The fronton at Anhaux
|• Mayor (2014–2020)||André Changala|
|Area1||12.33 km2 (4.76 sq mi)|
|• Density||23/km2 (60/sq mi)|
|INSEE/Postal code||64026 / 64220|
|Elevation||180–1,247 m (591–4,091 ft)
(avg. 189 m or 620 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
- 1 Geography
- 2 Toponymy
- 3 History
- 4 Administration
- 5 Demography
- 6 Economy
- 7 Culture and heritage
- 8 Notable people linked to the commune
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Anhaux is located some 2 km west of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port and some 10 km south of Ossès. Access to the commune is solely by country roads branching from the D15 road passing to the north of the commune. The commune consists of farmland in the north with the southern part more rugged and hilly.
The commune is located in the drainage basin of the Adour. The Ontzeroneker erreka' - a tributary of the Nive d'Arnéguy - with many tributaries rising in the commune forms the southern border with Lasse commune. A right tributary of the Berroko erreka, the Aparraineko erreka flows down from the Artzaïnharria (971 m).
Localities and hamlets
The Napoleonic land registry divided the commune into 16 districts in 1840:
- Districts in Section A called The Village
- Berterretcheco bordaldia
- Lececo borda
- Districts in Section B called Honçaron
- Listour Erreca
Heguy was an old district, extending that of Choubitoa.
Today, the following localities are listed:
- Alcateneko Borda
- Aparrainéko Ithurria
- Azaldeyko Borda
- Berteretchéko Borda
- Bidarteko Borda
- Biraburuko Borda
- Erdoyko Borda
- Erguinéko Borda
- Etcherriko Borda
- Etchéverriko Borda
- Eyhérartéko Borda
- Haspelanéko Borda
- Idioïnéko Borda
- Maldacharréko Borda
- Minhondoko Borda
- Col Urdanzia
- Urchiloko Borda
- Urdiako Lepoa
Neighbouring communes and villages
The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune.
||Fief, Vassal of the Kingdom of Navarre|
- Grosclaude: Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, 2006 (French)
- Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. (French)
- Mérimée: Presentation of the Commune
- Pamplona: Titles of Pamplona
- Biscay: Martin Biscay
- Collations: Collations of the Diocese of Bayonne
Anhaux village is one of eleven hamlets or villages which were in the Baigorry Valley. In the Middle Ages, the eleven hamlets were: Ascarat, Sorhoeta, Moussourits, Lasse, Irouleguy, Urdos, Leispars, Occos, Oticoren, Guermiette, and Anhauz, all in the north of the valley. The south was not populated until much later. Despite sounding Basque, the name of this village seems to defy all analysis. The oldest document known on which the name Anhaux appears is now the cartulary of the abbey of Saint-Jean of Sorde where it appears in the 10th century.
Father Haristoy in his book Research on the Basque Country noted that recorded in this cartulary were:
- "1068-1072 Oz Guilhem de Onotz and his wife received from Saint-Jean a piece of land located at Anhaux subject to they and their successors providing security and seven loaves, one pig, one pint of wine, and two measures of provisions";
- "1072-1100 Fort Garcies de Onoz with his wife Farguild, and son undertook to give in perpetuity to Saint-Jean (of Sordes) six loaves, two measures of cider, and two civades".
The Benedictine Abbey in question was founded in the 9th century north-east of Navarre. It was, as with all the monasteries at the time, a vast agricultural area spread along the mountain streams in Orthe country and lower Navarre and, according to the two cited references, in the parish of Anhaux.
It was around 1023 that King Sancho III of Navarre founded the fief of the Viscounty of Baigory in favour of Garcias Lop who was related. The creation of the hamlet itself, on the viscounts' lands, therefore dates back to this period. Thus from the 11th century the status of houses at Anhaux was defined by the writer Jean-Baptiste Orpustan. He provided a list of houses existing in the Middle Ages in Anhaux. This document was created from the archives from 1350, 1366, and 1412.
Of the twenty-eight houses found there, four were noble (only the house was noble and so the owners were considered as such), the others were fivatiéres which means that they paid a fee in crops, work, or money and were built on the land of the "Lord" of the main house.
