||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (December 2013)|
Bryant in 1971
|Birth name||Anita Jane Bryant|
|Born||March 25, 1940|
|Labels||Carlton, Columbia, Word|
Anita Jane Bryant (born March 25, 1940) is an American singer, former Miss Oklahoma beauty pageant winner, and outspoken critic of homosexuality. She scored four Top 40 hits in the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s, including "Paper Roses," which reached #5. She later became known for her strong opposition to homosexuality and for her campaigning in 1977 to repeal a local ordinance in Dade County, Florida, that prohibited discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, an involvement that significantly damaged her popularity and career in show business.
Early life and career
Bryant was born in Barnsdall, Oklahoma. After her parents divorced, her father went into the U.S. Army and her mother went to work, taking her children to live with their grandparents temporarily. When Bryant was two years old, her grandfather taught her to sing "Jesus Loves Me". She was singing at the age of six onstage on local fairgrounds in Oklahoma. She sang occasionally on radio and television, and was invited to audition when Arthur Godfrey's talent show came to town.
In 1960, she married Bob Green (1931–2012), a Miami disc jockey, with whom she eventually raised four children: Robert Jr. (Bobby), Gloria, Billy, and Barbara. She divorced him in 1980, drawing criticism of hypocrisy from the Christian right regarding the indissolubility of Christian marriage which Bryant had championed and "the deterioration of the family" against which she had preached. She appeared early in her career on the NBC interview program Here's Hollywood and on the same network's The Ford Show, Starring Tennessee Ernie Ford.
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Bryant placed a total of 11 songs on the U.S. Hot 100, although most were at the bottom reaches of the chart. She had a moderate pop hit with "Till There Was You" (1959, US #30). She also saw three hits in "Paper Roses" (1960, US #5, and covered by Marie Osmond 13 years later); "In My Little Corner of the World" (1960, US #10); and "Wonderland by Night" (1961, US #18).
Bryant released several albums on the Carlton and Columbia labels. The 1959 Carlton LP Anita Bryant contained "Till There Was You" (from The Music Man). The 1963 Columbia Greatest Hits LP contained both Carlton and Columbia songs, including "Paper Roses" and "Step by Step, Little by Little". In 1964 she released The World of Lonely People, containing, in addition to the title song, "Welcome, Welcome Home" and a new rendition of "Little Things Mean a Lot", arranged by Frank Hunter.
In 1969 she became a spokeswoman for the Florida Citrus Commission, and nationally televised commercials featured her singing "Come to the Florida Sunshine Tree" and stating the commercials' tagline: "Breakfast without orange juice is like a day without sunshine." (Later, the slogan became, "It isn't just for breakfast any more!") All the commercials are now preserved and their copyright held by the Lynn and Louis Wolfson II Florida Moving Image Archives in Miami. In addition, during this time, she also appeared in advertisements for Coca-Cola, Kraft Foods, Holiday Inn and Tupperware.
She hosted a two-hour television special, The Anita Bryant Spectacular, in March 1980. She recounted her autobiography, appeared in medleys of prerecorded songs, and interviewed Pat Boone. The West Point Glee Club and General William Westmoreland participated. In the New York Times, John J. O'Connor commented: "For all of her careful projections of wholesomeness and benevolence, Miss Bryant delivers a message that is persistently hostile and aggressive."
In 1977, Dade County, Florida, passed an ordinance sponsored by Bryant's former friend Ruth Shack, that prohibited discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. Bryant led a highly publicized campaign to repeal the ordinance as the leader of a coalition named Save Our Children. The campaign was based on conservative Christian beliefs regarding the sinfulness of homosexuality and the perceived threat of homosexual recruitment of children and child molestation. Bryant stated:
What these people really want, hidden behind obscure legal phrases, is the legal right to propose to our children that theirs is an acceptable alternate way of life. [...] I will lead such a crusade to stop it as this country has not seen before.
The campaign began an organized opposition to gay rights that spread across the nation. Jerry Falwell went to Miami to help her. Bryant made the following statements during the campaign: "As a mother, I know that homosexuals cannot biologically reproduce children; therefore, they must recruit our children" and "If gays are granted rights, next we'll have to give rights to prostitutes and to people who sleep with St. Bernards and to nail biters." She also added that "All America and all the world will hear what the people have said, and with God's continued help we will prevail in our fight to repeal similar laws throughout the nation."
