Angela Dorothea Merkel (German: [aŋˈɡeːla doʁoˈteːa ˈmɛʁkl̩] ( ); née Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician and a former research scientist, who has been the Chancellor of Germany since 2005 and the leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000. She is the first woman to hold either office, the first German Chancellor to be born after World War II, and the first post-reunification Chancellor to be raised in the former East Germany (though she was actually born in the former West Germany).
Having earned a doctorate as a physical chemist, Merkel entered politics in the wake of the Revolutions of 1989, briefly serving as the deputy spokesperson for the first democratically elected East German Government in 1990. Following the German reunification in 1990, she was elected to the Bundestag for Stralsund-Nordvorpommern-Rügen in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, a seat she has held ever since. She was later appointed as the Federal Minister for Women and Youth in 1991 under Chancellor Helmut Kohl, and became the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety in 1994, serving until 1998. After the CDU/CSU coalition was defeated in 1998, she was elected Secretary-General of the CDU, before being elected the party's first ever woman as leader in 2000.
Following the 2005 federal election, she was appointed Germany's first female Chancellor at the head of a grand coalition consisting of her own CDU party, its Bavarian sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU), and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). In the 2009 federal election, the CDU obtained the largest share of the vote, and Merkel was able to form a coalition government with the support of the CSU, and the Free Democratic Party (FDP). At the 2013 federal election, Merkel led the CDU/CSU to a landslide victory with 41.5% of the vote and formed a second grand coalition with the SPD, after the FDP lost all of its representation in the Bundestag.
In 2007, Merkel was President of the European Council and chaired the G8, the second woman (after Margaret Thatcher) to do so. She played a central role in the negotiation of the Treaty of Lisbon and the Berlin Declaration. One of her priorities was also to strengthen transatlantic economic relations by signing the agreement for the Transatlantic Economic Council on 30 April 2007. Merkel is seen as playing a crucial role in managing the financial crisis at the European and international level, and has been referred to as "the decider." In domestic policy, health care reform and problems concerning future energy development have been major issues of her tenure.
Angela Merkel has been described as the de facto leader of the European Union, and was ranked as the world's second most powerful person by Forbes magazine in 2013, the highest ranking ever achieved by a woman, and is now ranked fifth. On 26 March 2014, she became the longest-serving incumbent head of government in the European Union. On 28 May 2014, she was named the most powerful woman in the world, also by Forbes.
- 1 Background and early life
- 2 Early political career
- 3 Leader of the Opposition
- 4 Chancellor of Germany
- 5 Cabinets
- 6 Personal life
- 7 Honours and awards
- 8 Comparisons
- 9 Controversies
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Background and early life
Merkel was born Angela Dorothea Kasner in Hamburg, West Germany, the daughter of Horst Kasner (1926–2011), a native of Berlin, and his wife Herlind, born in 1928 in Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) as Herlind Jentzsch, a teacher of English and Latin. Her mother was the daughter of the Danzig politician Willi Jentzsch and maternal granddaughter of the city clerk of Elbing (now Elbląg, Poland) Emil Drange. Herlind Jentzsch was once a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany and briefly served as a member of the municipal council in Templin following the German reunification. Merkel has Polish ancestry through her paternal grandfather, Ludwig Kasner, a German national of Polish origin from Posen (now Poznań). The family's original name Kaźmierczak was Germanized to Kasner in 1930.
Merkel's father was born a Catholic, but the Kasner family converted to Lutheranism after some years, and he studied Lutheran theology in Heidelberg and, afterward, in Hamburg. In 1954 her father received a pastorate at the church in Quitzow (near Perleberg in Brandenburg), which then was in East Germany, and the family moved to Templin. Thus Merkel grew up in the countryside 80 km (50 mi) north of East Berlin.
Like most young people in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), Merkel was a member of the Free German Youth (FDJ), the official youth movement sponsored by the ruling Socialist Unity Party. Although membership was nominally voluntary, those who did not join found it all but impossible to be admitted to higher education. She did not take part in the secular coming of age ceremony Jugendweihe, however, which was common in East Germany, and was confirmed instead. Later, at the Academy of Sciences, she became a member of the FDJ district board and secretary for "Agitprop" (Agitation and Propaganda). Merkel claimed that she was secretary for culture. When Merkel's one-time FDJ district chairman contradicted her, she insisted that: "According to my memory, I was secretary for culture. But what do I know? I believe I won't know anything when I'm 80." Merkel's progress in the compulsory Marxism–Leninism course was graded only genügend (sufficient, passing grade) in 1983 and 1986.
At school, she learned to speak Russian fluently, and was awarded prizes for her proficiency in Russian and Mathematics. Merkel was educated in Templin and at the University of Leipzig, where she studied physics from 1973 to 1978. While a student, she participated in the reconstruction of the ruin of the Moritzbastei, a project students initiated to create their own club and recreation facility on campus. Such an initiative was unprecedented in the GDR of that period, and initially resisted by the University of Leipzig, however, with backing of the local leadership of the SED party, the project was allowed to proceed. Merkel worked and studied at the Central Institute for Physical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin-Adlershof from 1978 to 1990. After being awarded a doctorate (Dr. rer. nat.) for her thesis on quantum chemistry, she worked as a researcher and published several papers.
