Annamacharya

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తాళ్ళపాక అన్నమాచార్య Tallapaka Annamacharya
Annamacharya.jpg
This statue is at Dwaraka Tirumal
Background information
Native name తాళ్ళపాక అన్నమాచార్య
Also known as chaitanya
Born (1408-05-22)May 22, 1408
Tallapaka, Andhra Pradesh
Died February 14, 1503(1503-02-14) (aged 94)
Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh
Genres Carnatic music
Occupation(s) Saint, poet, composer, writer
Instruments Tanpura
Website www.annamayya.org

Taḷḷapāka Annamācārya (or Annamayya) (Telugu: తాళ్ళపాక అన్నమాచార్య)(May 22, 1408 – February 14, 1503) was a 15th-century Hindu saint and is the earliest known Indian musician to compose songs called sankirtanas in praise of the god Venkateswara, a form of Vishnu.[1] The musical form of the keertana songs that he composed, which are still popular among Carnatic music concert artists,[2] have strongly influenced the structure of Carnatic music compositions.[3] Annamacharya is remembered for his saintly life, and is honoured as a great devotee of Vishnu by devotees and saintly singers.[4]

He is believed to have been the avatar of Nandaka, the sword of Vishnu. He is widely regarded as the Andhra Pada kavitā Pitāmaha(Godfather of Telugu song-writing).[1]

Personal life[edit]

Annamacharya was born on Vaishakha Shuddha Pournami in the year Sarwadhari (May 22, 1408) in Tallapaka, a village in current day Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh, India.[5] He was born into a Nandavarika Smartha Brahmin family.[6] He later became a Sri Vaishnavite saint, initiated by Venkatesha. His wife, Timmakka,[7] had written Subhadra Kalyanam, and is considered the first female poet in Telugu literature. Their son, Pedda Tirumalacharya, and grandson, Tallapaka Chinnayya, were also composers and poets. The Tallapaka compositions are considered to have dominated and influenced the structure of Carnatic music compositions.[3] Annamacharya lived for 94 years until Phalguna Bahula Dvadashi (12th day after full moon) in the year Dhundhubhi (February 14, 1503).

A statue of Tallapaka Annamacharya situated at the Sarada River Park in Anakapalle, Andhra Pradesh.

Literary career[edit]

10-story tall statue of Sri Tallapaka Annamacharya located at the entrance of Tallapaka.

Annamacharya is said to have composed as many as 36,000 sankeertanas (songs) on the god Venkateswara,[8] of which only about 12,000 are available today.

Annamacharya considered his compositions as floral offerings to Venkateswara. In the poems, he praises the deity, describes his love for him, argues and quarrels with the Lord, confesses the devotee's failures and apprehensions, and surrenders himself to Venkateshwara. His songs are classified into the Adhyaatma (spiritual) and Sringaara (romantic) sankeertanas genres. His songs in the "Sringaara" genre worship Venkateswara by describing the amorous and romantic adventures of Venkateswara and his consort Alamelu, while others describe the Bhakti of his devotees.

In his later keertanas, he espouses subjects such as morality, dharma and righteousness. He was one of the first few who opposed the social stigma towards the untouchable castes in his era,[9] with his sankeertanas explaining that the relationship between God and human is the same irrespective of the latter's color, caste and financial status, in his songs "Brahmaṃ Okkatē Paraḥbrahmamokkatē" and "ē kulajuḍainanēmi evvaḍainanēmi". His prodigious literary career earned him a place among the all-time greats of Telugu literature.[10]

While he enjoyed popularity in his days, his compositions were forgotten for over three centuries. Mentioned in 1849,[11] they were later found engraved on copper plates, hidden for centuries inside the Sri Venkateswara temple at Tirumala, just opposite the Hundi, concealed in a very small room. An English translation of 150 of these verses was published in 2005.[12]

Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams, also known as TTD, has been endeavouring to preserve the rich heritage of his compositions. In the year 1950, The State Government of Andhra Pradesh created a committee and appointed Dr M Balamuralikrishna as its head. He set music to over 800 compositions of Annamacharya and are still popular among the devotees. He has been the Āsthāna Gāyaka of the Tirumala temple at Tirupati since two decades. He is regarded as a legend in rendering devotional music in classical style, especially the Annamacharya Sankirtanas. He is also an acclaimed poet, singer, and a musicologist.

