Anglo-Swedish War (1810–12)
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|Anglo-Swedish War of 1810-1812|
|Part of the Napoleonic Wars|
|Casualties and losses|
During the Napoleonic Wars until 1810, Sweden and the United Kingdom were allies in the war against Napoleon. As a result of Sweden's defeat in the Finnish War and the Pomeranian War, and the following Treaty of Fredrikshamn and Treaty of Paris, Sweden declared war on the United Kingdom. The bloodless war, however, existed only on paper, and Britain was still not hindered in stationing ships at the Swedish island of Hanö and trade with the Baltic states.
The Treaty of Paris concluded on January 6, 1810, forced Sweden to join the Continental System, a trade embargo against Great Britain. Since Great Britain was Sweden's biggest trade partner this caused economic difficulties, and the trade continued to take place through smuggling. On November 13, 1810, France delivered an ultimatum to the Swedish government demanding that within five days Sweden:
- Declare war against Great Britain,
- Confiscate all British ships in Swedish ports,
- Seize all British products in Sweden.
France and its allies threatened to declare war against Sweden if Sweden did not meet the French demands. On November 17, the Swedish government declared war against Great Britain.
No acts of war occurred during the conflict, but Britain stationed boats in Hanö, which had been invaded though Sweden didn't try to hinder nor revoke the occupation as it supported the continued trade. Nevertheless, fearing the possibility of a British invasion, the Swedish government began to conscript more farmers into military service. This led to the only bloodshed during the war on June 15, 1811, when Major-General Hampus Mörner with 140 men acted to disperse a group of farmers in Klågerup in Scania who objected to the conscription policy. In the Klågerup riots, Mörner's soldiers killed 30 farmers.
The Swedish Crown Prince Charles August had died on May 28, 1810, and on August 21, 1810, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte was elected crown prince of Sweden. Under Bernadotte's rule, Sweden's relationship with France deteriorated. When France occupied Swedish Pomerania and the island of Rügen in 1812, Sweden sought peace with Great Britain.
Treaties of Orebro
After long negotiations, the Treaty of Orebro was signed on July 18, 1812. On the same day and at the same place, Britain and Russia signed a peace treaty bringing the Anglo–Russian War of 1807–1812 to an end.
- Sundberg, Ulf(1998), page 391-393
- Norie, John William(1827), page 560
- Norie, John William(1827) - The naval gazetteer, biographer, and chronologist; containing a history of the late wars, from their commencement in 1793 to their final conclusion in 1815; and continued, as to the biographical part, to the present time (J. W. Norie & Co)
- Sundberg, Ulf(1998) - Svenska krig, 1521-1814 (Hjalmarson & Högberg, Stockholm) ISBN 91-89080-14-9