Annam (Chinese province)

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History of Vietnam
(geographical renaming)
Map of Vietnam showing the conquest of the south (the Nam tiến, 1069-1757).
2879–2524 BC Xích Quỷ
2524–258 BC Văn Lang
257–207 BC Âu Lạc
207–111 BC Nam Việt
111 BC – 40 AD Giao Chỉ
40–43 Lĩnh Nam
43–299 Giao Chỉ
299–544 Giao Châu
544–602 Vạn Xuân
602–679 Giao Châu/An Nam
679–757 An Nam
757–766 Trấn Nam
766–866 An Nam
866–967 Tĩnh Hải quân
968–1054 Đại Cồ Việt
1054–1400 Đại Việt
1400–1407 Đại Ngu
1407–1427 Giao Chỉ
1428–1804 Đại Việt
1804–1839 Việt Nam
1839–1887 Đại Nam
1887–1945 French Indochina (Tonkin,
Annam, & Cochinchina)
from 1945 Việt Nam
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{{History of Vietnam}}

Annam (; pinyin: Ānnán) or Giao Chỉ (pinyin: Jiāozhǐ) was the southernmost province of the Chinese Empire. It is now part of present-day Vietnam.[1] The region roughly corresponds to the area known as Tonkin.

China under the Tang dynasty, c. 660 AD (bright yellow).

Nanyue or Triệu dynasty[edit]

In the 2nd century BCE, what later became Annam was part of the kingdom of Nanyue, known in Vietnam as the Triệu dynasty, an ancient kingdom formed upon the union of Baiyue people at the final collapse of the Qin dynasty by former Qin General Zhao Tuo and was nominally subject to the Chinese Han dynasty. In 111 BCE, the Han imperial government, under Emperor Wu of Han, invaded Nanyue and asserted direct control for the first time. By 108 BCE, the conquest was completed and the Chinese took over the lands. The first name given the land based around Hanoi and the Red River was Jiaozhi. This period 111 BCE–541 CE marks the first and second Chinese domination of Vietnam.

Annam Protectorate of the Tang dynasty[edit]

In 679, Tang dynasty established Protectorate General to Pacify the South (traditional Chinese: 安南都护府; Vietnamese: An Nam đô hộ phủ) as their military government in Jiaozhi, but were not immediately successful because the local people didn't recognize the Tang Dynasty and instead led a series of protective wars against Tang Dynasty rulers. The Sino-Vietnamese name of this government is An Nam đô hộ phủ which can be called for short An Nam (Pacified South) or Annam as in Western documents. This is known as the third period of the Bắc thuộc ("Northern domination") in Vietnam.

It was to remain Annam for the next 600 years, seemingly living up to its name. A peaceful territory, part of a succession of Chinese kingdoms: Eastern Wu, Jin, Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang, Chen, Sui and the Tang. However there were still revolts from time to time and periods of weaker government control.

Finally in 939, Ngô Quyền successfully expelled the Chinese at the Battle of Bạch Đằng where he beheaded the Commanding Admiral and Prince of Southern Han dynasty, Liu Hongcao (劉弘操) and re-established the independent state of Đại Việt. This was the effective end of Annam as a Chinese province. Several attempts were made by various Chinese governments to retake Vietnam, one succeeded (Ming rule of Vietnam) but only for 20 years (1407–1427).

French use of the term "Annam"[edit]

In the 1860s, the French government under Napoleon III conquered first southern and then central Vietnam. The central portion of the country they ruled as the protectorate of Annam.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ John King Fairbank (1978). The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge University Press. p. 693. ISBN 0-521-21446-7.