Angara (rocket family)

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Angara
Angara.svg
The Angara rocket family
Function Launch vehicle
Manufacturer Khrunichev
Country of origin Russia
Size
Height 42.7 m (140 ft)-64 m (210 ft)
Width Angara A1.2 2.9 m (9 ft 6 in)
Angara A5 8.86 m (29.1 ft)
Mass 171,500 kg (378,100 lb)-790,000 kg (1,740,000 lb)
Stages 2-3
Capacity
Payload to
LEO (Plesetsk)
3,800 kg (8,400 lb)-24,500 kg (54,000 lb)
Payload to
GTO (Plesetsk)
5,400 kg (11,900 lb)-7,500 kg (16,500 lb)
Associated rockets
Comparable Naro-1 used a modified URM-1 first stage
Launch history
Status Active
Launch sites Plesetsk Site 35
Vostochny
Total launches 1 (A1.2PP: 1)
Successes 1 (A1.2PP: 1)
First flight A1.2PP: July 9, 2014
Boosters (A5) - URM-1
No boosters 4 (see text)
Engines 1 RD-191
Thrust 1,920 kN (430,000 lbf) (Sea level)
Total thrust 7,680 kN (1,730,000 lbf) (Sea level)
Specific impulse 310.7 s (3.047 km/s) (Sea level)
Burn time 214 seconds
Fuel RP-1/LOX
First Stage - URM-1
Engines 1 RD-191
Thrust 1,920 kN (430,000 lbf) (Sea level)
Specific impulse 310.7 s (3.047 km/s) (Sea level)
Burn time Angara 1.2: 214 seconds
Angara A5: 325 seconds
Fuel RP-1/LOX
Second Stage - Modified Block I, URM-2
Engines 1 RD-0124A
Thrust 294.3 kN (66,200 lbf)
Specific impulse 359 s (3.52 km/s)
Burn time Angara A5: 424 seconds
Fuel RP-1/LOX
Third Stage (Optional, Angara A5) - Briz-M
Engines 1 S5.98M
Thrust 19.6 kN (4,400 lbf)
Specific impulse 326 s (3.20 km/s)
Burn time 3,000 seconds
Fuel N2O4/UDMH
Third Stage (Optional, Angara A5) - KVTK, under development
Engines 1 RD-0146D
Thrust 68.6 kN (15,400 lbf)
Specific impulse 463 s (4.54 km/s)
Burn time 1,350 seconds
Fuel LH2/LOX

The Angara rocket family is a family of space-launch vehicles being developed by the Moscow-based Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center. The rockets are to put between 3,800 and 24,500 kg into low Earth orbit and are intended, along with Soyuz-2 variants, to replace several existing launch vehicles.

History[edit]

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, many formerly-Soviet launch vehicles were built in or required components from companies now located in Ukraine, such as Yuzhnoye Design Bureau, which produced Zenit-2, and Yuzhmash, which produced Dnepr and Tsyklon.[1] Additionally, the Soviet Union's main spaceport, Baikonur Cosmodrome, was located in Kazakhstan, and Russia encountered difficulties negotiating for its use.[2] This led to the decision in 1992 to develop a new entirely Russian launch vehicle, named Angara, to replace the rockets now built outside of the country, and ensure Russian access to space without Baikonur. It was decided that this vehicle should ideally use the partially-completed Zenit-2 launch pad at the Russian Plesetsk spaceport,[3] and be able to launch military satellites into geosynchronous orbit, which Proton could not due to lack of a launch pad at Plesetsk. Several companies submitted bids for the new rocket, and in 1994 Khrunichev, the developer of Proton, was selected as the winner. The commercial success of Proton over the next two decades would be an advantage to Khrunichev, as the Angara project immediately ran into funding difficulties from the cash-strapped Russian government.[4]

Khrunichev's initial design called for the use of a modified-RD-170 for first stage propulsion and a liquid hydrogen powered second stage. By 1997, the hydrogen-powered second stage had been abandoned in favor of kerosene, and the RD-170 was replaced with a modular design which would be powered by the new RD-191, a one-chamber engine derived from the four-chamber RD-170. In late 1997 Khrunichev was given approval from the Russian government to proceed with their new design, which would both be able to replace the ICBM-based Dnepr, Tsyklon, and Rokot with its smaller variants, as well as be able to launch satellites into geostationary orbit from Plesetsk with the Proton-class Angara A5.[5] This new modular rocket would require construction of a new launch pad.