Victory and defeat
On June 7, 1977, Bryant's campaign led to a repeal of the anti-discrimination ordinance by a margin of 69 to 31 percent. However, the success of Bryant's campaign galvanized her opponents and the gay community retaliated against her by organizing a boycott of orange juice. Gay bars all over North America took screwdrivers off their drink menus and replaced them with the "Anita Bryant", which was made with vodka and apple juice. Sales and proceeds went to gay civil rights activists to help fund their fight against Bryant and her campaign.
In 1977, Florida legislators approved a measure prohibiting gay adoption. The ban was overturned more than 30 years later when, on November 25, 2008, Miami-Dade Circuit Court Judge Cindy S. Lederman declared it unconstitutional.
Bryant led several more campaigns around the country to repeal local anti-discrimination ordinances including St. Paul, Minnesota; Wichita, Kansas; and Eugene, Oregon. Her success led to an effort to pass the Briggs Initiative in California, which would have made pro- or neutral statements regarding homosexual people or homosexuality by any public school employee cause for dismissal. Grass-roots liberal organizations, chiefly in Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area, sprang up to defeat the initiative. Days before the election, the California Democratic Party opposed the proposed legislation. Former Governor and future President Ronald Reagan voiced opposition to the initiative, and it ultimately suffered a massive defeat at the polls.
In 1998, Dade County repudiated Bryant's successful campaign of 20 years earlier, and re-authorized an anti-discrimination ordinance protecting individuals from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation by a seven-to-six vote. In 2002, a ballot initiative to repeal the 1998 law, called Amendment 14, was voted down by 56 percent of the voters. The Florida statute forbidding gay adoption was upheld in 2004 by a federal appellate court against a constitutional challenge, but was overturned by a Miami-Dade Circuit Court in November 2008.
Bryant became one of the first persons to be publicly "pied" as a political act (in her case, on television), in Des Moines, in 1977. Bryant quipped "At least it's a fruit pie", making a pun on the derogatory term of "fruit" for a gay man. While covered in pie, she began to pray to God to forgive the activist "for his deviant lifestyle" before bursting into tears as the cameras kept rolling. Bryant's husband, after promising not to retaliate, later took another pie and threw it at the protesters who had pied his wife. By this time, gay activists had ensured the boycott on Florida orange juice had become more prominent and it was supported by many celebrities, including Barbra Streisand, Bette Midler, Paul Williams, John Waters, Carroll O'Connor, Mary Tyler Moore, Linda Lavin, and Jane Fonda. In 1978, Bryant and Bob Green told the story of their campaign in the book, At Any Cost. Even many years after her campaign, the gay community continued to regard her name as synonymous with bigotry and homophobia.
Bryant's 1977 political efforts are chronicled in Elizabeth Whitney's one-woman show A Day Without Sunshine.
Career decline and bankruptcies
The fallout from her political activism hurt her business and entertainment career. Her contract with the Florida Citrus Commission was allowed to lapse in 1979 because of the controversy and the negative publicity generated by her political campaigns and the resulting boycott of Florida orange juice.
Her marriage to Bob Green also failed at that time, and in 1980 she divorced him, citing emotional abuse and latent suicidal thoughts. Green refused to accept this, saying that his fundamentalist religious beliefs did not recognize civil divorce and that she was "still" his wife "in God's eyes." In 2007, Green stated: "Blame gay people? I do. Their stated goal was to put her out of business and destroy her career. And that's what they did. It's unfair."
Some fundamentalist audiences and venues shunned her after her divorce. As she was no longer invited to appear at their events, she lost another major source of income. With three of her four children, she moved from Miami to Selma, Alabama, and later to Atlanta, Georgia. In a 1980 Ladies Home Journal article she said, "The church needs to wake up and find some way to cope with divorce and women's problems." She also expressed some sympathy for feminist aspirations, given her own experiences of emotional abuse within her previous marriage.
She married her second husband, Charlie Hobson Dry, in 1990. The couple tried to reestablish her music career in a series of small venues, including Branson, Missouri, and Pigeon Forge, Tennessee where they opened "Anita Bryant's Music Mansion". The establishment combined Bryant's performances of her successful songs from early in her career with a "lengthy segment in which she preached her Christian beliefs." The venture was not successful and the Music Mansion, which had missed meeting payrolls at times, filed for bankruptcy in 2001 with Bryant and Dry leaving behind a series of unpaid employees and creditors.
Bryant also spent part of the 1990s in the country music mecca of Branson, Missouri, where the state and federal governments filed liens claiming more than $116,000 in unpaid taxes. Bryant and Dry had also filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in Arkansas in 1997 after piling up bills from a failed Anita Bryant show in Eureka Springs, a tourist area in northwest Arkansas. Among the debts were more than $172,000 in unpaid state and federal taxes.
