Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma

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Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 C84.4 (ILDS C84.460)
ICD-O: 9705/3[1]
MeSH D007119

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL, sometimes misspelled AILT) (also known as "Angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia"[2]:747) is a mature T-cell lymphoma of blood or lymph vessel immunoblasts characterized by a polymorphous lymph node infiltrate showing a marked increase in follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and high endothelial venules (HEVs) and systemic involvement.[1] It is also known as immunoblastic lymphadenopathy (Lukes-Collins Classification) and AILD-type (lymphogranulomatosis X) T-cell lymphoma (Kiel Classification)[1]

Epidemiology[edit]

The typical patient with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AILT) is either middle-aged or elderly, and no gender preference for this disease has been observed.[1] AILT comprises 15-20% of peripheral T-cell lymphomas and 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas.[3]

Clinical features[edit]

Etiology[edit]

This disease was originally thought to be a premalignant condition, termed angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, and this atypical reactive lymphadenopathy carried a risk for transformation into a lymphoma. Currently, it is postulated that the originating cell for this disease is a mature (post-thymic) CD4+ T-cell that arises de novo,[1] although some researchers argue that there is a premalignant subtype of this disease.[4][5] The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is observed in the majority of cases,[1] and the virus has been found in the reactive B-cells that comprise part of the polymorphous infiltrate of this disease[6] and in the neoplastic T-cells.[7] Immunodeficiency is also seen with this disease, but it is a sequela to the condition and not a predisposing factor.[1]

Clinical presentation[edit]

Patients with this disease usually present at an advanced stage and show systemic involvement. The clinical findings typically include a pruritic skin rash and possibly edema, ascites, pleural effusions, and arthritis.[8][9]

Laboratory findings[edit]

The classical laboratory finding is polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, and other immunoglobulin derangements are also seen, including hemolytic anemia with cold agglutinins, circulating immune complexes, anti-smooth muscle antibodies, and positive rheumatoid factor.[1][8]

Sites of involvement[edit]

Due to the systemic nature of this disease, neoplastic cells can be found in lymph nodes, liver, spleen, skin, and bone marrow.

Morphology[edit]

Lymph node[edit]

The normal architecture of a lymph node is partially effaced by a polymorphous infiltrate and residual follicles are commonly seen. The polymorphous infiltrate consists of lymphocytes of moderate size with pale/clear cytoplasm and smaller reactive lymphocytes, eosinophils, histiocytes, plasma cells, and follicular dendritic cells. In addition, blast-like B-cells are occasionally seen. A classic morphological finding is the aborization and proliferation of high endothelial venules.[1] Hyperplastic germinal centers and Reed-Sternberg-like cells can also be seen.[10][11]

Immunophenotype[edit]

AILT typically has the phenotype of a mixture of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, with a CD4:CD8 ratio greater than unity. Polyclonal plasma cells and CD21+ follicular dendritic cells are also seen.[1]

Molecular findings[edit]

Clonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangements are detected in 75% of cases,[12] and immunoglobin gene rearrangements are seen in 10% of cases, and these cases are believed to be due to expanded EBV-driven B-cell populations.[13] Similarly, EBV-related sequences can be detected most cases, usually in B-cells but occasionally in T-cells.[6][7] Trisomy 3, trisomy 5, and +X are the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities found in cases.[14] [15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j [1] Jaffe E.S., Harris N.L., Stein H., Vardiman J.W. (eds): World Health Organization Classification of Tumors. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Haemopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. IARC Press: Lyon 2001
  2. ^ James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. 
  3. ^ "A clinical evaluation of the International Lymphoma Study Group classification of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Classification Project". Blood 89 (11): 3909–18. June 1997. PMID 9166827. 
  4. ^ Frizzera G, Kaneko Y, Sakurai M (January 1989). "Angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy and related disorders: a retrospective look in search of definitions". Leukemia 3 (1): 1–5. PMID 2642571. 
  5. ^ Smith JL, Hodges E, Quin CT, McCarthy KP, Wright DH (February 2000). "Frequent T and B Cell Oligoclones in Histologically and Immunophenotypically Characterized Angioimmunoblastic Lymphadenopathy". Am. J. Pathol. 156 (2): 661–9. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)64770-0. PMC 1850038. PMID 10666395. 
  6. ^ a b Weiss LM, Jaffe ES, Liu XF, Chen YY, Shibata D, Medeiros LJ (April 1992). "Detection and localization of Epstein-Barr viral genomes in angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy and angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy-like lymphoma". Blood 79 (7): 1789–95. PMID 1373088. 
  7. ^ a b Anagnostopoulos I, Hummel M, Finn T, et al. (October 1992). "Heterogeneous Epstein-Barr virus infection patterns in peripheral T-cell lymphoma of angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy type". Blood 80 (7): 1804–12. PMID 1327284. 
  8. ^ a b Siegert W, Nerl C, Agthe A, et al. (September 1995). "Angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy (AILD)-type T-cell lymphoma: prognostic impact of clinical observations and laboratory findings at presentation. The Kiel Lymphoma Study Group". Ann. Oncol. 6 (7): 659–64. PMID 8664186. 
  9. ^ Jaffe ES (September 1995). "Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: new insights, but the clinical challenge remains". Ann. Oncol. 6 (7): 631–2. PMID 8664181. 
  10. ^ Quintanilla-Martinez L, Fend F, Moguel LR, et al. (October 1999). "Peripheral T-cell lymphoma with Reed-Sternberg-like cells of B-cell phenotype and genotype associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection". Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 23 (10): 1233–40. doi:10.1097/00000478-199910000-00008. PMID 10524524. 
  11. ^ Ree HJ, Kadin ME, Kikuchi M, et al. (June 1998). "Angioimmunoblastic lymphoma (AILD-type T-cell lymphoma) with hyperplastic germinal centers". Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 22 (6): 643–55. doi:10.1097/00000478-199806000-00001. PMID 9630171. 
  12. ^ Feller AC, Griesser H, Schilling CV, et al. (December 1988). "Clonal gene rearrangement patterns correlate with immunophenotype and clinical parameters in patients with angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy". Am. J. Pathol. 133 (3): 549–56. PMC 1880823. PMID 2849301. 
  13. ^ Lipford EH, Smith HR, Pittaluga S, Jaffe ES, Steinberg AD, Cossman J (February 1987). "Clonality of angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy and implications for its evolution to malignant lymphoma". J. Clin. Invest. 79 (2): 637–42. doi:10.1172/JCI112860. PMC 424152. PMID 3805286. 
  14. ^ Kaneko Y, Maseki N, Sakurai M, et al. (August 1988). "Characteristic karyotypic pattern in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders with reactive "angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia-type" features". Blood 72 (2): 413–21. PMID 3261178. 
  15. ^ Schlegelberger B, Zhang Y, Weber-Matthiesen K, Grote W (October 1994). "Detection of aberrant clones in nearly all cases of angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia-type T-cell lymphoma by combined interphase and metaphase cytogenetics". Blood 84 (8): 2640–8. PMID 7919378.