Aniline (data page)

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This page provides supplementary chemical data on aniline.

Material Safety Data Sheet[edit]

The handling of this chemical may incur notable safety precautions. It is highly recommend that you seek the Material Safety Datasheet (MSDS) for this chemical from a reliable source and follow its directions.

Structure and properties[edit]

Structure and properties
Index of refraction, nD 1.5863 at 20°C
Abbe number ?
Dielectric constant,[1] εr 6.89 ε0 at 20 °C
Bond strength  ?
Bond length  ?
Bond angle  ?
Magnetic susceptibility  ?
Surface tension[2] 44.0 dyn/cm at 10°C
42.9 dyn/cm at 20°C
24.4 dyn/cm at 180°C
Viscosity[3] 6.023 mPa·s at 12°C
4.467 mPa·s at 20°C
2.92 mPa·s   at 22°C
1.555 mPa·s at 60°C

Thermodynamic properties[edit]

Phase behavior
Triple point 267.13 K (–6.02 °C), ? Pa
Critical point 698.8 K (425.7 °C), 4890 kPa
Std enthalpy change
of fusion
, ΔfusHo
10.54 kJ/mol
Std entropy change
of fusion
, ΔfusSo
39.57 J/(mol·K) at –6.3°C
Std enthalpy change
of vaporization
, ΔvapHo
55.83 kJ/mol at 25°C
42.44 kJ/mol at 184.1°C
Std entropy change
of vaporization
, ΔvapSo
 ? J/(mol·K)
Solid properties
Std enthalpy change
of formation
, ΔfHosolid
 ? kJ/mol
Standard molar entropy,
Sosolid
 ? J/(mol K)
Heat capacity, cp  ? J/(mol K)
Liquid properties
Std enthalpy change
of formation
, ΔfHoliquid
31 kJ/mol
Standard molar entropy,
Soliquid
191. J/(mol K)
Enthalpy of combustion, ΔcHoliquid –3393 kJ/mol
Heat capacity, cp 193.7 J/(mol K) at 25°C
Gas properties
Std enthalpy change
of formation
, ΔfHogas
87 kJ/mol
Standard molar entropy,
Sogas
 ? J/(mol K)
Heat capacity,[4] cp 148.7 J/(mol K) at 25°C
van der Waals' constants[5] a = 2685 L2 kPa/mol2
b = 0.1369 liter per mole

Vapor pressure of liquid[edit]

P in mm Hg 1 10 40 100 400 760 1520 3800 7600 15200 30400 45600
T in °C 34.8 69.4 96.7 119.9 161.9 184.4 212.8 254.8 292.7 342.0 400.0   —

Table data obtained from CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 44th ed.

log10 of Aniline vapor pressure. Uses formula: \scriptstyle \log_e P_{mmHg} =\scriptstyle \log_e (\frac {760} {101.325}) - 22.11315\log_e(T+273.15) - \frac {13079.73} {T+273.15} + 166.0812 + 1.233275 \times 10^{-5} (T+273.15)^2 obtained from CHERIC[4]

Distillation data[edit]

See also:

Vapor-liquid Equilibrium
for Aniline/Water
[6]
P = 745 mm Hg
BP
Temp.
°C
 % by mole water
liquid vapor
98.5 96.5
101 24.7 94.8
105 20.0 94.3
109.8 15.3 92.4
115.8 11.7 89.3
121 9.3 86.2
126 7.6 81.6
131 5.9 75.9
140 4.25 70.8
152 2.50 60.5
160 1.70 48.7
168 1.05 34.1
   
Vapor-liquid Equilibrium
for Aniline/n-hexane
[6]
P = 101.325 kPa
BP
Temp.
°C
 % by mole hexane
liquid vapor
150.2 1.50 62.50
136.4 2.50 76.00
116.0 5.30 88.70
90.0 11.00 96.00
79.5 16.85 97.66
75.7 20.99 98.07
74.1 27.35 98.31
73.25 37.90 98.42
73.20 52.00 98.62
73.15 71.46 98.78
72.15 81.26 98.93
71.50 86.50 99.06
70.70 90.93 99.16
69.80 95.32 99.36
69.10 97.86 99.61

Spectral data[edit]

UV-Vis
Ionization potential 7.72(62281)   eV(cm−1)
λmax 230 nm (E2-band)[7]
280 nm (B-band)[7]
Extinction coefficient, ε 8 600 (E2-band)[7]
1 430 (B-band)[7]
IR
Major absorption bands[8]
(liquid film)
Wave number transmittance
3663 cm−1 77%
3429 cm−1 32%
3354 cm−1 20%
3214 cm−1 44%
3088 cm−1 62%
3072 cm−1 55%
3037 cm−1 38%
3010 cm−1 67%
2930 cm−1 81%
2904 cm−1 79%
2640 cm−1 79%
2627 cm−1 81%
1929 cm−1 77%
1839 cm−1 79%
1705 cm−1 77%
1621 cm−1 7%
1601 cm−1 5%
1557 cm−1 70%
1525 cm−1 66%
1496 cm−1 4%
1467 cm−1 34%
1332 cm−1 74%
1312 cm−1 57%
1277 cm−1 25%
1176 cm−1 32%
1154 cm−1 68%
1053 cm−1 77%
1028 cm−1 64%
996 cm−1 60%
881 cm−1 53%
754 cm−1 8%
693 cm−1 10%
620 cm−1 47%
529 cm−1 50%
504 cm−1 18%
NMR
Proton NMR  
Carbon-13 NMR  
Other NMR data  
MS
Masses of
main fragments
 

UV Absorbance Spectroscopy of Aniline[edit]

Aniline is a benzenoid compound. The NH2 group attached to the benzene ring means that there is a lone pair of electrons that can enter into conjugation with the benzene ring resulting in delocalization in the aniline.

Aniline absorbs in the K (220 - 250 nm) and the B (250 - 290 nm) bands exhibited by benzenoid compounds. The K and B bands arise from π to π* transitions as a result of the a group containing multiple bond being attached to the benzene ring. When dissolved in ethanol, λmax for aniline is 230 nm, but in dilute aqueous acid λmax is 203 nm. In the latter case the anilinium cation is formed and the lone pair is no longer available for conjugation with the benzene ring. Consequently, the absorption of the molecule shifts to the lower λmax value and behaves like benzene.

Regulatory data[edit]

Regulatory data
Flash point 70°C
RTECS  ?
Autoignition temperature 615°C

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed. pp 1234-1237
  2. ^ Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed. pp 1661-1663
  3. ^ Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed. pp 1669-1674
  4. ^ a b "Pure Component Properties" (Queriable database). Chemical Engineering Research Information Center. Archived from the original on 3 June 2007. Retrieved 28 May 2007. 
  5. ^ Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed, pp 1522-1524
  6. ^ a b "Binary Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data" (Queriable database). Chemical Engineering Research Information Center. Retrieved 6 June 2007. 
  7. ^ a b c d Kaur, H. Spectroscopy. Global Media: Meerut, India, 2009; p. 304
  8. ^ "Spectral Database for Organic Compounds" (Queriable database). Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. Retrieved 9 June 2007. 
  • Finar, I.L. (1974); Organic Chemistry Vol.2 - Stereochemistry and the chemistry of natural products 5th. Ed. Longman

Except where noted otherwise, data relate to standard ambient temperature and pressure.

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