Shobha Raju is the first recipient of Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams scholarship in 1976 to study and set a trend for the propagation of Annamacharya's compositions, and was also chosen as the first exclusive artiste for the propagation of Annamacharya's compositions in 1978. Her first audio album, "Vēnkatēśvara Gīta Mālika" is globally popular among Telugu community. She is the founder of Annamacharya Bhavana Vahini (ABV) www.annamayya.org in 1983, which is located in Hyderabad, India. She has been awarded Padmashri by Government of India, in 2010 in recognition of her efforts to promote Annamayya Compositions.

Famous Compositions[edit]

This is a partial list of some of the more famous Annamacharya compositions.

Composition Raga Tala Music Set By Language Other Info
Adivō Alladivō Śriharivāsamu
అదివో అల్లదివో శ్రీహరివాసము
Madhyamavati Telugu
Alara Cañcalamaina Ātmalanduṇḍa
అలరా చంచలమైన ఆత్మలందుందా
Rāga mālika khanDa cApu Garimella Balakrishna Prasad Telugu [13]
Alarulu Kuriayaga Āḍinadē
అలరులు కురియగ ఆడినదే
Dheerasankarabharanam Telugu
Anni mantramulu nindē yāvahiñcenu
అన్ని మంత్రములు ఇందె ఆవహించెను
Amritavarshini Telugu [14]
Antaryāmi Alaśiti Solaśiti
అంతర్యామి అలసితి సొలసితి
Telugu
Bhāvayāmi Gōpālabālaṁ Manassēvitaṁ
భావయామి గోపాలబాలం మనస్సేవితం
Yamunā Kaḷyāṇi Sanskrit [15]
Bhāvamulōna bāhyamunandunu
భావములోన బాహ్యమునందునూ
Śuddha Dhanyasi Khanda Chapu Nedunuri Krishnamurthy Telugu [16]
Brahma Kaḍigina Pādamu
బ్రహ్మ కడిగిన పాదము
Mukhāri Adi Telugu'
Cakkani Talliki Chāngu Bhaḷā
చక్కని తల్లికి ఛాంగుభళా
Telugu
Cāladā Harināma Saukhyāmr̥tamu
చాలదా హరినామ సౌఖ్యామృతము
Telugu
Cēri Yaśōdaku Śiśuvitaḍu
చేరి యశోదకు శిశువితడు
Telugu
Candamāma Rāve Jābilli Rāve
చందమామ రావే జాబిల్లి రావే
Telugu
Dēvadēvaṁ Bhajē Divya Prabhāvaṁ
దేవదేవం భజే దివ్య ప్రభావం
Hindolam Misra Chapu Telugu
ḍōlāyāṁ Cālā ḍōlāyāṁ
డోలాయాం చాలా డోలాయాం
Telugu
ēmokō ciguruṭadharamuna eḍaneḍakastūri niṃḍenu
ఏమకో చిగురుటధరమున కస్తూరి నిండెను
Telugu
ē Purāṇamuna Eṁta Vedakinā
ఏ పురాణమున ఎంత వెదకినా
Telugu
GovindāŚrita Gōkula Br̥ndā
గోవిందాశ్రిత గోకుల బృందా
Telugu
Harināmame Kaḍu Ānandakaramu
హరినామమే కడు ఆనందకరము
Telugu
Indariki Abhayammuliccu Cēyi