In 2005, Bryant returned to Barnsdall, Oklahoma, for the town's 100th anniversary celebration and to have a street renamed in her honor. She returned to her high school in Tulsa on April 21, 2007, to perform in the school's annual musical revue. She now lives in Edmond, Oklahoma, and says she does charity work for various youth organizations while heading Anita Bryant Ministries International.
In a 1980 Ladies Home Journal interview, following her divorce and in the aftermath of her anti-gay activism, Bryant commented on her anti-gay views and said, "I'm more inclined to say live and let live, just don't flaunt it or try to legalize it." However, the biography page on her Anita Bryant Ministries website (written in 2006) continues to defend her earlier anti-gay activism and views.
One student of Bryant's writings has written: "Many of her public statements, including her books, were ghostwritten by others, and there is internal reason to conclude that the most political books were pasted together by several hands from various sources."
- Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory (Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell, 1970)
- Amazing Grace (Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell, 1971)
- Bless This House (Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell, 1972)
- Bless This Food: The Anita Bryant Family Cookbook (NY: Doubleday, 1975)
- The Anita Bryant Story: The Survival of Our Nation's Families and the Threat of Militant Homosexuality (Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell, 1977)
- With Bob Green
- Fishers of Men (Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell, 1973)
- Light My Candle (Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell, 1974)
- Running the Good Race (Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell, 1976), fitness guidance
- Raising God's Children (Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell, 1977)
|Year||Album||Billboard 200||Record Label|
|1959||Anita Bryant||-||Carlton Records|
|1961||In My Little Corner of the World||99|
|Kisses Sweeter Than Wine||-||Columbia Records|
|1962||In a Velvet Mood||145|
|1963||The Country's Best||-|
|1964||The World of Lonely People||-|
|1966||Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory||146|
|1967||Christmas with Anita Bryant||25|
|1968||Anita Bryant||-||Harmony Records|
|How Great Thou Art||-||Columbia Records|
|1969||Little Things Mean a Lot||-||Harmony Records|
|1970||World Without Love||-|
|Abide with Me||-||Word Records|
|1973||Battle Hymn of the Republic||-||Word Records|
|1975||Old Fashioned Prayin'||-|
|Anita Bryant's All-Time Favorite Hymns||-|
|Year||Title||Peak chart positions||Record Label||B-side||Album|
|1959||"Till There Was You"||30||—||—||—||Carlton Records||"Little George (Got The Hiccoughs)"||Anita Bryant|
|"Six Boys and Seven Girls"||62||—||—||—||"The Blessings of Love"|
|"Do-Re-Mi"||94||—||—||—||"Promise Me A Rose" (A-side)|
|1960||"Paper Roses"||5||16||—||24||"Mixed Emotions"||Greatest Hits|
|"My Little Corner of the World"||10||—||—||48||"Anyone Would Love You"||In My Little Corner Of The World|
|"One of the Lucky Ones"||62||—||—||—||"Love Look Away"|
|"Promise Me a Rose (A Slight Detail)"||78||—||—||—||"Do-Re-Mi"|
|1961||"Wonderland by Night"||18||—||—||—||"Pictures"|
|"A Texan and a Girl from Mexico"||85||—||—||—||"He's Not Good Enough for You"|
|"I Can't Do It by Myself"||87||—||—||—||"An Angel Cried"|
|"Lonesome For You, Mama"||108||—||—||—||"A Place Called Happiness"|
|1962||"Step By Step, Little By Little"||106||—||—||—||Columbia Records||"Cold Cold Winter"||Greatest Hits|
|1964||"The World of Lonely People"||59||—||17||—||"It's Better to Cry Today Than Cry Tomorrow"||The World of Lonely People|
|"Welcome, Welcome Home"||130||—||—||—|
Bryant's name has frequently been invoked as a prototypical example of opposition to LGBT rights. When Elton John was criticized for touring Russia in 1979, he responded: "I wouldn't say I won't tour in America because I can't stand Anita Bryant". In his song "Mañana", Jimmy Buffett sings "I hope Anita Bryant never ever does one of my songs."
Bryant was regularly lampooned on Saturday Night Live, sometimes with her politics as the target, sometimes her reputation as a popular, traditional entertainer known for her commercials, sometimes a combination of the two. Some references were less overtly political, but equally critical. In the film Airplane!, Leslie Nielsen's character, upon seeing a large number of passengers become violently ill, vomit, and suffer uncontrollable flatulence, remarked: "I haven't seen anything this bad since the Anita Bryant concert." Other television shows that targeted her were Designing Women and The Golden Girls.
