Andrei Rublev

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St. Andrei Rublev
Venerable Father (Prepodobne)
Born 1360-1370
Died 29 January 1427 or 1430, or 17 October 1428
Andronikov Monastery, Moscow
Honored in Eastern Orthodox Church
Anglican Communion
Canonized 6 June 1988, Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra by Holy Governing Synod of the Moscow Patriarchate
Feast 29 January, 4 July
Attributes Clothed as an Orthodox monk, often shown holding an icon

Andrei Rublev (Russian: Андре́й Рублёв, IPA: [ɐnˈdrʲej rʊˈblʲɵf], also transliterated Andrey Rublyov and other permutations;[1] born in the 1360s, died 29 January 1427 or 1430 although 17 October 1428 also commemorated) is considered to be the greatest medieval Russian painter of Orthodox icons and frescoes.

Early life[edit]

Little information survives about the life of Andrei Rublev. It is not known where he was born. Andrei Rublev probably lived in the Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra near Moscow under Nikon of Radonezh, who became hegumen after the death of Sergii Radonezhsky (1392).

The first mention of Rublev is in 1405 when he decorated icons and frescos for the Cathedral of the Annunciation of the Moscow Kremlin in company with Theophanes the Greek and Prokhor of Gorodets. His name was the last of the list of masters as the junior both by rank and by age. Theophanes was an important Byzantine master who moved to Russia, and is considered to have trained Rublev.

Career[edit]

Rublev's famous icon of the Trinity.

Chronicles tell us that in 1408 he painted (together with Daniil Cherni) the Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir and in 1425–1427 the Cathedral of St. Trinity in the Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra. After Daniil's death Andrei came to Moscow's Andronikov Monastery where he painted his last work, the frescoes of the Savior Cathedral.

He is also believed to have painted at least one of the miniatures in the Khitrovo Gospels.

The only work authenticated as entirely his is the icon of the Trinity, ca. 1410 (shown at right), currently in the Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. It is based on an earlier icon known as the "Hospitality of Abraham" (illustrating Genesis 18). Rublev removed the figures of Abraham and Sarah from the scene, and through a subtle use of composition and symbolism changed the subject to focus on the Mystery of the Trinity.

In Rublev's art two traditions are combined: the highest asceticism and the classic harmony of Byzantine mannerism. The characters of his paintings are always peaceful and calm. After some time his art came to be perceived as the ideal of Church painting and of Orthodox iconography.

Death[edit]

Andrei died at Andronikov Monastery on 29 January 1430 (this date is still questionable and 17 October 1428 is also commemorated). His work has influenced many artists including Dionisy. At the Stoglavi Sobor (1551) Rublev's icon style was announced as a model for church painting. He was canonized a saint in 1988 by the Russian Orthodox Church. The church celebrates his feast day on 29 January[2] and 4 July.[2][3][4]

Legacy[edit]

Andrei Rublev is honored with a feast day on the liturgical of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America on 29 January.

Since 1959 the Andrei Rublev Museum has been open at the Andronikov Monastery, displaying the art of his works and his epoch.

In 1966, Andrei Tarkovsky made his celebrated film Andrei Rublev, loosely based on the artist's life and the first (and perhaps only) film produced under the Soviets to treat the artist as a world-historic figure and Christianity as an axiom of Russia’s historical identity"[5] during a turbulent period in the history of Russia.

Selected works[edit]

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

  • Andrei Rublev, a 1966 film by Andrei Tarkovsky loosely based on the painter's life.
  • Mikhail V. Alpatov, Andrey Rublev, Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1972.
  • Gabriel Bunge, The Rublev Trinity, transl. Andrew Louth, St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, Crestwood, New York, 2007.
  • Sergius Golubtsov, Voplosh’enie bogoslovskih idey v tvorchestve prepodobnogo Andreya Rubleva [The realization of theological ideas in creative works of Andrey Rublev]. Bogoslovskie trudy 22, 20–40, 1981.
  • Troitca Andreya Rubleva [The Trinity of Andrey Rublev], Gerold I. Vzdornov (ed.), Moscow: Iskusstvo 1989.
  • Viktor N. Lazarev, The Russian Icon: From Its Origins to the Sixteenth Century, Gerold I. Vzdornov (ed.). Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1997.
  • Priscilla Hunt, Andrei Rublev’s Old Testament Trinity Icon in Cultural Context, The Trinity-Sergius Lavr in Russian History and Culture: Readings in Russian Religious Culture, vol. 3, ed. Deacon Vladimir Tsurikov, (Jordanville, NY: Holy Trinity Seminary Press, 2006), 99-122.(See on-line at phslavic.com)
  • Priscilla Hunt, Andrei Rublev’s Old Testament Trinity Icon: Problems of Meaning, Intertextuality, and Transmission, Symposion: A Journal of Russian (Religious) Thought, ed. Roy Robson, 7-12 (2002–2007), 15-46 (See on-line at www.phslavic.com)
  • Konrad Onasch, Das Problem des Lichtes in der Ikonomalerei Andrej Rublevs. Zur 600–Jahrfeier des grossen russischen Malers, vol. 28. Berlin: Berliner byzantinische Arbeiten, 1962.
  • Konrad Onasch, Das Gedankenmodell des byzantisch–slawischen Kirchenbaus. In Tausend Jahre Christentum in Russland, Karl Christian Felmy et al. (eds.), 539–543. Go¨ ttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1988.
  • Eugeny N. Trubetskoi, Russkaya ikonopis'. Umozrenie w kraskah. Wopros o smysle vizni w drewnerusskoj religioznoj viwopisi [Russian icon painting. Colourful contemplation. Question of the meaning of life in early Russian religious painting], Moscow: Beliy Gorod, 2003 [1916].
  • Georgij Yu. Somov, Semiotic systemity of visual artworks: Case study of The Holy Trinity by Rublev, Semiotica 166 (1/4), 1-79, 2007.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Getty Union Artist Name List, which prefers "Rublyov", but "Rublev" is more commonly found
  2. ^ a b Saint Herman Calendar 2006. Platina CA: Saint Herman of Alaska Brotherhood. 2006. pp. 12, 56. 
  3. ^ Church Calendar (Russian)
  4. ^ "Moscow Patriarchate Glorifies Saints", Orthodox America IX (82), August 1988, retrieved 2008-03-16 
  5. ^ Hoberman, Jim. "Andrei Rublev". The Criterion Collection. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 

External links[edit]