|Dean of the College of Cardinals|
|Diocese||Diocese of Rome|
S. Maria Nuova (in commendam)
|Appointed||30 April 2005|
|Ordination||23 September 1950
by Umberto Rossi
|Consecration||15 January 1978
by Antonio Samorè
|Created Cardinal||28 June 1991|
23 November 1927 |
Isola d'Asti, Piedmont, Italy
|Motto||ut unum sint|
|Coat of arms|
|Reference style||His Eminence|
|Spoken style||Your Eminence|
|See||Albano (suburbicarian), Ostia (suburbicarian),
S. Maria Nuova (in commendam)
Angelo Raffaele Sodano (born 23 November 1927) is an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who has been Dean of the College of Cardinals since 2005. He was Cardinal Secretary of State from 1990 to 2006, under both popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI. On 27 April 2005, he was elected to succeed Benedict XVI as Dean of the College of Cardinals by his fellow Cardinal Bishops. Sodano was the first person since 1828 to serve simultaneously as Dean and Secretary of State.
The second of six children, Angelo Sodano was born in Isola d'Asti, Piedmont, to Giovanni and Delfina Sodano. His father was a Christian Democrat deputy in the Italian Parliament for three terms from 1948 until 1963. After studying philosophy and theology at the seminary of Asti, Sodano was ordained a priest by Bishop Umberto Rossi on 23 September 1950, and then did pastoral work and taught dogmatic theology at the Asti seminary.
He then furthered his studies in Rome at the Pontifical Gregorian University, from where he obtained a doctorate in theology, and at the Pontifical Lateran University, earning a doctorate in canon law. In 1959 he entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See. He served as secretary in nunciatures in Latin America, and was given the title of monsignor, initially with the rank of Chaplain of His Holiness and later with that of Honorary Prelate. In 1968 he was called to work in the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church in the Vatican.
On 30 November 1977, Sodano, who speaks English, German, Spanish, French and Italian, was appointed a titular archbishop of Nova Caesaris and the apostolic nuncio to Chile, one of the countries where he had served as nunciature secretary. He was ordained a bishop in his native Asti by Cardinal Antonio Samoré on 15 January 1978.
In 1980, together with Cardinal Raúl Silva Henríquez, he tried without success to get Pinochet to allow the return of certain political exiles, and in 1984 he obtained, at the cost of a dispute between the Holy See and the military government of Chile, safe conduct for four members of the Revolutionary Left Movement, who had sought diplomatic asylum in the nunciature, to leave for Ecuador.
In 1987, when Pope John Paul II visited Chile, Pinochet availed of the visit that the Pope regularly paid to a country's head of state to get the Pope to appear with him at a balcony of the presidential palace, although this was not in the agreed program. On the other hand, Sodano arranged a meeting in the nunciature between the Pope and the leaders of the opposition.
Seven Chilean priests then wrote to the Pope to have Sodano removed from his post as Nuncio. What the Pope did in fact in the following year was to appoint Sodano the Holy See's Secretary of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church, a post corresponding to that of a foreign minister, and on 1 December 1990 named him to the highest post in the Roman Curia, that of Secretary of State, creating him Cardinal-Priest of the titular church of S. Maria Nuova on 28 June 1991.
On 27 December 1998, he wrote, at the request of the democratic government of Chile, an official letter to the British prime minister Tony Blair stating that "the Chilean Government considers it an offence to its territorial sovereignty as a nation the fact of being deprived of the power to judge its own citizens" through the detention of Pinochet in Britain.
Secretary of State
On 10 January 1994, Pope John Paul II named Sodano Cardinal Bishop of the suburbicarian see of Albano, and on 30 November 2002, exactly twenty-five years after he was first appointed a bishop, he was elected vice-dean of the College of Cardinals in succession to Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, who became Dean. On Ratzinger's election as Pope in the 2005 conclave, it fell to Sodano to perform the functions allotted to the Dean at the end of the conclave (asking the pope-elect if he accepted the election, and then asking what name the new pope wanted to use) and at Benedict XVI's Papal Inauguration. On 30 April Benedict formally ratified Sodano's election to the position by the suburbicarian Cardinal Bishops. Accordingly the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, proper of the dean, was added to the title of the see of Albano.
Due to the deteriorating health of John Paul II, it was Cardinal Sodano, as Secretary of State, who was the principal celebrant at the funeral Masses for Cardinal John O'Connor and Mother Teresa. When in 2002 Sodano turned 75, John Paul specifically invited him to stay on as Secretary of State, though this is the customary retirement age for heads of major Vatican departments. (There is no retirement age for the Deanship or Vice-Deanship.)