By 2004, the design of Angara had taken shape and the project proceeded with development of the launchers. In 2008, NPO Energomash, the builder of the RD-191, reported that the engine had completed development and burn tests and was ready for manufacturing and delivery,[6] and in January, 2009 the first completed Angara first stage was delivered to Khrunichev.[7] The next year Vladimir Nesterov, Director-General of Khrunichev, announced that the first flight test of Angara would be scheduled for 2013,[8] and 2013 the first prototype Angara rocket arrived in Plesetsk.[9] On July 9, 2014, first suborbital test flight of the Angara from the northern Plesetsk Cosmodrome took place successfully, 22 years after Angara's original conception.[10][11][12]

Vehicle description[edit]

URM-1: first stage and boosters[edit]

The Universal Rocket Module (URM-1) forms the core of every Angara vehicle. In the Angara A5, four additional URM-1s act as boosters. Each URM-1 is powered by a single NPO Energomash RD-191 burning liquid oxygen and RP-1 (kerosene).[13]

The RD-191 is a single-chamber engine derived from the four-chamber RD-170, originally developed for the boosters powering the Energia launch vehicle. Zenit's four-chamber RD-171 and the dual-chamber RD-180 powering ULA's Atlas V are also derivatives of the RD-170, as is the RD-193 proposed as a replacement for the 1970s-era NK-33 powering the first stage of the Soyuz 2-1v. The RD-191 is capable of throttling down to at least 30%, allowing core URM-1 stages to conserve propellant until booster URM-1 separation.[14]

The URM-1 consists of a liquid oxygen tank at the top, followed by an intertank structure containing flight control and telemetry equipment, with the kerosene tank below that. At the base of the module is a propulsion bay containing engine gimballing equipment for vehicle pitch and yaw and thrusters for roll control.[15]

URM-2: second stage[edit]

The second stage of the Angara, designated URM-2, uses one KB Khimavtomatika RD-0124A engine also burning liquid oxygen and kerosene. The RD-0124A is nearly identical to the RD-0124 currently powering the second stage of Soyuz-2, designated Block I. This stage has a diameter of 3.6 meters for the Angara A5 and other proposed variants. The Angara 1.2 will fly a smaller RD-0124A-powered URM-2, which may be 2.66 meters to maintain commonality with Block I[16] or stretched to 2.9 meters to maintain a consistent diameter with URM-1.[17]

Third stages[edit]

Angara 1.2 will not use a third stage, nor will Angara A5 when delivering payloads to low orbits.[13] For higher energy orbits such as GTO, Angara A5 will use the Briz-M upper stage (currently used for the Proton-M rocket), powered by one S5.98M burning N2O4 and UDMH, or eventually a new cryogenic upper stage, the KVTK. This stage will use the LH2/LOX powered RD-0146D and allow Angara A5 to bring up to two tonnes more mass to GTO.[13]

Variants[edit]

Angara mock-ups at the MAKS 2009 airshow near Moscow

Angara 1.2[edit]

The smallest Angara under development is the Angara 1.2, which consists of one URM-1 core and a modified Block I second stage. It has a lift-off mass of 171 tonnes and can deliver 3.8 tonnes of payload to a 200 km x 60° orbit.[18][16]

Angara 1.2PP[edit]

A modified Angara 1.2, called Angara 1.2PP (Angara-1.2 pervyy polyot meaning Angara-1.2 first flight), made Angara's inaugural suborbital flight on July 9, 2014. This flight lasted 22 minutes and carried a mass simulator weighing 1,430 kilograms (3,150 lb).[19] Angara 1.2PP weighed 171,000 kilograms (377,000 lb) and consisted of a URM-1 core stage and a partially fueled 3.6 m URM-2 allowing all components of Angara A5 to be flight tested before its first launch, expected later in 2014.[20]

Angara A5[edit]

The second Angara expected to be developed is the Angara A5, which will use one URM-1 core and four URM-1 boosters, the enlarged 3.6m URM-2 second stage, and an upper stage, either the Briz-M or the KVTK[13] Weighing 773 tonnes at lift-off, Angara A5 will have a payload capacity of 24.5 tonnes to a 200 km x 60° orbit. Angara A5 will be able to deliver 5.4 tonnes to GTO with Briz-M, or 7.5 tonnes to the same orbit with KVTK.[18]