In 1989, Merkel got involved in the growing democracy movement after the fall of the Berlin Wall, joining the new party Democratic Awakening. Following the first (and only) multi-party election of the East German state, she became the deputy spokesperson of the new pre-unification caretaker government under Lothar de Maizière. In April 1990, the Democratic Awakening merged with the East German CDU, which in turn merged with its western counterpart after reunification.
Early political career
Merkel stood for election at the 1990 federal election, the first since reunification, and was elected to the Bundestag for the constituency of Stralsund – Nordvorpommern – Rügen, which is in the district of Vorpommern-Rügen. She has won re-election for this constituency at the six federal elections since. After her first election, she was almost immediately appointed to the Cabinet, serving as Minister for Women and Youth under Chancellor Helmut Kohl. In 1994, she was promoted to becoming Minister for the Environment and Nuclear Safety, which gave her greater political visibility and a platform from which to build her political career. As one of Kohl's protégées and his youngest Cabinet Minister, she was frequently referred to by Kohl as "mein Mädchen" ("my girl").
Leader of the Opposition
After the Kohl Government was defeated at the 1998 election, Merkel was appointed Secretary-General of the CDU, a key position as the party was no longer part of the federal government. Merkel oversaw a string of CDU election victories in six out of seven state elections in 1999, breaking the long-standing SPD-Green hold on the Bundesrat. Following a party funding scandal which compromised many leading figures of the CDU, including Kohl himself and his successor as CDU Leader, Wolfgang Schäuble, Merkel criticised her former mentor publicly and advocated a fresh start for the party without him. She was subsequently elected to replace Schäuble, becoming the first female leader of a German party on 10 April 2000. Her election surprised many observers, as her personality offered a contrast to the party she had been elected to lead; Merkel is a centrist Protestant originating from predominantly Protestant northern Germany, while the CDU is a male-dominated, socially conservative party with strongholds in western and southern Germany, and its Bavarian sister party, the CSU, has deep Catholic roots.
Following Merkel's election as CDU Leader, she enjoyed considerable popularity among the German population and polls indicated that many Germans would like to see her become Chancellor Gerhard Schröder's main challenger in the 2002 election. However she was subsequently outmaneuvered politically by CSU Leader Edmund Stoiber, to whom she eventually ceded the privilege of challenging Schröder. He went on to squander a large lead in opinion polls to lose the election by a razor-thin margin. After Stoiber's defeat in 2002, in addition to her role as CDU Leader, Merkel became Leader of the Opposition in the Bundestag; Friedrich Merz, who had held the post prior to the 2002 election, was eased out to make way for Merkel.
Merkel supported a substantial reform agenda concerning Germany's economic and social system and was considered to be more pro-market than her own party (the CDU); she advocated changes to German labour law, specifically removing barriers to laying off employees and increasing the allowed number of work hours in a week, arguing that existing laws made the country less competitive because companies cannot easily control labour costs at times when business is slow.
Merkel advocated a strong transatlantic partnership and German-American friendship. In the spring of 2003, defying strong public opposition, Merkel came out in favour of the U.S. invasion of Iraq, describing it as "unavoidable" and accusing Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of anti-Americanism. She criticised the government's support for the accession of Turkey to the European Union and favoured a "privileged partnership" instead. In doing so, she reflected public opinion that grew more hostile toward Turkish membership of the European Union.
On 30 May 2005, Merkel won the CDU/CSU nomination as challenger to Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of the SPD in the 2005 national elections. Her party began the campaign with a 21 point lead over the SPD in national opinion polls, although her personal popularity lagged behind that of the incumbent. However, the CDU/CSU campaign suffered when Merkel, having made economic competence central to the CDU's platform, confused gross and net income twice during a televised debate. She regained some momentum after she announced that she would appoint Paul Kirchhof, a former judge at the German Constitutional Court and leading fiscal policy expert, as Minister of Finance.
Merkel and the CDU lost ground after Kirchhof proposed the introduction of a flat tax in Germany, again undermining the party's broad appeal on economic affairs and convincing many voters that the CDU's platform of deregulation was designed to benefit only the rich. This was compounded by Merkel proposing to increase VAT to reduce Germany's deficit and fill the gap in revenue from a flat tax. The SPD were able to increase their support simply by pledging not to introduce flat taxes or increase VAT. Although Merkel's standing recovered after she distanced herself from Kirchhof's proposals, she remained considerably less popular than Schröder, and the CDU's lead was down to 9% on the eve of the election.
On 18 September 2005, Merkel's CDU/CSU and Schröder's SPD went head-to-head in the national elections, with the CDU/CSU winning 35.3% (CDU 27.8%/CSU 7.5%) of the second votes to the SPD's 34.2%. Neither the SPD-Green coalition nor the CDU/CSU and its preferred coalition partners, the Free Democratic Party, held enough seats to form a majority in the Bundestag, and both Schröder and Merkel claimed victory. A grand coalition between the CDU/CSU and SPD faced the challenge that both parties demanded the chancellorship. However, after three weeks of negotiations, the two parties reached a deal whereby Merkel would become Chancellor and the SPD would hold 8 of the 16 seats in the cabinet. The coalition deal was approved by both parties at party conferences on 14 November 2005. Merkel was elected Chancellor by the majority of delegates (397 to 217) in the newly assembled Bundestag on 22 November 2005, but 51 members of the governing coalition voted against her.
