Anhaux

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Anhaux
The fronton at Anhaux
The fronton at Anhaux
Coat of arms of Anhaux
Coat of arms
Anhaux is located in France
Anhaux
Anhaux
Coordinates: 43°10′N 1°17′W / 43.17°N 1.29°W / 43.17; -1.29Coordinates: 43°10′N 1°17′W / 43.17°N 1.29°W / 43.17; -1.29
Country France
Region Aquitaine
Department Pyrénées-Atlantiques
Arrondissement Bayonne
Canton Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry
Intercommunality Garazi-Baïgorri
Government
 • Mayor (2014–2020) André Changala
Area1 12.33 km2 (4.76 sq mi)
Population (2009)2 286
 • Density 23/km2 (60/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 64026 / 64220
Elevation 180–1,247 m (591–4,091 ft)
(avg. 189 m or 620 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Anhaux (Basque: Anhauze) is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Aquitaine region of south-western France in the former province of Lower Navarre.

The inhabitants of the commune are known as Anhauztar.[1][2]

Geography[edit]

A business name on a lintel

Anhaux is located some 2 km west of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port and some 10 km south of Ossès. Access to the commune is solely by country roads branching from the D15 road passing to the north of the commune. The commune consists of farmland in the north with the southern part more rugged and hilly.

The commune is located in the drainage basin of the Adour. The Ontzeroneker erreka' - a tributary of the Nive d'Arnéguy - with many tributaries rising in the commune forms the southern border with Lasse commune.[3] A right tributary of the Berroko erreka, the Aparraineko erreka flows down from the Artzaïnharria (971 m).

Localities and hamlets[edit]

The Lavoir (Public Laundry)

The Napoleonic land registry divided the commune into 16 districts in 1840:

Districts in Section A called The Village
  • village
  • church
  • Berterretcheco bordaldia
  • Chubitoa
  • Espillacoborda
  • Lececo borda
  • Mendione
  • Ourdoy
Districts in Section B called Honçaron
  • Elhorichury
  • Haspalaunecoborda
  • Laco
  • Listour Erreca
  • Mounocabal
  • Mounhoa
  • Olheguy
  • Tambourinanea

Heguy was an old district, extending that of Choubitoa.

Today, the following localities are listed:[4]

  • Alcateneko Borda
  • Amigna
  • Aparrainéko Ithurria
  • Apezteguikoborda
  • Azaldeyko Borda
  • Béharria
  • Berteretchéko Borda
  • Bidartea
  • Bidarteko Borda
  • Biraburuko Borda
  • Bordachuria
  • Chochuaénéa
  • Chochuainea
  • Chokoa
  • Chuberaénéa
  • Chubitoa[5]
  • Curutchaldéa
  • Erratchuénéa
  • Erdoyko Borda
  • Erguinéko Borda
  • Etcherriko Borda
  • Etchéverriko Borda
  • Eyhérartéko Borda
  • Eyherartia[6]
  • Haspelanéko Borda
  • Hiriartéa
  • Idioïnéko Borda
  • Lacoa
  • Laxagua[7]
  • Lazkoborda
  • Maldacharréko Borda
  • Minhondoko Borda
  • Nignigna
  • Peilloénéa
  • Col Urdanzia
  • Urchiloko Borda
  • Urdiako Lepoa

Neighbouring communes and villages[edit]

Toponymy[edit]

The commune name in basque is Anhauze.[8]

Brigitte Jobbé-Duval[1] proposed a basque origin of ona-oz, meaning "place of the hill".

The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune.