In the Angara A5, the four URM-1s used as a boosters operate at full thrust for approximately 214 seconds, then separate, while the URM-1 forming the vehicle's core is operated at full thrust for lift off, then throttled down to 30% to conserve propellant. The core is throttled back up after the boosters have separated and continues burning for another 110 seconds.[14]

Proposed versions[edit]

Angara 1.1[edit]

Initial plans called for an even smaller Angara 1.1 using a Briz-KM as a second stage, with a payload capacity of 2 tonnes. This version was cancelled as it fell into the same payload class as the Soyuz 2-1v, which made its debut flight in 2013.[16]

Angara A3[edit]

The Angara A3 would consist of one URM-1 core, two URM-1 boosters, the 3.6m URM-2, and an optional Briz-M or hydrogen powered upper stage for high energy orbits. The hydrogen powered stage for this vehicle, called RCAF would be smaller than the Angara A5's KVTK. This vehicle has no current plans for use since its payload class (14.6 tonnes to 200 km x 60°, 2.4 tonnes to GTO with Briz-M or 3.6 tonnes with a hydrogen upper stage)[18] is mostly covered by the Soyuz-2, but could be developed as a replacement for Zenit.[21]

Angara A5P[edit]

Khrunichev has proposed an Angara A5 capable of launching a new crewed spacecraft weighing up to 18 tonnes: the Angara 5P. This version would have 4 URM-1s as boosters surrounding a sustainer core URM-1 but lack a second stage, relying on the spacecraft to complete orbital insertion from a slightly suborbital trajectory, much like the Space Shuttle or Buran. This has the advantage of allowing all engines to be lit and checked out while on the ground, eliminating the possibility of an engine failing to start after staging. The RD-191 engines may also be operated at reduced thrust to improve safety.[4][22]

Angara A7[edit]

Proposals exist for a super-heavy Angara A7, weighing 1133 tonnes and capable of putting 35 tonnes into a 200 km x 60° orbit, or delivering 12.5 tonnes to GTO with an enlarged KVTK-A7 as a second stage in place of the URM-2.[18] There are no current plans to develop this vehicle as it would require a larger core URM-1 to carry more propellant and would have to await the development of the hydrogen powered engine for KVTK. The Angara A7 would also require a different launch pad.[23][24]

Baikal[edit]

Together with NPO Molniya, Khrunichev has also proposed a reusable URM-1 booster named Baikal. The URM-1 would be fitted with a wing, an empennage, a landing gear, a return flight engine and attitude control thrusters, to enable the rocket to return to an airfield after completing its mission.[25]

Specifications[edit]

In development[edit]

Version Angara 1.2 Angara A5
First stage 1xURM-1 5xURM-1
Second stage Modified Block I URM-2
Third stage (not used for LEO) Briz-M/KVTK[26]
Thrust (at sea level) 1.92 MN 9.61 MN
Launch weight 171.5 t 759 t
Height (maximal) 41.5 m 55.4 m
Payload (LEO 200 km) 3.8 t 24.5 t
Payload (GTO) 5.4/7.5 t
Payload (GEO) 3/4.6 t

Cancelled or proposed[edit]

Version Angara 1.1

(Cancelled)

Angara A3

(Proposed)

Angara A5P

(Proposed)

Angara A7P

(Proposed)

Angara A7V

(Proposed)

First stage 1xURM-1 3xURM-1 5xURM-1 7xURM-1 7xURM-1
Second stage Briz-KM Modified Block I
Third stage (not used for LEO) Briz-M/RCAF[26] KVTK-A7[26] KVTK-A7[26]
Thrust (at sea level) 1.92 MN 5.77 MN 9.61 MN 13.44 MN 13.44 MN
Launch weight 149 t 481 t 713 t 1,125 t 1,184 t
Height (maximal) 34.9 m 45.8 m  ?  ?  ?
Payload (LEO 200 km) 2.0 t 14.6 t 18.0 t 36.0 t 40.5 t
Payload (GTO) 2.4/3.6 t  ?
Payload (GEO) 1.0/2.0 t 7.5 t 9 t

Testing and manufacturing[edit]

The production of the Universal Rocket Modules and the Briz-M upper stages will take place at the Khrunichev subsidiary Production Corporation Polyot in Omsk. In 2009, Polyot invested over 771.4 million RUB (about $25 million) in Angara production lines.[4] Design and testing of the RD-191 engine was done by NPO Energomash, while its mass production will take place at the company Proton-PM in Perm.[4]