Reports had indicated that the grand coalition would pursue a mix of policies, some of which differ from Merkel's political platform as leader of the opposition and candidate for Chancellor. The coalition's intent was to cut public spending whilst increasing VAT (from 16 to 19%), social insurance contributions and the top rate of income tax.
Merkel had stated that the main aim of her government would be to reduce unemployment, and that it is this issue on which her government will be judged.
Chancellor of Germany
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
On 22 November 2005, Merkel assumed the office of Chancellor of Germany following a stalemate election that resulted in a grand coalition with the SPD. She was re-elected in 2009 with a larger majority and was able to form a governing coalition with the FDP. In the election of September 2013 the CDU/CSU parties emerged as winners, but they need a coalition partner to form the Government.
In October 2010, Merkel told a meeting of younger members of her conservative Christian Democratic Union (CDU) party at Potsdam that attempts to build a multicultural society in Germany had "utterly failed", stating: "The concept that we are now living side by side and are happy about it does not work" and "we feel attached to the Christian concept of mankind, that is what defines us. Anyone who doesn't accept that is in the wrong place here." She continued to say that immigrants should integrate and adopt Germany's culture and values. This has added to a growing debate within Germany on the levels of immigration, its effect on Germany and the degree to which Muslim immigrants have integrated into German society.
On 25 September 2007, Merkel met the 14th Dalai Lama for "private and informal talks" in Berlin in the Chancellery amid protest from China. China afterwards cancelled separate talks with German officials, including talks with Justice Minister Brigitte Zypries.
One of Merkel's priorities involved strengthening transatlantic economic relations - she signed the agreement for the Transatlantic Economic Council on 30 April 2007 at the White House. The Council, co-chaired by an EU and a US official, aims at removing barriers to trade in a further integrated transatlantic free-trade area. This project has been described as ultra-liberal by the French left-wing politician Jean-Luc Mélenchon, fearing a transfer of sovereignty from citizens to multinationals and an alignment of the European Union on the American foreign policy and institutions.
Der Spiegel reported that tensions between Chancellor Merkel and U.S. President Barack Obama eased during a meeting between the two leaders in June 2009. Commenting on a White House Press Conference held after the meeting, Spiegel stated, "Of course the rather more reserved chancellor couldn't really keep up with [Obama's]...charm offensive," but to reciprocate for Obama's "good natured" diplomacy, "she gave it a go...by mentioning the experiences of Obama's sister in Heidelberg, making it clear that she had read his autobiography".
Merkel has visited Israel four times. On 16 March 2008, Merkel arrived in Israel to mark the 60th anniversary of the Jewish state. She was greeted at the airport by Prime Minister Ehud Olmert, an honor guard and many of the country's political and religious leaders, including most of the Israeli Cabinet. Until then, U.S. President George W. Bush had been the only world leader Olmert had bestowed with the honor of greeting at the airport. Merkel spoke before Israel's parliament, the only foreigner who was not a head of state to have done so, but this provoked rumbles of opposition from Israeli MPs on the far right. At the time, Merkel was also both the President of the European Council and the chair of the G8. Merkel has supported Israeli diplomatic initiatives, opposing the Palestinian bid for membership at the UN. However, Merkel requested settlement building continued beyond the Green Line should stop, and disagreed with the Israeli government's behavior. Merkel's latest visit to Israel was on February 25–27, 2014. During her visit, Merkel was awarded Israel's highest civilian award by President Shimon Peres, for her "unwavering commitment to Israel's security and the fight against anti-Semitism and racism."
Merkel and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh made a "Joint Declaration" emphasising the Indo-German strategic partnership in 2006. It turned the focus of future cooperation onto the fields of energy, science and technology, and defence. A similar Declaration, signed during Merkel’s visit to India in 2007, noted the substantial progress made in Indo-German relations and set ambitious goals for their development in the future. The relationship with India on the basis of cooperation and partnership was further strengthened with Merkel's visit to India in 2011. At the invitation of the Indian government, the two countries held their first intergovernmental consultations in New Delhi. These consultations set a new standard in the implementation of the strategic partnership, as India became only the third non-European country with which Germany has had this nature of comprehensive consultations. India became the first Asian country to hold a joint cabinet meeting with Germany during Merkel's state visit.
The Indian government presented the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding for the year 2009 to Merkel. A statement issued by the Government of India stated that the award "recognises her personal devotion and enormous efforts for sustainable and equitable development, for good governance and understanding and for the creation of a world better positioned to handle the emerging challenges of the 21st century."
In recognition of the importance of China to the German economy, by 2014 Merkel had led seven trade delegations to China since assuming office in 2005. The same year, in March, China's President Xi visited Germany.
Following major falls in worldwide stock markets in September 2008, the German government stepped in to assist the mortgage company Hypo Real Estate with a bailout which was agreed on October 6, with German banks to contribute €30 billion and the Bundesbank €20 billion to a credit line.
