Patan, Gujarat

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This article is about the municipality in India. For its namesake district, see Patan district.
For other uses, see Patan (disambiguation).
Patan
city
Patan is located in Gujarat
Patan
Patan
Location in Gujarat, India
Coordinates: 23°50′N 72°07′E / 23.83°N 72.12°E / 23.83; 72.12Coordinates: 23°50′N 72°07′E / 23.83°N 72.12°E / 23.83; 72.12
Country  India
State Gujarat
District Patan
Elevation 76 m (249 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 133,737
Languages
 • Official Gujarati, Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 384265
Vehicle registration GJ 24c-d

Patan About this sound pronunciation  was a capital of Gujarat in medieval times. It is the administrative seat of Patan District in the Indian state of Gujarat and administered by municipality. The city contains many Hindu and Jain temples as well as few mosques, dargahs and rojas. The city has many historical places also.

History[edit]

The assassination of Akbar's regent Bairam Khan in Patan.

Patan, an ancient fortified town, was founded in 745 AD by Vanraj Chavda, the most prominent king of the Chavda Kingdom. He named the city Anhilpur Patan or "Anhilwad Patan" after his close friend and Prime Minister Anhil shepherd. It is variously referre to any ocean.

These Chalukya rajputs, with Paramaras of Malwa, the Chauhans of Sakambhari and Chandellas of Kalanjar and Mahoba, were serious contestants for supremacy in northern India.

Later Mulraj, the adopted son of last Chavda king, established Solanki dynasty. He successfully expanded kingdom to west. His successor Siddhraj Jaisinh added Malwa. Kumarpal was also major ruler who patroned Jainism. Solanki rule cover Saurashtra and Kutch in the West, Lata in the South, Malwa in the East and Southern Rajasthan in the North at its greatest period. Historian Tertius Chandler estimates that Anhilwara was the tenth-largest city in the world in the year 1000, with a population of approximately 100,000.[1]

When Muhammad Ghori had attempted to conquer Gujarat, the forces of Mularaja II, then the king of Patan, a mere boy-ruler, led by his heroic mother Naikidevi, inflicted such a crushing and conclusive defeat on him that the foreigner did not dare again during his lifetime to cast his greedy eye upon Patan. He never again entered India through Gujarat. The battle was fought at Kayadra, a village near Mount Abu. Ghori’s army was completely routed in the conflict, but somehow he escaped with his defeated army from Gujarat.

Muhammed's general and later Sultan of Delhi Qutb-ud-din Aybak sacked the city between 1200 and 1210, and it was destroyed by the Alladin Khilji in 1298.

The modern town of Patan later sprung up near the ruins of Anhilwara. During 1304 to 1411, first Patan was the Suba headquarter of Delhi Sultanate and then capital city of Gujarat Sultanate after the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the fourteenth century. A new Fort was built by these Subas, a large portion of which along with a few of the gates is still intact. The old Fort of hindu kingdom is nearly vanquished and only a wall can be seen on the way from Kalka to Rani ki vav. In 1411, Sultan Ahmed Shah moved the capital to Ahmedabad.

Patan was part of the Baroda state from the mid-eighteenth century until India's independence in 1947, when Baroda became part of Bombay state, which in 1960 was separated into Gujarat and Maharashtra.

Rani ki vav[edit]

During the period of the Solanki dynasty, the stepwell called the Rani ki vav, or Ran-ki vav (Queen’s step well) was constructed. It is a richly-sculptured monument, built by Udaymati in memory of her husband, Bhimdev I (1022-1063).[2]

It was probably completed by Udayamati and Karandev I after his death. A reference to Udaymati building the monument is in the 'Prabandha Chintamani' composed by Merutunga Suri in 1304 AD..

It was one of the largest and the most sumptuous structures of its type. It became silted up and much of it is not visible now, except for some rows of sculptured panels in the circular part of the well. Among its ruins one pillar still stands which is the proof not only of the elegance of its design, but also excellent example of this period. A part only of the west well is extant from which it appears that the wall had been built of brick and faced with stone. From this wall project vertical bracket in pairs, this supported the different galleries of the well shaft proper. This bracketing is arranged in tiers and is richly carved.

There is also a small Gate below the last step of the step well which has a 30 kilometre tunnel built (Now it has been blocked by stones and mud) which leads to the town of Sidhpur near Patan. It was used as an escape gateway for king who built the step well in the times of defeat.