Launches[edit]

Facilities[edit]

Angara will primarily be launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, and later at the Vostochny Cosmodrome under construction in Eastern Russia. Commercial launches of Angara A5 may also take place from Baikonur Cosmodrome, where the lower inclination would allow slightly higher payloads to be placed in orbit.[2] This would allow the phase out of Proton, a rocket whose operation Kazakhstan has objected to, due to its use of large amounts of highly toxic UDMH and N2O4 and reliability issues.[27]

Launch log[edit]

Date/Time (UTC) Configuration Serial number Launch pad Outcome
Payload Separation orbit Operator Function
Remarks
9 July 2014
12:00
Angara 1.2PP Plesetsk Cosmodrome Area 35 Start 1 Successful
1,430 kg (3,150 lb), Boilerplate[19] suborbital
Non-standard Angara 1.2PP allowed flight testing of both URM-1 and URM-2

Related projects[edit]

The South Korean launch vehicle Naro-1 used a first stage derived from Angara's URM-1 (fitted with a lower-thrust version of the RD-191 engine called RD-151). The vehicle made its first flight on August 25, 2009. The flight was not successful, but the first stage operated as expected. A second launch on June 10, 2010 ended in failure, when contact with the rocket was lost 136 seconds after launch. The Joint Failure Review Board failed to come to a consensus on the cause of the failure.[28] The third flight on January 30, 2013 successfully reached orbit.

Comparable rockets[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Angara". Spaceflight101. Retrieved July 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "Kazakhstan Finally Ratifies Baikonur Rental Deal With Russia". SpaceDaily. Apr 12, 2010. Retrieved July 2014. 
  3. ^ Zak, Anatoly (July 7, 2014). "Origin of the Angara". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved July 11, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d Vorontsov, Dmitri; Igor Afanasyev (2009-11-10). "Angara getting ready for launch". Russia CIS Observer 3 (26). Archived from the original on 1 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-03. 
  5. ^ Zak, Anatoly (July 9, 2014). "Building Angara". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved July 11, 2014. 
  6. ^ "A new engine is ready for Angara" (in Russian). RU. 2008-09-05. 
  7. ^ "URM-1 is being prepared for the burn tests (in Russian)". 2009-01-29. 
  8. ^ "Interview with Vladimir Nesterov, Director-General, Khrunichev Space Center". Khrunichev. RU: Marker. 2011-01-13. 
  9. ^ Preparations of the first Angara launch (RussianSpaceWeb.com)
  10. ^ Stephen Clark (9 July 2014). "First Angara rocket launched on suborbital test flight". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  11. ^ Sample, Ian (9 July 2014). "Russia test launches first new space rocket since Soviet era". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  12. ^ "Russia's Angara rocket 'makes debut'" Jonathan Amos, BBC News, July 9, 2014
  13. ^ a b c d "Angara Launch Vehicles Family". Khrunichev. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  14. ^ a b "Angara A5". Spaceflight 101. Retrieved July 2014. 
  15. ^ Zak, Anatoly. "URM-1". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved July 2014. 
  16. ^ a b c "Angara 1.2". Spaceflight 101. Retrieved July 2014. 
  17. ^ "Angara URM-2". Retrieved July 2014. 
  18. ^ a b c d "Angara Launch Vehicles Family". khrunichev.ru. Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center. Retrieved July 2014. 
  19. ^ a b "Angara, Russia’s brand-new launch vehicle, is successfully launched from Plesetsk". Khrunichev. Retrieved 11 July 2014. 
  20. ^ "Angara rocket launches on maiden flight". NASASpaceflight.com. July 9, 2014. Retrieved July 9, 2014. 
  21. ^ "Angara A2". Spaceflight 101. Retrieved July 2014. 
  22. ^ "Angara-5P". RussianSpaceWeb. Oct 2013. Retrieved July 2014. 
  23. ^ "Angara A7". Spaceflight 101. Retrieved July 2014. 
  24. ^ "Angara-7". Retrieved July 2014. 
  25. ^ "Baikal Reusable Launch Vehicle". Khrunichev. Retrieved 2010-01-03. 
  26. ^ a b c d "KVTK" (in Russian). RU: Khrunichev. 
  27. ^ "Russia Reviews Proton Breeze M Reliability". Aviation Week. Mar 19, 2013. 
  28. ^ Probe into failed launch, KBS World

External links[edit]