On 4 October 2008, a Saturday, following the Irish Government's decision to guarantee all deposits in private savings accounts, a move she strongly criticised, Merkel said there were no plans for the German Government to do the same. The following day, Merkel stated that the government would guarantee private savings account deposits, after all. However, two days later, on 6 October 2008, it emerged that the pledge was simply a political move that would not be backed by legislation. Other European governments eventually either raised the limits or promised to guarantee savings in full.
Midway through her second term, Merkel's approval plummeted in Germany, resulting in heavy losses in state elections for her party. A poll in August 2011 found her coalition with only 36% support compared to a rival potential coalition which had 51%. However, she scored well on her handling of the recent euro crisis (69% rated her performance as good rather than poor), and her approval rating reached an all-time high of 77% in February 2012 and again in July 2014.
On 31 October 2005, after the defeat of his favoured candidate for the position of Secretary General of the SPD, Franz Müntefering indicated that he would resign as Chairman of the party in November, which he did. Ostensibly responding to this, Edmund Stoiber (CSU), who was originally nominated for the Economics and Technology post, announced his withdrawal on 1 November 2005. While this was initially seen as a blow to Merkel's attempt at forming a viable coalition and cabinet, the manner in which Stoiber withdrew earned him much ridicule and severely undermined his position as a Merkel rival. Separate conferences of the CDU, CSU, and SPD approved the proposed Cabinet on 14 November 2005.
In 2013, Merkel won one of the most decisive victories in German history, achieving the best result for the CDU/CSU since reunification and coming within five seats of the first absolute majority since 1957. However, with the FDP, its preferred coalition partner, failing to enter parliament for the first time since 1949, the CDU/CSU turned to the SPD to form the third grand coalition in postwar German history and the second under Merkel's leadership.
The third cabinet of Angela Merkel was sworn in on 17 December 2013.
In 1977, Angela Kasner married physics student Ulrich Merkel and took his surname. The marriage ended in divorce in 1982. Her second and current husband is quantum chemist and professor Joachim Sauer, who has largely remained out of the media spotlight. They first met in 1981, became a couple later and married privately on 30 December 1998. She has no children, but Sauer has two adult sons from a previous marriage. She is a fervent football (soccer) fan and has been known to listen to games while in the Bundestag and to frequent games of the national team in her official capacity.
|Ancestors of Angela Merkel|
Honours and awards
- National honours and medals
- Italy: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (21/03/2006).
- Germany: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (January 2008).
- USA: Presidential Medal of Freedom (15 February 2011), awarded by U.S. President Barack Obama. The medal is presented to people who have made an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, or cultural or other significant public or private endeavors.
- India : Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding (2009)
- Norway : Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit (15/10/2007).
- India : Indira Gandhi Peace Prize (2013)
- Israel : President's Medal (25/02/2014).
- Portugal Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Henry
- Peru Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun of Peru
- Saudi Arabia Order of Abdulaziz Al Saud
- Honorary degree
- In 2007, Merkel was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
- She was also awarded the honorary doctorate from Leipzig University in June 2008,
- University of Technology in Wrocław (Poland) in September 2008 and Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Romania on 12 October 2010 for her historical contribution to the European unification and for her global role in renewing international cooperation.
- On 23 May 2013, she was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Radboud University Nijmegen.
- In November 2013, she was awarded the Honorary Doctorate (Honoris Causa) title by the University of Szeged.
- Other awards
- In 2006, Angela Merkel was awarded the Vision for Europe Award for her contribution toward greater European integration.
- She received the Karlspreis (Charlemagne Prize) in 2008 for distinguished services to European unity.
- In March 2008 she received the B'nai B'rith Europe Award of Merit.
- Merkel topped Forbes magazine's list of "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women" in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014.
- New Statesman named Angela Merkel in "The World's 50 Most Influential Figures" 2010.
- On 16 June 2010, the American Institute for Contemporary German Studies at Johns Hopkins University in Washington D.C. awarded Chancellor Merkel its Global Leadership Award (AICGS) in recognition of her outstanding dedication to strengthening German-American relations.
- On 21 September 2010, the Leo Baeck Institute, a research institution in New York City devoted to the history of German-speaking Jewry, awarded Angela Merkel the Leo Baeck Medal. The medal was presented by former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury and current Director of the Jewish Museum Berlin, W. Michael Blumenthal, who cited Merkel's support of Jewish cultural life and the integration of minorities in Germany.
- On 31 May 2011, she received the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for the year 2009 from the Indian government. She received the award for International understanding.
- Forbes Magazine's List of The World's Most Powerful People ranked Merkel as the world's second most powerful person in 2012, the highest ranking achieved by a woman in the list's short history (it began in 2009), though she was reduced to 5th in 2013.
- On 28 November 2012, she received the Heinz Galinski Award in Berlin, Germany.
As a female politician from a centre right party who is also a scientist, Merkel has been compared by many in the English-language press to former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Some have referred to her as "Iron Lady", "Iron Girl", and even "The Iron Frau" (all alluding to Thatcher, whose nickname was "The Iron Lady"—Thatcher also had a science degree: an Oxford University degree in chemistry). Political commentators have debated the precise extent to which their agendas are similar. Later in her tenure, Merkel acquired the nickname "Mutti" (a German familiar form of 'mother'), said by Der Spiegel to refer to an idealised mother figure from the 1950s and 1960s. She has also been called the "Iron Chancellor", in reference to Otto von Bismarck.