- Tobin, Thomas C. (April 28, 2002). "Bankruptcy, ill will plague Bryant". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved June 14, 2011.
- Red Corn, Louise (May 28, 2005). "Celebration draws Anita Bryant back to Barnsdall". Tulsa World. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
- Sinclair, Kip (1980). Anita Bryant Rates Family Bliss Next to Godliness, but After 20 Years She's Divorcing Bob Green 13 (23). Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2010.
- Elinor J. Brecher, Steve Rothaus. "One-time disc jockey Bob Green, Anita Bryant's husband during 1977 gay-rights battle, dies at 80". The Miami Herald. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
- Balmer, Randall Herbert (2002). The Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Know Press. pp. 93–4.
- The Anita Bryant Spectacular at the Internet Movie Database
- O'Connor, John J. (March 27, 1980). "TV: Study of Inflation and Anita Bryant Show". New York Times. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
- Davis, Stephen (1976). Jim Morrison: Life, Death, Legend. NY: Gotham Books. pp. 323–4.
- Bryant, Anita (1976). Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory. G.K. Hall. p. 141.
- 1977 "Year in Review: Miami Demonstrations". United Press International.
- Bryant, Anita; Green, Bob (1978). At Any Cost. Grand Rapids, Michigan, US: Fleming H. Revell. ASIN B004V8W7OO.
- Marcus, Eric (2002). Making Gay History: The Half-Century Fight for Lesbian and Gay Equal Rights. New York, US: Harper. ISBN 0-06-093391-7.
- Almanzar, Yolanne (2008-11-25). "Florida Gay Adoption Ban Is Ruled Unconstitutional". The New York Times.
- Sunday, July 7, 2013 10:30 AM EDT Facebook Twitter RSS (2008-01-13). "'For the Bible Tells Me So': Setting us straight". Thestar.com. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- "CNN Transcripts". Transcripts.cnn.com. 2008-04-26. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- Louis-Georges Tin, Dictionary of Homophobia: A Global History of Gay & Lesbian Experience (2003), ISBN 978-1-55152-229-6
- "Bryant, Anita". Glbtq.com. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- Bryant, Anita (1992). A New Day. Nashville, TN: Broadman. ASIN B000LEM04E.
- Steve Rothaus. "Bob Green: Anita's ex paid dearly in the fight". The Miami Herald. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
- Jahr, Cliff (1980). "Anita Bryant's Startling Reversal". Ladies Home Journal (Charter Company) (December 1980): 60–68.
- Howe, Desson (January 12, 1990). "Roger & Me". Washington Post. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
- "Anita Bryant Biography". Anita Bryant Ministries International. 2006. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
- Jordan, Mark D. (2011). Recruiting Young Love: How Christians Talk about Homosexuality. University of Chicago Press. p. 130.
- Elton John, To Russia With Elton John (Media notes). EU: Power Station. 2003.
- Jimmy Buffett – Son of a Son of a Sailor (lyrics/liner notes) (ABC Records, 1978)
- "Steve Martin". Saturday Night Live. Season 2. Episode 14. Feb 26, 1977. NBC.
- "Hugh Hefner". Saturday Night Live. Season 3. Episode 3. Oct 15, 1977. NBC.
- "Dyan Cannon". Saturday Night Live. Season 1. Episode 20. May 15, 1976. NBC.
- "Burt Reynolds". Saturday Night Live. Season 5. Episode 16. April 12, 1980. NBC.
- Airplane! (film), 1980, Paramount Pictures.
- "Monette". Designing Women. Season 1. Episode 13. Feb 8, 1987. NBC.
- "Sophia's Wedding (1)". The Golden Girls. Season 4. Episode 6. Nov 19, 1988. NBC.
- "Big Daddy's Little Lady". The Golden Girls. Season 2. Episode 6. Nov 15, 1986. NBC.
- Maupin, Armistead (1980). More Tales of the City. New York, US: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-090726-6.
- McClintock, Pamela (May 16, 2013). "Cannes: Uma Thurman Set to Star in Anita Bryant Pic". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Anita Bryant.|
- Anita Bryant Ministries International
- Image of Anita Bryant in the 1970s (available for public use from the State Archives of Florida)
- Belated curtain call, Tulsa World, 19 April 2007
- Readers Forum: Anita Bryant to star in Round-Up 2007, Tulsa World, 18 April 2007
- Celebration draws Anita Bryant back to Barnsdall, Tulsa World, 28 May 2005
- Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture – Bryant, Anita