Most of the sculpture is in devotion to Vishnu, in the forms of his Avatars (Krishna, Rama and others), representing their return to the world.

Around 50–60 years back there used to be ayurvedic plants around this areas which causes the water accumulated in Rani ni vav helpful for viral disease, fever.

It was included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites on 22 June 2014.[3]

The modern city[edit]

Presently, Patan is home to the Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University[4] named after the famous polymath Acharya Hemachandra. It was previously known as North Gujarat University. Patan is a prominent medical centre in the North Gujarat with almost 200 practicing medical professionals. It also has Medical College on the way to Balisana. Patan serves as a central market place for local farmers.

There are many schools and colleges in Patan. B. D High School, p.p.g experimental higher sexondary school and Junior College is the oldest amongst all. Besides, other famous schools are: P.P.G. Experimentle High School and Adarsha Vidhyalaya.

The patola saree is one of the finest hand-woven sarees produced today. This is a specialty of Patan, and is famous for extremely delicate patterns woven with great precision and clarity. A patola sari takes 4 to 6 months to make, depending on how complicated the designs is and if the length is 5 or 6 metre. This saris are totally colored with the vegetable color. It costs starts from Rs. 20,000 which may go up to Rs. 20,00,000 even depending on the difficulty of work as many times gold threads are also included during its weaving process.

Tourist attractions[edit]

Remains of the walls of new fort.
Sahastralinga Tank

There are many Toursist Attractions including Forts, Vavs (Step Wells), Talavs (Lakes) and places of worship and unity of Gujarvada youth club and also patan patola.

The only remains of Old City of Patan in the form of a very small portion of Old Fort near Kalka on the outskirts of the New City is of historical and archeological importance. So is the case with the remains of the walls of new fort and the Darwajas (Gates) of the new fort which are fast disappearing. Unfortunately, administration as well as a majority of local people show little interest in preserving these heritage places which are shrinking at a rapid pace. Fortunately, the inner fort of Bhadra with its Darwajas (Gates) is preserved well. However, with the transfer of all Government and Administrative machinery from Bhadra how long it will be preserved is unclear.

Step wells include Rani-ki-Vav and Trikam Barot ni Vav. Lakes include historically and archeologically important Sahastralinga Tank, Anand Sarovar (Gungadi Talav) and Khan Sarovar. There are many places of significance on religious, historical or architerctural grounds. These include Old Kalka Mandir, Panchmukhi Hanuman, Jasma Odan ni Deri, Old Mahalaxmi Mandir, Sindhavai Mata nu Mandir, Hingaraj Mandir, Panchasar Derasar and Sheikh Farid no Rojo.

Salvivad, a place where Patolas are woven along with places where traditional clay toys are made are also worth visiting. Many annual religious fairs also act as tourist destination.

Geography[edit]

Patan is located at 23°50′N 72°07′E / 23.83°N 72.12°E / 23.83; 72.12. Patan Railway Station is 108 km away from Ahemdabad Railway Station. It can be reached by a bus, train or a private taxi from Ahmedabad or Chansama or Unjha.[5] It has an average elevation of 76 metres (249 feet).

Demographics[edit]

As of 2001 India census,[6] Patan had a population of 112,038. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Patan has an average literacy rate of 72%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 78%, and female literacy is 65%. In Patan, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.

12 darwajas in patan[edit]

Bagwado, Chhidiya, Mira, Aghar, Kothakooe, Phatipaal (fatipal), Ghoonghdi, Kanasda ( also known as Kalika), Khansarovar, Motishah, Bhathi, 12th is a window ( unknown name).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Top 10 Cities of the World in the year 1000
  2. ^ Jarzombek, Mark M.; Prakash, Vikramaditya (2011). A Global History of Architecture. Ching, Francis D. K. (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 907. ISBN 9780470902486. 
  3. ^ "Gujarat’s Rani ki Vav added to UNESCO World Heritage site List". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 22 June 2014. 
  4. ^ http://www.ngu.ac.in/
  5. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Patan
  6. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 

http://archive.is/20130209114645/http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&des=wg&geo=-104&srt=pnan&col=adhoq&msz=1500&pt=c&va=x

Further reading[edit]

  • Prof. K.A. Nizami, ‘Foundation of the Delhi Sultanat’ in A Comprehensive History of India-Vol-V part one.
  • Chandler, Tertius. 1987. Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census. St. David's University Press.

External links[edit]