In addition to being the first female German chancellor, the first to have grown up in the former East Germany (though she was born in the West), and the youngest German chancellor since the Second World War, Merkel is also the first born after World War II, and the first chancellor of the Federal Republic with a background in natural sciences. She studied physics; her predecessors studied law, business or history or were military officers, among others.
Merkel has been criticised for being personally present and involved at the M100 Media Award handover to Danish cartoonist Kurt Westergaard, who had triggered the Muhammad cartoons controversy. This happened at a time of fierce emotional debate in Germany over a book by the former Deutsche Bundesbank executive and finance senator of Berlin Thilo Sarrazin, which was critical of the Muslim immigration. At the same time she condemned a planned burning of Korans by a fundamental pastor in Florida. The Central Council of Muslims in Germany and the Left Party (Die Linke) as well as the German Green Party criticised the action by the centre-right chancellor. The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung newspaper wrote: "This will probably be the most explosive moment of her chancellorship so far." Others have praised Merkel and called it a brave and bold move for the cause of freedom of speech.
Merkel's position towards the negative statements by Thilo Sarrazin with regard to the integration problems with Arab and Turkish people in Germany has been critical throughout. According to her personal statements, Sarrazin’s approach is "totally unacceptable" and contraproductive to the ongoing problems of integration.
Members of her cabinet and Merkel herself also support state schools enabling Islamic religious instruction (similar to the provision of denominational Christian religious instruction).
The term alternativlos (German for "without an alternative"), which was frequently used by Angela Merkel to describe her measures addressing the European sovereign-debt crisis, was named the Un-word of the Year 2010 by a jury of linguistic scholars. The wording was criticised to be undemocratic, as any discussion on Merkel's politics would thus be deemed unnecessary or undesirable. The expression is credited for the name of the political party Alternative for Germany, which was founded in 2013.
Her trademark Merkel-Raute has been described as "probably one of the most recognisable hand gestures in the world". Its political symbolism received mixed reviews, ranging from being prominently used by the CDU during the 2013 election campaign, to accusations of a cult of personality that were brought forth by her opponents.
In July 2013, Merkel defended the surveillance practices of the NSA, and described the United States as "our truest ally throughout the decades". During a visit of U.S. President Barack Obama in Berlin, Merkel said on 19 June 2013 in the context of the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures: "The Internet is Neuland for us all". Using the term for a newly discovered or unexplored land her sentence led to various internet memes and online mockery of Merkel.
Merkel has compared the NSA to the Stasi when it became known that her mobile phone was tapped by that agency. In response Susan Rice pledged that the USA will desist from spying on her personally, but said there would not be a no-espionage agreement between the two countries.
On 18 July 2014 Merkel said trust between Germany and the United States could only be restored by talks between the two, and she would seek to have talks. She reiterated the U.S. remained Germany's most important ally.
In August 2014, Merkel visited Ukraine to show her support for Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko. Human Rights Watch said that "Merkel’s visit is an opportunity for her to denounce violations of international humanitarian law by the Ukrainian military."
- There are two pronunciations of her first name: aŋˈɡeːla (with a long, stressed 'e' and 'aŋɡela with a short e, and the 'a' stressed.Mangold, Max, ed. (1995). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. p. 156. ISBN 978-3-411-20916-3. According to her biographer, Merkel used the former. Langguth, Gerd (2005). Angela Merkel (in German). Munich: dtv. p. 50. ISBN 3-423-24485-2. "Merkel wollte immer mit der Betonung auf dem 'e' Angela genannt werden. (Merkel always wanted her first name to be pronounced with the stress on the 'e'.)"
Newsreaders sometimes use the latter or another variant.
- "Curriculum vitae: Angela Merkel". German Federal Press and Information Office. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2012. "Since 2000 Chairwoman of the Christian Democratic Union . . ."
- "Germany's Merkel begins new term". BBC. 28 October 2009. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- "German Chancellor Angela Merkel makes a hat-trick win in 2013 Elections". Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- "Can Angela Merkel Fix Europe's Economic Crisis?". NPR. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- Balasubramanyam, Ranjitha (16 September 2013). "All Eyes on Berlin". Foreign Policy Journal. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- Gayle, Damien (18 July 2012). "50 Shades of Angela Merkel: German Chancellor's outfits recreated as Pantone colour chart (but none of them are very sexy)". Daily Mail. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- Francis, David (22 September 2013). ""Mama" Merkel May Win Germany, But Not the Euro Zone". The Fiscal Times. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
- Wagele, Elizabeth (16 July 2012). "What Personality Type is Angela Merkel?". Psychology Today. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- "Angela Merkel 'world's most powerful woman'". The Daily Telegraph (London). 24 August 2011.
