Angara (rocket family)
The Angara rocket family is a family of space-launch vehicles being developed by the Moscow-based Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center. The rockets, which are to provide lifting capabilities between 2,000 and 40,500 kg into low earth orbit, are intended to become the mainstay of the Russian unmanned launcher fleet in the future and replace several existing systems.
The main purpose of the Angara rocket family is to secure Russia's independent access to space. Angara will reduce Russia's dependency on the Baikonur Cosmodrome, located in the independent republic of Kazakhstan, and will allow Russia to phase out foreign — mostly Ukrainian — rocket technology. Environmental issues have also played an important part in the development. Angara will use environmentally friendly fuel based on kerosene and liquid oxygen as the oxidant, which will make it a much safer rocket to use.
Rockets belonging to the family are intended to replace several existing launch vehicles. The light Angara 1.1 and 1.2 versions will replace the Kosmos-3M, Tsyklon and Rockot launchers; Angara 3 will replace the Ukrainian Zenit, and Angara 5 will replace the heavy-lift Proton. The Angara 5 version is expected to be most in demand, since this is the main version required by the Russian Ministry of Defence.
Khrunichev has also been developing a super-heavy-lift version (Angara 7), which is capable of orbiting payload of between 45 and 75 tons, and for which there is no equivalent in Russia's current rocket fleet. However, currently the development of Angara 7 is not receiving government funding. In addition, Khrunichev has offered to build a version capable of launching manned spacecraft: Angara 5P.
All Angara launch vehicles have a modular design with each module based on a common Universal Rocket Module (URM). Depending on configuration, liquid rocket boosters are added to the first stage, which then will consist of 1, 3, 5 or 7 such modules. The design is similar to the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle or the Falcon Heavy launch vehicle. The Angara rocket will use the same URMs for all modules (similar to the Falcon Heavy), and not solid rocket boosters (SRB) like the EELV.
The URM is a unitary structure that includes an oxidizer tank, a fuel tank (both tanks being coupled by a spacer) and a propulsion bay. Each URM will have one single-chamber RD-191 engine, using liquid oxygen and RP-1 as fuel. The RD-191 design is based on the RD-170 four-chamber engine used by the Energia launcher, as well as on the RD-171, which is currently used by the Zenit rocket.
The second stage will be either a Briz-KM (Angara 1.1) or Block I (also called URM-2), which is powered by the RD-0124A engine developed by the KB Khimavtomatika. Angara 5 will use either the Briz-M upper stage (currently used for the Proton-M rocket), or KVRB. Most versions are intended for unmanned launches, but Angara A5P and Angara A7P are being designed to be capable of launching manned spacecraft.
A single launch pad can be used for launching all Angara versions except Angara A7.
The rockets will be launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, and the Vostochny Cosmodrome (under construction), both in Russia. Russia hopes to reduce its dependence on Kazakhstan for the use of the Baikonur Cosmodrome, the location from which many of the current generation of Russian rockets are launched. Under the Baiterek program with Kazakhstan, commercial launches of Angara A5 may also take place from Baikonur Cosmodrome. In 2009, it was reported that a shortage of funds for construction of the Plesetsk launch pad was the main obstacle in Angara's development.
Production and marketing
The serial production of the Universal Rocket Modules and the Briz-M upper stages will take place at the Khrunichev subsidiary Production Corporation Polyot in Omsk. In 2009, Polyot invested over 771.4 million RUB (about $25 million) in Angara production lines. Design and testing of the RD-191 engine is done by NPO Energomash, while its mass production will take place at the company Proton-PM in Perm.
All Angara versions will be marketed for commercial launches, with the price for an Angara 1.1 launch estimated to be about $20 million.
The Angara 1.2 will have its first launch in 2013.
The vehicle made its maiden flight on 25 August 2009. The flight was not successful since the payload fairing on the Korean-built second stage failed to separate; however, according to Khrunichev, the first stage performed flawlessly.
A second launch on 10 June 2010 ended in failure, when contact with the rocket was lost. The Joint Failure Review Board failed to come to a consensus on the cause of the failure. A new team consisting of 30 neutral experts is being formed to investigate the cause of the failure.
|Wikinews has related news: South Korean Naro-1 space rocket explodes after take-off|
Together with NPO Molniya, Khrunichev is also developing the reusable Baikal launch vehicle, based on Angara's URM. The vehicle consists of one URM fitted with a wing, an empennage, a landing gear, a return flight engine and attitude control thrusters, to enable the rocket to return to an airfield after completing its mission.
