Angra Nuclear Power Plant

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Angra Nuclear Power Plant
Angra dos Reis - usinas nucleares.jpg
Angra Nuclear Power Plant
Angra Nuclear Power Plant is located in Brazil
Angra Nuclear Power Plant
Location of Angra Nuclear Power Plant
Country Brazil
Coordinates 23°00′30″S 44°27′26″W / 23.00833°S 44.45722°W / -23.00833; -44.45722Coordinates: 23°00′30″S 44°27′26″W / 23.00833°S 44.45722°W / -23.00833; -44.45722
Construction began 1971
Commission date January 1, 1985
Operator(s) Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. - Eletronuclear
Power generation
Units operational 1 x 637 MW
1 x 1,350 MW
Units under const. 1 x 1,405 MW
Annual generation 12,983
Website
eletronuclear.gov.br

Angra Nuclear Power Plant is Brazil's sole nuclear power plant. It is located at the Central Nuclear Almirante Álvaro Alberto (CNAAA) on the Itaorna Beach in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It consists of two Pressurized water reactors, Angra I, with a net output of 637 MWe,[1] first connected to the power grid in 1985 and Angra II, with a net output of 1,350 MWe,[2] connected in 2000. Work on a third reactor, Angra III, with a projected output of 1,405 MWe,[3] began in 1984 but was halted in 1986. Work started again on 1 June 2010 for entry into service in 2015.[4]

Existing complex[edit]

The Central Nuclear Almirante Álvaro Alberto complex is administrated by Eletronuclear, a state company with the monopoly in nuclear power generation in Brazil. The complex employs some 3,000 people and generates another 10,000 indirect jobs in Rio de Janeiro state.

Angra I was purchased from Westinghouse of the USA (its sister power plant is Krško Nuclear Power Plant in Slovenia[5] ), and the purchase did not include the transfer of sensitive reactor technology. As a result, Angra II was built with German technology, as part of a comprehensive nuclear agreement between Brazil and West Germany signed by President Ernesto Geisel in 1975. The complex was designed to have three PWR units with a total output of around 3,000 MWe and was to be the first of 4 nuclear plants that would be built up to 1990.

Future developments[edit]

The development of Angra III began in 1984 as a Siemens/KWU pressurized water reactor but was halted in 1986. About 70% of the plant's equipment was purchased in 1985 but has been in storage ever since, consuming US$50 million a year in maintenance costs.[citation needed] In June 2007, restarting of construction was approved by the National Council for Energy Policy. President approved the construction in July 2007. In December 2008, Eletronuclear signed an industrial cooperation agreement with Areva. On 31 May 2010, the National Nuclear Energy Commission granted a licence for construction of the third reactor. Construction of the reactor with capacity of 1,405 MWe begun on 1 June 2010 and it should be operational by 2015.[4][6]

See also[edit]

Controversy[edit]

The problems with Angra I and II construction relate to a number of technical issues during initial construction, and the following political fallout. Angra dos Reis city and its neighbors are composed of medium high and high income population, its economy relies in great part on tourism and above all the region is regarded by many as a sanctuary for marine life.

The name of the site where the power plant was built, called Itaorna, means "rotten stone" or "soft stone" in the native Tupinamba language.

The negative media impact of Angra caused the shelving of all other projected nuclear plants in Brazil (Iguape, Peruíbe and São Sebastião)[citation needed].

References[edit]

External links[edit]