Aniba rosaeodora

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Brazilian Rosewood
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Angiospermae
(unranked): Magnoliids
Order: Laurales
Family: Lauraceae
Genus: Aniba
Species: A. rosodora
Binomial name
Aniba rosodora
Ducke
Synonyms

Aniba duckei Kosterm.[1]

Aniba rosodora is a species of Magnoliid tree in the Lauraceae family. Its common names are Brazilian rosewood and rosewoodtree.[2] It grows in parts of the tropical rainforest of South America. It is an endangered species that sees exploitation for its essential oil.[3]

Description[edit]

A. rosodora grows in the tropical rainforests of South America. It is found in the Brazilian states of Amapá, Amazonas, and Pará.[3] It is also found in Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, and French Guiana, where it was formerly more widespread.[4] It is massive, up to 30 meters in height and 2 meters in diameter, and evergreen. The entire tree is fragrant. Substances in the tree include linalool[3] and rubranine.[5] The flowers are perfect, with temporal dioecy. The fruit is a purple drupe dispersed by toucans.[6]

It has 24 chromosomes.[7] Gene flow is high between wild populations.[6]

Uses[edit]

Structure of linalool, a substance extracted from A. rosodora

The plant is one of the commercially important sources of rosewood oil. The tree is collected in the wild. After felling, the trees are cut into one–meter long logs which are taken to the riverbank and stockpiled there. When river levels are high enough, the logs are floated downriver to a distillery. Because of the remoteness and difficulty of travel in the Amazon, distilleries are often mobile, movable by raft. When they arrive at the distillery, the logs are chipped and then steam distilled. Each tree yields about 1% oil by weight of wood. Most worldwide production comes from Brazil; since the 1960s, other areas produce only a minor, insignificant amount. Trees are taken from near the Amazon and its tributaries.[3]

Rosewood oil is a valuable essential oil, especially in perfumery. It contains the substance linalool, which has a number of uses. The wood may be utilized by the indigenous peoples of the Amazon basin for the purposes of making canoes, but this is a minor use. In addition, old chips are used as fuel to run the distilleries. Since the name Rosewood can be used for very distinctive kinds of timber, South American Rosewood, a different species, especially Brazilian (Dalbergia nigra), also known as Jacaranda, is the most desirable tonewood for acoustic guitars and other instruments. The Aniba rosodora is known as Pau-Rosa in Brazil. The supply of this wood was greatly overused in the past and it now is as difficult to legally trade as elephant ivory.[3]

Conservation[edit]

A. rosodora is an endangered species. Populations have declined rapidly due to the destructive harvesting methods. Areas previously logged have not seen much regrowth.[4] It might even be critically endangered.[8] Wild populations exist in remote locations, which are hence unlikely to be exploited.[4]

The Brazilian government has enacted regulations to help conserve the species. There have been difficulties with enforcement. Early experiments in artificial cultivation and propagation were failures. More recent attempts have been more successful.[3] It, or rather its wood and essential oil, is on Appendix II of CITES.[9] If the leaves could be used as a source, it would help conserve the species.[3] It has been suggested that production methods be altered to ensure a sustainable supply.[10] It is also listed on the Official list of endangered flora of Brazil.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Name - Aniba rosaeodora Ducke". Tropicos, presented by Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2011-03-14. 
  2. ^ "Aniba rosaeodora information from NPGS/GRIN". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 2011-03-14. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Chapter 4 Rosewood Oil. Flavours and fragrances of plant origin (Food and Agricultural Organization). 1995. ISBN 92-5-103648-9. Retrieved 2011-03-14. 
  4. ^ a b c Varty, N. "Aniba rosaeodora". IUCN Redlist of Threatened Species. International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2011-03-14. 
  5. ^ de Alleluia, Irene B.; Braz Fo, Raimundo; Gottlieb, Otto R.; Magalhães, Eva G.; Marques, Raquel (1978). "(—)-Rubranine from Aniba rosaeodora". Phytochemistry 17 (3): 517–521. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)89351-6. 
  6. ^ a b Santos, Ronaldo Pereira; Spironello, Wilson Roberto; Sampaio, Paulo de Tarso Barbosa. "Genetic diversity in rosewood saplings (Aniba rosaeodora ducke, Lauraceae): an ecological approach" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-03-14. 
  7. ^ Contim, Luis Antônio Serrão; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Martins, Franciele Alline; de Freitas, Danival Vieira. "Nuclear DNA content and karyotype of Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora)" (PDF). Genetics and Microbiology (Brazilian Society of Genetics). Retrieved 2011-03-14. 
  8. ^ "Aniba rosaeodora Ducke". Tropicos, presented by Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2011-03-14. 
  9. ^ "Appendices I, II and III". Convention on Internationational Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Archived from the original on 28 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-14. 
  10. ^ May, Peter H.; Barata, Lauro E. S. (2004). "Rosewood Exploitation in the Brazilian Amazon: Options for Sustainable Production". Economic Botany (BioOne) 58 (2): 257. doi:10.1663/0013-0001(2004)058[0257:REITBA]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0013-0001. Retrieved 2011-03-14. 
  11. ^ "Lista oficial de espécies da flora brasileira ameaçada de extinção (Official list of endangered flora of Brazil" (in Portuguese). Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources. 1992-04-03. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-14.