The successive Viscounts of Baigorry then of Echaux enjoyed the tithes of the village until their liquidation in 1792.
The arms Anhaux are those of the Apesteguy family. They were adopted by the municipal council on 30 July 1993. Pierre Haristoy wrote that the Apesteguy were lords of Jaureguia and of Anhaux and nominated the priest for the area. In deeds before 1670 several of the Apesteguy appear as noble. Towards 1720 Jean-Pierre d'Apesteguy was received by the States of Navarre. The house of Apesteguia was, until the 18th century, the Lay Abbey for the area. Its members played an important role in the valley until the end of the 19th century.
The Cassini map, made in the 18th century shows a parish consisting of:
- the village of Anhaux with a parish church;
- the hamlet of Choubitoua: currently a district of the same name;
- the hamlet of Bassabouria: currently the Olheguy district;
- the hamlet of Ounsaharte: currently the Lacoa district;
- the hamlet of Ançonne: currently the Tambourine district and part of the Mounhoa district on the slopes of Arrola peak.
Azure, a pale of Argent flanked by two escallops the same.
List of Successive Mayors
|1996||2014||Jacques Etchandy||UDF then MoDem|
(Not all data is known)
Anhaux commune participates in eight inter-communal structures:
- the Community of communes of Garazi-Baigorri;
- the SIVOS of Garazi;
- the SIVU Hiruen Artean;
- the Inter-communal association for the development and management of the abattoir of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port;
- the joint association for the watershed of the Nive;
- the association to support Basque culture;
- the AEP association of Irouleguy-Anhaux;
- the energy association of Pyrénées-Atlantiques.
In 2009 the commune had 286 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]
Culture and heritage
The commune has a number of buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments:
- The Jauregia house (14th century)
- The Laxaga house (15th century)
- The Eiherartia farmhouse (1730)
- Houses and Farms (18th - 20th century)
- Hilarri in the Cemetery
- The Adartza (1,250m) is a mountain located between Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry, Lasse, and Anhaux.
- The Artzaïnharria is 971m high
- The Arrolakoharria, between Banca, Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry, and Anhaux, is 1,060m high.
- The Munhoa (or Monhoa) (1,021m) is a mountain located between Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry and Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port. It can be accessed via Anhaux, Lasse, or Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry by the GR10.
Jean Iraçabal, born in 1851 at Anhaux and died in 1929 (buried at Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry), was a decorated French military officer.
- At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002 , the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.
- Brigitte Jobbé-Duval, Dictionary of place names - Pyrénées-Atlantiques, 2009, Archives and Culture, ISBN 978-2-35077-151-9 (French)
- Euskaltzaindia - Academy of the Basque language (French)
- Sandre Notice on Anhaux (French)
- Géoportail, IGN (French)
- Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, Paul Raymond, Imprimerie nationale, 1863, Digitised from Lyon Public Library 15 June 2011 (French)
- Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000429 Eiherartia farmhouse (French)
- Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000457 Laxaga house (French)
- Euskaltzaindia - Académie de la langue basque
- Michel Grosclaude, Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, Edicions reclams & Édition Cairn - 2006, 416 pages, ISBN 2-35068-005-3 (French)
- Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000419 Presentation of the Commune (French)
- Titles published by don José Yanguas y Miranda (Spanish)
- Derecho de naturaleza que la merindad de San-Juan-del-pie-del-puerto, una de las seys de Navarra, tiene en Castilla, 1622 (Spanish)
- Manuscripts from the 17th and 18th centuries in the Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
- The names of medieval houses in Labourd, Lower Navarre, and Soule, Jean-Baptiste Orpustan (French)
- Historical researches on Basque country, Pierre Haristoy (French)
- List of Mayors of France
- Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000458 Jauregia house (French)
- Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000485 Houses and Farms (French)
- Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000417 Church of Saint John the Baptist (French)
- ANHAUZE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia (Euskomedia Fundazioa) (Spanish)
- Anhaux on Lion1906
- Anhaux on the 1750 Cassini Map
- Anhaux on the INSEE website (French)
- INSEE (French)
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