The municipality was formed in 1967 when the municipalities of Bredestad and Hullaryd, both created in 1952 were amalgamated. The name was taken from the largest locality, Aneby, which was chosen as the seat. Before 1952 there were nine municipalities in the area.
Aneby Municipality is the smallest municipality in the county. In 1994, the population in the municipality was at an all-time high of 7,300 persons, which is attributed to refugees from former Yugoslavia. The population has since decreased, to the regret of the officials who are promoting to get it populated to the 8,000 inhabitants its service is designated for.