Name Spelling Date Source Page Origin Description
Anhaux Onodz 1068 Grosclaude Mérimée Village
Nodz 1105 Grosclaude Mérimée
Naoz 1264 Grosclaude Mérimée
Hanauz 1350 Grosclaude Mérimée
Anhautz 1366 Grosclaude Mérimée
Anus 1378 Grosclaude
Anauz 1513 Raymond
6
Pamplona
Hanauz 1621 Raymond
6
Biscay
Anhausse 1686 Raymond
6
Collations
Chubitoa Chubitoa 1863 Raymond
50
Hamlet
Jauréguy Jauréguy 1863 Raymond
85
Fief, Vassal of the Kingdom of Navarre

Sources:

Origins:

History[edit]

Church of Saint-Jean-Baptiste

Anhaux village is one of eleven hamlets or villages which were in the Baigorry Valley. In the Middle Ages, the eleven hamlets were: Ascarat, Sorhoeta, Moussourits, Lasse, Irouleguy, Urdos, Leispars, Occos, Oticoren, Guermiette, and Anhauz, all in the north of the valley. The south was not populated until much later. Despite sounding Basque, the name of this village seems to defy all analysis. The oldest document known on which the name Anhaux appears is now the cartulary of the abbey of Saint-Jean of Sorde where it appears in the 10th century.

Father Haristoy in his book Research on the Basque Country noted that recorded in this cartulary were:

  • "1068-1072 Oz Guilhem de Onotz and his wife received from Saint-Jean a piece of land located at Anhaux subject to they and their successors providing security and seven loaves, one pig, one pint of wine, and two measures of provisions";
  • "1072-1100 Fort Garcies de Onoz with his wife Farguild, and son undertook to give in perpetuity to Saint-Jean (of Sordes) six loaves, two measures of cider, and two civades".

The Benedictine Abbey in question was founded in the 9th century north-east of Navarre. It was, as with all the monasteries at the time, a vast agricultural area spread along the mountain streams in Orthe country and lower Navarre and, according to the two cited references, in the parish of Anhaux.

It was around 1023 that King Sancho III of Navarre founded the fief of the Viscounty of Baigory in favour of Garcias Lop who was related. The creation of the hamlet itself, on the viscounts' lands, therefore dates back to this period. Thus from the 11th century the status of houses at Anhaux was defined by the writer Jean-Baptiste Orpustan.[14] He provided a list of houses existing in the Middle Ages in Anhaux. This document was created from the archives from 1350, 1366, and 1412.

Of the twenty-eight houses found there, four were noble (only the house was noble and so the owners were considered as such), the others were fivatiéres which means that they paid a fee in crops, work, or money and were built on the land of the "Lord" of the main house.

The successive Viscounts of Baigorry then of Echaux enjoyed the tithes of the village until their liquidation in 1792.

The arms Anhaux are those of the Apesteguy family. They were adopted by the municipal council on 30 July 1993. Pierre Haristoy[15] wrote that the Apesteguy were lords of Jaureguia and of Anhaux and nominated the priest for the area. In deeds before 1670 several of the Apesteguy appear as noble. Towards 1720 Jean-Pierre d'Apesteguy was received by the States of Navarre. The house of Apesteguia was, until the 18th century, the Lay Abbey for the area. Its members played an important role in the valley until the end of the 19th century.

The Cassini map, made in the 18th century shows a parish consisting of:

  • the village of Anhaux with a parish church;
  • the hamlet of Choubitoua: currently a district of the same name;
  • the hamlet of Bassabouria: currently the Olheguy district;
  • the hamlet of Ounsaharte: currently the Lacoa district;
  • the hamlet of Ançonne: currently the Tambourine district and part of the Mounhoa district on the slopes of Arrola peak.

Heraldry[edit]

Arms of Anhaux
Blazon:

Azure, a pale of Argent flanked by two escallops the same.



Administration[edit]

List of Successive Mayors[16]

From To Name Party Position
1792 Guillaume d'Uhalde
1800 1832 Arnaud d'Apesteguy
1832 1840 Guillaume Arreguy
1840 1848 Jean Jaureguiberry
1848 1872 Jean d'Apesteguy
1874 1881 Jean d'Apesteguy
1881 1883 Antoine Arreguy
1883 1904 Pierre Narnaitz
1904 1922 Michel Jaureguy
1922 1934 Gratian Iribarne
1934 1945 Jean Laxague
1945 1947 Arnaud Irouleguy
1947 1959 Bernard Piarresteguy
1959 1977 Jean-Pierre Iribarne
1977 1996 Bernard Etcheperestou
1996 2014 Jacques Etchandy UDF then MoDem
2014 2020 André Changala

(Not all data is known)

Inter-communality[edit]

Anhaux commune participates in eight inter-communal structures:

  • the Community of communes of Garazi-Baigorri;
  • the SIVOS of Garazi;
  • the SIVU Hiruen Artean;
  • the Inter-communal association for the development and management of the abattoir of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port;
  • the joint association for the watershed of the Nive;
  • the association to support Basque culture;
  • the AEP association of Irouleguy-Anhaux;
  • the energy association of Pyrénées-Atlantiques.

