Born in Saint-Norbert, Quebec, Dubeau is a graduate and First Prize winner of the Conservatoire de musique du Québec à Montréal. She studied at the Juilliard School of Music with Dorothy DeLay and later went to Romania to work with Ştefan Gheorghiu. Since that time, Dubeau has been regarded as one of Canada's most prominent classical performing artists. She has performed in concert halls in more than 25 countries and won several important international competitions. In addition, she has sold more than 300,000 records as a solo classical recording artist. Besides Dubeau, only a few other classical soloists have a certified Gold record for 50,000 albums sold in a given year. Some awards that she has won include the Sylva Gelber prize, International Community of Francophone Radio's "Soloist of the Year 1987," Prize of the Americas at the "Viña del Mar International Competition" among others.
Since 1994, Dubeau conceived and hosted concert broadcasts and weekly music programs for Radio-Canada. These include "Faites vos gammes" and "Angèle Dubeau et la Fête de la Musique." Another important project for Dubeau has been "Music in the Mountains," a popular event she organized, directed and hosted since 1995 which attracts 75,000 people every Labour Day weekend.
In 1997, Dubeau created the all-female string ensemble "La Pietà." This ensemble has performed in numerous concert halls in Canada, the United States, China and Japan, receiving rave reviews from local papers and radio stations. As of 2006, they have recorded seven albums and one DVD, which topped the Canadian charts.
Dubeau plays on the "Des Rosiers" Stradivariusviolin from 1733. She received this violin in 1976 when the violinist and previous owner Arthur Leblanc met Dubeau and heard her play.