, Appendix III.
- Chiappini 2001, pp. 31-32,45.
- Kristó & Makk 1996, pp. 286-287, Appendix 4.
- Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 287.
- Klaniczay 2002, p. 207.
- Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 287, Appendix 4.
- Klaniczay 2002, p. 208.
- Klaniczay 2002, pp. 207-208.
- Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 286.
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Andrew III of HungaryBorn: c. 1265 Died: 14 January 1301
|King of Hungary and Croatia