Demography[edit]

In 2009 the commune had 286 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]

Evolution of the Population (See database)
1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851
604 590 336 533 607 697 710 705 622
1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896
642 630 607 572 570 588 518 496 453
1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954
419 430 387 371 365 341 321 318 293
1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2009 -
272 285 275 274 310 247 - 286 -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)


Population of Anhaux

Economy[edit]

The commune is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) of Irouléguy and also the AOC of Ossau-iraty. Economic activity is principally agricultural.

Culture and heritage[edit]

A House in Anhaux
A House in Anhaux

Languages[edit]

According to the Map of the Seven Provinces edited in 1863 by Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte, the basque dialect spoken in Anhaux is western Lower Navarre.

Civil heritage[edit]

The commune has a number of buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments:

  • The Jauregia house (14th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[17]
  • The Laxaga house (15th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[7]
  • The Eiherartia farmhouse (1730)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[6]
  • Houses and Farms (18th - 20th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[18]

Religious heritage[edit]

The Church of Saint John the Baptist (Middle Ages)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg is registered as an historical monument.[19] It was almost entirely rebuilt in 1838. Its cemetery has some Hilarri.

Hilarri in the Cemetery

Environmental Heritage[edit]

  • The Adartza (1,250m) is a mountain located between Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry, Lasse, and Anhaux.
  • The Artzaïnharria is 971m high
  • The Arrolakoharria, between Banca, Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry, and Anhaux, is 1,060m high.
  • The Munhoa (or Monhoa) (1,021m) is a mountain located between Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry and Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port. It can be accessed via Anhaux, Lasse, or Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry by the GR10.[4]

Notable people linked to the commune[edit]

Jean Iraçabal, born in 1851 at Anhaux and died in 1929 (buried at Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry), was a decorated French military officer.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002 [1], the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Brigitte Jobbé-Duval, Dictionary of place names - Pyrénées-Atlantiques, 2009, Archives and Culture, ISBN 978-2-35077-151-9 (French)
  2. ^ Euskaltzaindia - Academy of the Basque language (French)
  3. ^ Sandre Notice on Anhaux (French)
  4. ^ a b Géoportail, IGN (French)
  5. ^ a b Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, Paul Raymond, Imprimerie nationale, 1863, Digitised from Lyon Public Library 15 June 2011 (French)
  6. ^ a b Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000429 Eiherartia farmhouse (French)
  7. ^ a b Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000457 Laxaga house (French)Camera aabb.svg
  8. ^ Euskaltzaindia - Académie de la langue basque
  9. ^ Michel Grosclaude, Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, Edicions reclams & Édition Cairn - 2006, 416 pages, ISBN 2-35068-005-3 (French)
  10. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000419 Presentation of the Commune (French)Camera aabb.svg
  11. ^ Titles published by don José Yanguas y Miranda (Spanish)
  12. ^ Derecho de naturaleza que la merindad de San-Juan-del-pie-del-puerto, una de las seys de Navarra, tiene en Castilla, 1622 (Spanish)
  13. ^ Manuscripts from the 17th and 18th centuries in the Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
  14. ^ The names of medieval houses in Labourd, Lower Navarre, and Soule, Jean-Baptiste Orpustan (French)
  15. ^ Historical researches on Basque country, Pierre Haristoy (French)
  16. ^ List of Mayors of France
  17. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000458 Jauregia house (French)
  18. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000485 Houses and Farms (French)
  19. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000417 Church of Saint John the Baptist (French)Camera aabb.svg

External links[edit]