|Version||Angara 1.1||Angara 1.2||Angara A3||Angara A5P||Angara A5||Angara A5/KVRB||Angara A7P||Angara A7V|
|First stage||1xURM, RD-191||1xURM, RD-191||3xURM, RD-191||5xURM, RD-191||5xURM, RD-191||5xURM, RD-191||7xURM, RD-191||7xURM, RD-191|
|Second stage||Breeze-KM||Block I, RD-0124A||Block I, RD-0124A||–||Block I, RD-0124A||Block I, RD-0124A||–||–|
|Third stage (not used for LEO)||–||–||Briz-M/KVSK||–||Briz-M/KVTK||KVRB||KVTK-A7||KVTK-A7|
|Thrust (at ground)||196 Mgf (1.92 MN)||196 Mgf (1.92 MN)||588 Mgf (5.77 MN)||980 Mgf (9.61 MN)||980 Mgf (9.61 MN)||980 Mgf (9.61 MN)||1,372 Mgf (13.44 MN)||1,372 Mgf (13.44 MN)|
|Launch weight||149 t||171.5 t||478 t||713 t||759 t||776 t||1,125 t||1,184 t|
|Height (maximal)||34.9 m||41.5 m||45.8 m||?||55.4 m||64 m||?||?|
|Payload (LEO 200 km)||2.0 t||3.7 t||14.6 t||18.0 t||24.5 t||28.5 t||36.0 t||40.5 t|
|Payload (GTO)||–||–||2.4/3.7 t||–||5.4/7.3 t||?||?||–|
|Payload (GEO)||–||–||1.0/2.0 t||–||2.9/4.5 t||5.7 t||7.5 t||9 t|
On August 26, 1995 the government of Russia adopted a resolution to develop the Angara launcher system.
On April 14, 2008, Rian news agency reported that the Flight tests of a new-generation Russian space launch vehicle will start in 2010, the director of the Khrunichev State Research and Production Center said on Monday.
On September 5, 2008, the creator of the RD-191 engine, NPO Energomash, reported that the engine has completed full cycle of development and burn tests and is ready for manufacturing and delivery.
On January 10, 2009, the first completed URM was delivered to the proving grounds. Cold and burn tests were planned to be performed in the first half of 2009.
On April 29, 2009 the first series of cold tests has been performed. The URM was filled with nearly 100 tonnes of liquefied oxygen to check functioning of hydraulic and pneumatic pumping systems.
On June 18, 2009, both fuel components were used for tests.
On July 30, 2009, the burn tests of the first URM equipped with RD-151 engine were performed.
On August 25, 2009 South Korea launched its Naro-1 rocket, with URM/RD-151 making up the first stage. With height of 30 m and weight of 140 tonnes Naro-1 is similar to Angara 1.1 configuration. The launch marked the first flight test of the URM, which successfully propelled the rocket to altitude of 196 km, where the first stage separated. However, the fairing on the Korean-built second stage failed to separate, and the satellite did not reach the correct orbit.
On December 5, 2009 Roscosmos announced the completion of engine trials, but that the first test flight of the Angara would be postponed from 2011 to 2012 due to lack of funding. The Khrunichev center has asked the government to allocate an additional 10 billion rubles (about $290 million) over the next three years to finish the development of the rocket.
On January 13, 2010 Vladimir Nesterov, Director-General of Khrunichev, announced that his company had received the required funding, and the first flight test of Angara is now scheduled for 2013. All program tasks in 2010 were completed successfully.
On May 25, 2011 interdepartmental committee (IDC), formed by a joint decision of the Space Forces of the Ministry of Defence and the Federal Space Agency, signed the Act IAC, which stated that the RD-191 engine has successfully completed ground tests stage and is suitable for use in a family of launch vehicles "Angara"
On April 20, 2012 ship Repair Center "Zvezdochka" successfully completed factory testing of the first - class light unit weight 197 tonnes, of the two transport-erector for launching sites "Angara". Equipment is designed for the transportation and installation of missiles light and heavy at the start.
On October 25, 2012, completed transcripts tested structural elements of the launch vehicle "Angara". According to the FSUE Khrunichev. 23 October 2012, the PCF "SIC RCP" (p. Remmash) successfully completed tests on transcripts strength structural elements promising launch vehicle (LV) "Angara" (product A5A2S - build number A13) manufacturing FSUE " name Khrunichev. " Purpose of the test build number A13 was to confirm the strength of the accelerator sections III stage of the launch, as well as the design of individual units "Angara" 3A and 5A
In May 2013 the first prototype Angara rocket arrived in Plesetsk – at that time the date for the first launch had slipped to May 2014. The rocket – a version of the Angara-1.2 configuration – was custom-built for the first launch. In November 2013 the rocket was rolled out and installed on the launch pad for the first time, with the scheduled launch date remaining May 2014.
- Titan IIIC
- Ariane 5
- Atlas V
- Falcon 9
- Delta IV
- Long March 3
- Long March 5
- GSLV Mk III
- Naro-1 — uses URM-1 from Angara as the first stage
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