Anime industry

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Anime (アニメ?, [anʲime]); are Japanese animated productions featuring hand-drawn or computer animation. The word is the abbreviated pronunciation of "animation" in Japanese, where this term references all animation.[1] In other languages, the term is defined as animation from Japan or as a Japanese-disseminated animation style often characterized by colorful graphics, vibrant characters and fantastic themes.[2][3] Arguably, the stylization approach to the meaning may open up the possibility of anime produced in countries other than Japan.[4][5][6] For simplicity, many Westerners strictly view anime as an animation product from Japan.[3]

The earliest commercial Japanese animation dates to 1917, and production of anime works in Japan has since continued to increase steadily. The characteristic anime art style emerged in the 1960s with the works of Osamu Tezuka and spread internationally in the late twentieth century, developing a large domestic and international audience. Anime is distributed theatrically, by television broadcasts, directly to home media, and over the internet and is classified into numerous genres targeting diverse broad and niche audiences.

Anime is a diverse art form with distinctive production methods and techniques that have been adapted over time in response to emergent technologies. The production of anime focuses less on the animation of movement and more on the realism of settings as well as the use of camera effects, including panning, zooming and angle shots. Diverse art styles are used and character proportions and features can be quite varied, including characteristically large emotive or realistically sized eyes.

The anime industry consists of over 430 production studios including major names like Studio Ghibli, Gainax and Toei Animation. Despite having a fraction of the domestic film market, anime achieves a majority of DVD sales and has been an international success after the rise of televised English dubs. This rise in international popularly has resulted in non-Japanese productions using the anime art style, but these works have been defined as anime-influenced animation by both fans and the industry. The anime industry has grown significantly over the last few years, especially outside of Japan. It has spread rapidly across the world resulting in an increase in the licensing of various series, movies, and OVAs at an increased rate across multiple regions. Animax is acknowledged as the largest and the only 24-hour anime network in the world,[1] broadcasting its anime programs across Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, Latin America, Europe and South Korea.

Industry size[edit]

Television programs
Year of production Number produced Source
2000 124 [2]
2006 306 [2]
2008 288 [2]
Home video
Year Sales value Source
2005 97.1 billion yen[note1 1] [2]
2006 95 billion yen[note1 2] [2]
2007 89.4 billion yen[note1 3] [2]
2008 77.9 billion yen[note1 4] [2]
2011[note1 5] 19.6 billion yen[note1 6]
17.1 billion yen[note1 7]
[3]
2012 61.062 billion yen[note1 8] [4]
2013 78.99 billion yen[note1 9] [5]

Licensing[edit]

Anime has to be licensed by companies in other countries in order to be legally released. While anime has been licensed by its Japanese owners for use outside of Japan since at least the 1960s, the practice became well-established in the United States in the late 1970s to early 1980s, when such TV series as Gatchaman and Captain Harlock were licensed from their Japanese parent companies for distribution in the US market, often with fairly dramatic changes to the original concepts and storylines. The trend towards American distribution of anime continued into the 1980s with the licensing of titles such as Voltron and the 'creation' of new series such as Robotech through use of source material from several original series.

In the early 1990s, several companies began to experiment with the licensing of less children-oriented material. Some, such as A.D. Vision, and Central Park Media and its imprints, achieved fairly substantial commercial success and went on to become major players in the now very lucrative American anime market. Others, such as AnimEigo, achieved limited success. Many companies created directly by Japanese parent companies did not do as well, most releasing only one or two titles before completing their American operations.

Licenses are expensive, often hundreds of thousands of dollars for one series and tens of thousands for one movie.[6] The prices vary widely; for example, Jinki: Extend cost only $91,000 to license while Kurau Phantom Memory cost $960,000.[6] Simulcast internet streaming rights can be less expensive, with prices around $1,000-$2,000 an episode.[7]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ DVDs and Laserdiscs
  2. ^ DVDs and Laserdiscs
  3. ^ DVDs
  4. ^ DVDs, Blu-ray Discs and HD DVDs
  5. ^ H1: December 27, 2010 to June 26, 2011
  6. ^ DVDs
  7. ^ Blu-ray Discs
  8. ^ DVDs, Blu-ray Discs and HD DVDs
  9. ^ DVDs, Blu-ray Discs and HD DVDs

Further reading[edit]

  • Morisawa, T. (19 August 2014). "Managing the unmanageable: Emotional labour and creative hierarchy in the Japanese animation industry". Ethnography. doi:10.1177/1466138114547624.