When Pope John Paul II died on 2 April 2005, Sodano, who participated in the 2005 papal conclave, was not generally seen as one of the papabili, the cardinals likely to become the next pope. This was largely due to his advanced age, although he is seven months younger than the cardinal who was eventually elected, Joseph Ratzinger who took the name Benedict XVI, and his lack of experience outside the Roman Curia. During the conclave, because Cardinal Ratzinger the elected cardinal was the Dean, it fell to Sodano as the Sub-Dean to exercise the duties in asking the pope-elect if he accepted his election and by what name he would be called. As the most senior Cardinal-Bishop, Cardinal Sodano also presented Pope Benedict XVI with the Ring of the Fisherman at his papal-inauguration, and along with the protopriest Stephen Kim Sou-hwan and the protodeacon Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez, was one of the three cardinals who made the public profession of obedience to the new pope.
Sodano's position as Secretary of State expired upon the death of John Paul II. But Benedict XVI reappointed him to the position on 21 April 2005, in spite of being past the customary retirement age.
On 22 June 2006, Benedict XVI appointed Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone to replace Sodano as the Secretary of State. Bertone assumed the new office on 15 September 2006.
Sodano turned 80 on 23 November 2007, and is ineligible to participate in any future conclaves, though he remains Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
When Pope Benedict XVI resigned, Sodano as Dean of the College of Cardinals formally summoned the cardinals for the conclave during the sede vacante and also was the principal concelebrant of the Pro eligendo Pontifice mass concelebrated on the morning of the conclave though he did not participate in the actual conclave itself which elected Pope Francis. At the inauguration of the new pope, Sodano, as Dean of the College of Cardinals, formally presented to Pope Francis his Ring of the Fisherman.
Sex abuse cases
Jason Berry writes that Sodano, as John Paul II's secretary of state, "pressured Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, the future Pope Benedict, in two notorious cases," the Hans Hermann Groër case and the Marcial Maciel case, to stop investigations into abuse.
In his address as Dean of the College of Cardinals to Pope Benedict XVI at Easter 2010, Sodano told him: "The people of God are with you and do not allow themselves to be impressed by the petty gossip of the moment, by the trials that sometimes assail the community of believers." Victims of clerical sex abuse interpreted the "petty gossip" remark as a highly inappropriate reference to their complaints.
On 8 May 2010, the Austrian Catholic news agency Kathpress published remarks made by Cardinal Christoph Schönborn in what was supposed to be a private conversation with newspaper editors. The Austrian cardinal criticized Sodano's dismissal of the complaints of sex abuse as "petty gossip" and, in addition, said that he had blocked an investigation that then-Cardinal Ratzinger intended, as head of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, to carry out into accusations against Schönborn's predecessor Cardinal Hans Hermann Groër. Schönborn added: "The days of cover-up are over. For a long while the Church's principle of forgiveness was falsely interpreted and was in favour of those responsible and not the victims."
Honors and awards
- 1995 – Malta : Honorary Companion of Honour of the National Order of Merit (04.02.1995)
- 1988 – Italy : Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (Cavaliere di Gran Croce Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana)
- 1997 – Slovakia : Grand Cross (or 1st Class) of the Order of the White Double Cross
- 2001 – SMOM : Collar of the Order Pro Merito Melitense of the Sovereign Order of Malta
- 2004 – Romania : Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Star of Romania
- 2006 – Poland : Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland
- 2002: House of Savoy: Order of the Most Holy Annunciation (Ordine Supremo della Santissima Annunziata)
- Sodano, el contacto de Chile en el Vaticano in El Mercurio on 21 November 2004. Retrieved 22 September 2008
- Reuters, 4 April 2010: Cardinal defends pope, denounces 'petty gossip'"
- Cardinal tells Pope not to be distracted by 'petty gossip’
- Reuters, 9 May 2010: "Cardinal accuses Vatican official of abuse cover-up"
- Vatican cardinal attacks fellow cardinal for 'covering up' abuse case
- Prime Minister of Malta Website, Honorary Appointments to the National Order of Merit
- Slovak republic website, State honours : 1st Class received in 1997 (click on "Holders of the Order of the 1st Class White Double Cross" to see the holders' table)
Sotero Sanz Villalba
|Apostolic Nuncio to Chile
30 November 1977 – 23 May 1988
|Secretary for Relations with States
1 March 1989 – 1 December 1990
|Cardinal Secretary of State
29 June 1991 – 22 June 2006
Tarcisio Bertone, SDB
|Catholic Church titles|
|Dean of the College of Cardinals
30 April 2005–present