- "Profile Angela Merkel". Forbes. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women". Forbes. Forbes. Archived from the original on 3 September 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- Langguth, Gerd (August 2005). Angela Merkel. DTV (in German). p. 10. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
- "Merkels Vater gestorben - Termine abgesagt" (in German). newsecho. 3 September 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- "Was an Angela Merkels Mutter vorbildlich ist". Welt Online (in German). 26 September 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2010. "'Nein, in der SPD bin ich nicht mehr.'"
- Kornelius, Stefan (March 2013). Angela Merkel: Die Kanzlerin und ihre Welt (in German). Hoffmann und Campe. p. 7. ISBN 978-3455502916.
- Stefan Kornelius (10 September 2013). "Six things you didn't know about Angela Merkel". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- "The German chancellor's Polish roots". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 27 March 2013.
- "Merkel hat polnische Wurzeln" [Merkel has Polish roots]. Süddeutsche Zeitung. 13 March 2013. Archived from the original on 17 March 2013.
- "Die Schläferin". Der Spiegel (in German). 9 November 2009. Archived from the original on 24 May 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- "Glänzend in Physik, mäßig in der Ideologie". Der Spiegel (in German). 31 January 2010. Archived from the original on 3 February 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2010. ""Nach meiner Erinnerung war ich Kultursekretärin. Aber was weiß ich denn? Ich glaube, wenn ich 80 bin, weiß ich gar nichts mehr", sagt sie"
- Langguth, Gerd (August 2005). Angela Merkel (in German). DTV. p. 50. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
- "Drogenwahn auf der Dauerbaustelle" (in German). Der Spiegel. 27 March 2009. Archived from the original on 31 March 2009. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- Merkel, Angela (1986). Untersuchung des Mechanismus von Zerfallsreaktionen mit einfachem Bindungsbruch und Berechnung ihrer Geschwindigkeitskonstanten auf der Grundlage quantenchemischer und statistischer Methoden (Investigation of the mechanism of decay reactions with single bond breaking and calculation of their velocity constants on the basis of quantum chemical and statistical methods) (in German). Berlin: Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic (dissertation). cited in Langguth, Gerd (August 2005). Angela Merkel (in German). Munich: DTV. p. 109. ISBN 3-423-24485-2. and listed in the Catalogue of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek under subject code 30 (Chemistry)
- Langguth, Gerd (August 2005) . Angela Merkel (in German). Munich: DTV. pp. 112–137. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
- "Kohls unterschätztes Mädchen". Spiegel Online (in German). 30 May 2005. Archived from the original on 1 June 2005. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- "Merkel fordert längere Arbeitszeit". Der Spiegel (in German). 18 May 2003. Archived from the original on 29 May 2003. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- "Merkel: Nuclear phase-out is wrong". World Nuclear News. 10 June 2008. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- Marlies Casier and Joost Jongerden, eds. Nationalisms and Politics in Turkey (2010) p 110
- "Merkel named as German chancellor". BBC News. 10 October 2005. Archived from the original on 23 September 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- "German parties back new coalition". BBC News. 14 November 2005. Archived from the original on 24 November 2005.
- "Merkel becomes German chancellor". BBC News. 22 November 2005. Archived from the original on 9 December 2005.
- "German coalition poised for power". BBC News. 11 November 2005. Archived from the original on 25 November 2005.
- "Merkel defends German reform plan". BBC News. 12 November 2005. Archived from the original on 15 March 2006.
- "Merkel says German multicultural society has failed". BBC News. 17 October 2010. Archived from the original on 17 October 2010.
- "Merkel Says German Multi-Cultural Society Has Failed". Yahoo! News. 17 October 2007. Archived from the original on 18 October 2010. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Zentralrat der Juden kritisiert Seehofer: Debatte ist scheinheilig und hysterisch". Südwestrundfunk (in German). Retrieved 21 October 2010. "Wir fühlen uns dem christlichen Menschenbild verbunden, das ist das, was uns ausmacht. Wer das nicht akzeptiert, der ist bei uns fehl am Platz"[dead link]
- "Germany's charged immigration debate". BBC News. 17 October 2010. Archived from the original on 16 October 2010. Retrieved 2011.
- "Merkel meets with the Dalai Lama". Euronews. Archived from the original on 15 May 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Enterprise policies". European Council. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Jean-Luc Mélenchon: "Le futur grand marché transatlantique"" (in French). Dailymotion. 21 April 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Intervention de Jean-Luc Mélenchon sur la Défense". Dailymotion. 4 April 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "'They're Not Getting any Warmer': Merkel Faces Difficult Talks in Washington". Spiegel Online. 23 June 2009. Archived from the original on 24 June 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- Gregor Peter Schmitz. "A Trans-Atlantic Show of Friendship: Obama Praises His 'Friend Chancellor Merkel'". Spiegel Online. Archived from the original on 28 July 2010. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Dependence on Russian gas worries some – but not all – European countries". The Christian Science Monitor. 6 March 2008. Archived from the original on 8 November 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- "Klitschko, Merkel discuss prospects for signing EU-Ukraine association agreement". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 5 December 2012. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012.
