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Aniba is an American neotropical flowering plant genus in the family Lauraceae. They are present in low and mountain cloud forest in Caribbean islands, Central America, and norther to central South America.
They are shrubs or trees up to 25 m high, hermaphrodites. The leaves are alternate, entire, elliptical or narrowly elliptical. The inflorescences are paniculate, axillary, flowers arranged in cymes essentially, those strictly opposite side, small. The fruit is a berry dispersed mostly by birds. Fruits of 3 cm long and 1.5 cm wide, deep dome, warty. Many species have a valuable timber in yellow wood, others have the wood and bark pleasantly scented. The oils extracted from certain species are used as ingredients in the manufacture of perfumes.
Aniba is a genus of great ecological importance. The neotropical genus of the Lauraceae family, Aniba, was established by Aublet in 1775. It currently includes 41 species, classified into 6 different subgroups, in which the woody structure are almost undifferentiated, the differences are ecological adaptations to different environments over a relatively dry-wet climate. Species in less humid environment are smaller or less robust, with less abundant and thinner foliage and have oleifera cells that give trees a more fragrant aroma.
Found throughout the Guianas and the Amazon region but also in the Pacific coastal areas of Colombia. They grow mostly in tropical forests and Andean cloud forest, But has also been found in stubbles and pastures. Its distribution extends from the islands of the Antilles in the Caribbean, Central America, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Guyanas, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru... in the coastal ranges and interior in wet areas, the Andes, to dry regions of central and southern Brazil.
They does not form large stands but rather small groups of trees with a density of up to one individual per five hectares. Those species of wood have been used for a long time to produce essential oils for the pharmaceuticals industry. Due to the low density, exploitation of the natural populations is to the detriment of the rainforest. Overexploitation of the easily accessible trees of the rainforest has been reducing export quotas since the mid-1990s. Due to the distribution in inaccessible rainforest regions and its low density, it is very hard to survey population trends in figures, but overexploitation is evident. Proposals of exploitation must be made before overexploitation of nature poblations causes problems for commercial utilisation.
Most species are poorly defined botanically: Comino real (Colombia), Silverballi (Guayana), Moena amarilla (Peru), Coto (Bolivia), Louro rosa, Pau rosa (Brazil). The trees Often attains a height of 100 ft with diameters up to 30 in.; clear bole lengths of 55 to 75 ft are obtained.
The most known trees are used by the timber industry, more than 14 species. In this genus the wood has a high commercial value. The woods are typically yellowish with a greenish hue when fresh, becoming brown or olive on exposure. Narrow sapwood light yellowish. Luster medium to high; grain straight to interlocked; texture fine to medium; spicy odor, taste may or may not be distinctive. 
The fruit is a berry.
- Aniba anisosepala Sandwith
- Aniba canelilla Mez
- Aniba duckei, Kosterm. 1938
- Aniba ferrea, Kubitzki 1982
- Aniba ferruginea, Kubitzki 1982
- Aniba firmula, (Nees & Mart.) Mez, 1889
- Aniba flexuosa, A.C.Sm., 1935
- Aniba foeniculacea, Mez, 1906
- Aniba fragrans Ducke 1925
- Aniba heringeri Vattimo-Gil
- Aniba intermedia, (Meisn.) Mez 1889
- Aniba novo-granatensis, Kubitzki 1982
- Aniba parviflora, (Meisn.) Mez 1889
- Aniba pedicellata, Kosterm. 1938
- Aniba percoriacea, C.K.Allen 1964
- Aniba perutilis, Hemsl. 1894
- Aniba pilosa, van der Werff 1994
- Aniba robusta, (Klotzsch & P.Karst.) Mez 1889
- Aniba rosaeodora, Ducke 1930
- Aniba santalodora, Ducke 1950
- Aniba sulcata Benoist 1929
- Aniba vaupesiana, Kubitzki 1982
- Aniba venezuelana, Mez 1889
- Aniba vulcanicola, van der Werff 1994
- Aniba williamsii Brooks[disambiguation needed] 1931
- Spanish: Flora de Nicaragua
- "USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. GRIN.". National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
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