Anemone hepatica (Common Hepatica, liverwort, kidneywort, pennywort) is a herbaceous perennial growing from a rhizome in the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), native to woodland in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
The taxonomy of the genus Anemone and its species is not fully resolved, but the latest phylogenetic studies of many species of Anemone and related genera indicate that Hepatica should be included under Anemone because of similarities both in molecular attributes and other shared morphologies.
Anemone hepatica grows 5–15 cm (2–6 in) high. Leaves and flowers emerge directly from the rhizome, not from a stem above ground.
The leaves have three lobes and are fleshy and hairless, 7–9 cm (2.8–3.5 in) wide and 5–6 cm (2.0–2.4 in) long. The upper side is dark green with whitish stripes and the lower side is violet or reddish-brown. Leaves emerge during or after flowering and remain green through winter.
Varieties of Anemone hepatica that are recognized as distinct include:
- Anemone hepatica var. acuta
- Anemone hepatica var. japonica
- Anemone hepatica var. transylvanica
Medieval herbalists believed it could be used to treat liver diseases, and is still used in alternative medicine today. Other modern applications by herbalists include treatments for pimples, bronchitis and gout.
Distribution and Habitat
It is found in the woods, thickets and meadows, especially in the mountains of the continental Europe.
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- Sara B. Hoot, Anton A. Reznicek, Jeffrey D. Palmer (January–March 1994). "Phylogenetic Relationships in Anemone (Ranunculaceae) Based on Morphology and Chloroplast DNA". Systematic Botany 19 (1): 169–200. doi:10.2307/2419720. JSTOR 2419720.
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