- "Chancellor of Germany goes to Israel". The New York Times. 16 March 2008. Archived from the original on 18 June 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- Roger Boyes (18 March 2008). "German Chancellor Angela Merkel tightens ties for Israel's 60th". The Australian (Berlin). Archived from the original on 21 March 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Friends in high places". The Economist. 19 March 2008. Archived from the original on 22 March 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "Photo Gallery: Merkel Wishes Israel Happy 60th". Spiegel Online. 17 March 2008. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- MacIntyre, Donald (13 March 2008). "Israeli hardliners 'will walk out' when Merkel addresses Knesset in German". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 27 August 2009. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "Merkel: Israel Must Stop Settlement Building". Jewish Federations of North America. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- Keinon, Herb (31 January 2011). "PM, Merkel disagree openly on settlements". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 3 February 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- "Merkel arrives in Israel to talk peace". Haaretz. 24 February 2014. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014.
- "Germany and India - Celebrating 60 Years of Diplomatic relations". India. Archived from the original on 6 October 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- Audrey Kauffmann (31 May 2011). "Angela Merkel in India for joint cabinet meet". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- "Angela Merkel sets off for China to forge new economic ties". Herald Globe. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- Parkin, Brian; Suess, Oliver (6 October 2008). "Hypo Real Gets EU50 Billion Government-Led Bailout". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
- Carter Dougherty. "Germany guarantees all private bank accounts". Forbes. Archived from the original on 23 April 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
- Whitlock, Craig (6 October 2008). "Germany to guarantee Private Bank Accounts". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
- "Bank uncertainty hits UK shares". BBC News. 6 October 2008. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
- Pidd, Helen (21 February 2011). "Angela Merkel's party crushed in Hamburg poll". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 24 February 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- "German opposition hits 11-year high in polls". France 24. 5 August 2011. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- "Union dank Merkel im Umfrage-Aufwind". Stern (in German). 10 February 2012. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- Penfold, Chuck (30 October 2009). "Merkel's new cabinet sworn in". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 1 June 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- "Biographie: Angela Merkel, geb. 1954". DHM. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Joachim Sauer, das Phantom an Merkels Seite". Die Zeit (in German). 14 August 2009. Archived from the original on 16 August 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
- "Das diskrete Gluck". Bild (in German). 28 December 2008. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
- James M Klatell (9 August 2006). "Germany's First Fella, Angela Merkel Is Germany's Chancellor; But Her Husband Stays Out Of The Spotlight". CBS News. Archived from the original on 10 August 2006. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Angela Merkel im Fußballfieber". Focus (in German). 15 March 2013. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- "Kanzlerin Merkel kommt erst wieder zum Finale". Handelsblatt (in German). 23 June 2012. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- "Angela Merkel fractures pelvis in ski fall". BBC News. 6 January 2014. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- "Bundesverdienstkreuz für Merkel" (in German). tagesschau. Archived from the original on 4 February 2008. Retrieved 21 September 2010.
- "Russell among 15 Presidential Medal of Freedom honorees". NBA. 18 November 2010. Archived from the original on 20 November 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Executive Order 11085". Wikisource. Retrieved 1 April 2011. "The Medal may be awarded by the President as provided in this order to any person who has made an especially meritorious contribution to (1), the security or national interests of the United States, or (2) world peace, or (3) cultural or other significant public or private endeavors."
- "Tildelinger av ordener og medaljer". Kongehuset. Archived from the original on 20 November 2010.
- "President Peres awards Germany's Merkel Medal of Distinction". The Jerusalem Post. 25 February 2014. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014.
- "Honorary Doctorates". The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 16 October 2008.
- "Pressemitteilung 2008/106 der Universität Leipzig" (in German). Universität Leipzig. 20 May 2008. Archived from the original on 20 December 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Doktorat honoris causa dla Merkel". RP (in Polish). 24 September 2008. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Universitatea Babes-Bolyai". Web.ubbcluj.ro. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Angela Merkel a primit titlul de Doctor Honoris Causa al Universităţii Babeş-Bolyai". Realitatea TV. 12 October 2010. Archived from the original on 15 October 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Cancelarul Germaniei, Angela Merkel, a primit titlul de Doctor Honoris Causa al UBB Cluj". România Liberă (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 15 October 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Mark Latham (January 5, 2008). "Angela Merkel awarded the Charlemagne Prize". Aachen. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Andrea Riccardi. "Der Karlspreisträger 2009" (in German). Karlspreis.de. Archived from the original on 20 January 2008.
- John P. Reeves. "B'nai B'rith Europe grants Award of Merit to DR. Angela MERKEL". B'nai B'rith Europe. Archived from the original on 20 January 2008. ". . . Dr Angela Merkel Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany was the recipient of a Gold Medal for outstanding services, the B’nai B’rith Europe Award of Merit, being the highest accolade of BBEurope"
- Serafin, Tatiana (31 August 2006). "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #1 Angela Merkel". Forbes. Archived from the original on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2009.
Serafin, Tatiana (30 August 2007). "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #1 Angela Merkel". Forbes. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
Serafin, Tatiana (27 August 2008). "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #1 Angela Merkel". Forbes. Archived from the original on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
Serafin, Tatiana (19 August 2009). "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #1 Angela Merkel". Forbes. Archived from the original on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
"Merkel most powerful woman in world: Forbes". Euronews. 26 August 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
- "Angela Merkel – 50 People Who Matter 2010". Archived from the original on 2 October 2010. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "Chancellor Angela Merkel Receives Global Leadership Award". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Baeck, Leo (22 August 2010). "LBI Presents Leo Baeck Medal to Chancellor Angela Merkel". New York: Leo Baeck Institute. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Angela Merkel Receives Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding". ABC News. 1 June 2011. Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
- Risen, Clay (5 July 2005). "Is Angela Merkel the next Maggie Thatcher?". Slate. Archived from the original on 8 July 2005.
- Kurbjuweit, Dirk (11 March 2009). "Merkel's Dream of a Place in the History Books". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 4 November 2009.
- "The new iron chancellor". The Economist. 26 November 2009. Archived from the original on 24 November 2011.
- Langguth, Gerd (August 2005). Angela Merkel (in German). Munich: DTV. p. 10. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
- "Merkel honours Mohammad cartoonist at press award". Reuters. 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012.
- "The Sarrazin Debate: Germany Is Becoming Islamophobic". Spiegel Online. Archived from the original on 17 September 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Connor, Richard (8 September 2010). "Merkel defends 'Muhammad' cartoonist, condemns Koran-burning". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- BBC: Germany's Central Muslim Council (Zentralrat der Muslime in Deutschland) criticised Mrs. Merkel for attending the award ceremony. 8 September 2010. A ZMD spokesman, Aiman Mazyek, told public broadcaster Deutschlandradio that the Chancellor was honouring someone "who in our eyes kicked our prophet, and therefore kicked all Muslims". He said giving Mr Westergaard the prize in a "highly charged and heated time" was "highly problematic".
- "Merkel honours Danish Muhammad cartoonist Westergaard". BBC News. 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 8 September 2010.
- Christine Buchholz (9 September 2010). "Merkel's affront to Muslims" (in German). Die linke. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Grüne/Bündnis 90 Spokesman Renate Künast: "I wouldn't have done it", said Green Party floor leader Renate Künast. It was true that the right to freedom of expression also applies to cartoons, she said. "But if a chancellor also makes a speech on top of that, it serves to heat up the debate."
- "Award for Danish Muhammad Cartoonist: Merkel Defends Press Freedom, Condemns Koran-Burning". Spiegel Online. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Ehrung des Mohammed-Karikaturisten: Angela Merkels Risiko" (in German). FAZ. 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 8 September 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Merkel: Sarrazin spaltet Gesellschaft" (in German). N24 News. Archived from the original on 3 September 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "REGIERUNGonline – Islamunterricht an Schulen". Bundesregierung. 17 May 2009. Archived from the original on 22 January 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Islam-Unterricht: Hintergründe und Bilder auf". Aktuelle News (in German) (Stern). Archived from the original on 24 May 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Bundesregierung: De Maizière dringt auf Islam-Unterricht an Schulen" (in German). Die Welt Online. Archived from the original on 8 September 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2008.
- "Integration: Schäuble und Muslime planen Islam-Unterricht an deutschen Schulen". Spiegel Online (in German). Archived from the original on 15 March 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
- "Sprachkritik: "Alternativlos" ist das Unwort des Jahres" (in German). Spiegel Online. 18 January 2011. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
- Prantl, Heribert (24 September 2013). "Alternative dank Merkel". Süddeutsche Zeitung. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "'Merkel diamond' takes centre stage in German election campaign". The Guardian. 3 September 2013. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- "German Chancellor Merkel Defends Work of Intelligence Agencies". Der Spiegel. 10 July 2013. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- "Germany's Merkel rejects NSA-Stasi comparison". Associated Press. 10 July 2013. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- Strange, Hannah (20 June 2013). "Angela Merkel refers to internet as 'virgin territory'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Frickel, Claudia (20 June 2013). "Merkel beim Besuch von Obama: Das Netz lacht über Merkels "Internet-Neuland"". Der Focus (Online Version) (in German). Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Traynor, Ian (17 December 2013). "Merkel compared NSA to Stasi in heated encounter with Obama". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "Sensible talks urged by Merkel to restore trust with US". Germany News.Net. Archived from the original on 28 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- "Germany's vice-chancellor backs 'federalization' in Ukraine". Reuters. 23 August 2014. Archived from the original on 23 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- Wenzel Michalski (22 August 2014). "Merkel Shouldn’t Let Ukrainian Abuses Slide". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 25 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- Skard, Torild (2014) "Angela Merkel" in Women of power - half a century of female presidents and prime ministers worldwide, Bristol: Policy Press, ISBN 978-1-44731-578-0
|Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
|Database entry Q567 on Wikidata|
- Official Website of Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (English)
- Merkel's personal website (German)
- Merkel on her party's website (English)
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Angela Merkel at the Internet Movie Database
- Works by or about Angela Merkel in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Al Jazeera English
- Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Bloomberg News
- Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at The Economist
- Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Forbes
- Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Time
- Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at The Wall Street Journal
|Minister of Women and Youth
|Minister of the Environment
|Chancellor of Germany
|Party political offices|
|General Secretary of the Christian Democratic Union
|Leader of the Christian Democratic Union
|Chair of the Group of 8
|Speaker at the College of Europe Opening Ceremony