ఇందరికి అభయమ్ములిచ్చు చేయి
Telugu
Inni Rāśulayuniki Inti Cheluvapu Rāśi
ఇన్ని రాశులయునికి ఇంతిచెలువపు రాశి
Telugu
Ippuḍiṭu Kalagaṃṭi
ఇప్పుడిటు కలగంటి
Telugu
Itarulaku Ninneruga Taramā
ఇతరులకు నిన్నెరుగ తరమా
Telugu
Jō Acyutānanda Jō Jō Mukundā
జో అచ్యుతానంద జో జో ముకుందా
Navroj Telugu [17]
Kanṭi Śukravāramu Gaḍiyalēḍiṁṭa
కంటి శుక్రవారము గడియలేడింట
Telugu [18]
Koṁḍalalō Nelakonna Kōnēṭi Rāyaḍu Vāḍu
కొండలలో నెలకొన్న కోనేటి రాయడు వాడు
Telugu
kṣīrābdi kanyakaku Śrī Mahālakṣmikini
క్షీరాబ్ది కన్యకకు శ్రీ మహాలక్ష్మికిని
'Kuruṁgi' Telugu
Kulukaka Naḍavārō Kommalārā
కులుకక నడవరో కొమ్మలారా
Telugu [19]
Mēdini Jīvula Gāva Mēlukōvayyā
మీదిని జీవుల గావ మేలుకోవయ్యా
Telugu
Muddugārē Yaśōda Muṅgiṭa Mutayamu vīḍu
ముద్దుగారే యశోద ముంగిట ముత్యము విడు
Telugu [20]
Mūsina Mutyālakēlē Moragulu
మూసిన ముత్యాలకేలే మొరగులు
Telugu
Nallani Mēni Nagavu Chūpulavāḍu
నల్లని మేని నగవు చుపులవాడు
Telugu
Nānāṭi Batuku Nāṭakamu
నానాటి బతుకు నాటకము
Rēvati Nedunuri Krishnamurthy Telugu
Nārāyaṇa Tē Namō Namō
నారాయణ తే నమో నమో
Telugu
Neyyamullallō Nērēḷḷo Voyyana ūreḍi Uvviḷḷo
నెయ్యములల్లో నేరేళ్ళో వొయ్యన ఊరెడి ఉవ్విళ్ళో
Telugu
Nitya Pūjalivivō Nericinānōhō
నిత్యపూజలివివో నేరిచినానోహో
Telugu [21]
Paluku Tēnelatalli Pavaḷincenu
పలుకు తేనెలతల్లి పవళించెను
Telugu
Poḍaganṭimayya mimmu Puruṣōttamā
పొడగంటిమయ్యా పురుషోత్తమా
Mohanam Adi Telugu
Śriman Narāyaṇā Śriman Narāyaṇā Nī Śri Pādamē Śaraṇu
శ్రీమాన్ నారాయణ శ్రీమాన్ నారాయణ నీ శ్రీపాదమే శరణు
Bowli Adi Telugu
Rajīva Nētrāya Raghavāya Namō
రాజీవ నేత్రాయ రాఘవాయ నమో
Telugu
Ramacandruḍitaḍu Raghuvīruḍu
రామచంద్రుడితడు రఘువీరుడు
Telugu
Siruta Navvulavāḍu Sinnakka
సిరుత నవ్వులవాడు సిన్నక్కా
Telugu
Ṣōḍaśa Kaḷānidhiki Ṣoḍaśōpacāramulu
షోడశ కళానిధికి షోడశోపచారములు
Telugu
Tandanānā Ahi
తందనాన అహి
Bowli Adi Telugu Tatva Prabōdha Keertana
Tvamēva Śaraṇam
త్వమేవ శరణం
Telugu
Vandēhaṁ Jagadvallabhaṁ
Sanskrit: वन्देहं जगद्वल्लभं
Telugu: వందేహం జగద్వల్లభం
Hamsadhvani Khanda Chapu Sanskrit In praise of lord Venkaṭēśvara
Vandē Vāsudēvaṁ Śrīpatiṁ
వందే వాసుదేవం శ్రీపతిం
Telugu
Vēḍukoṁdāmā Vēṅkaṭagiri Veṅkaṭeśvaruni Veḍukoṁdāmā
వేడుకొందామా వేంకటగిరి వేంకటేశ్వరుని వేడుకొందామా
Telugu
Vinnapālu Vinavale Viṁtaviṁtalu
విన్నపాలు వినవలె వింతవింతలు
Telugu

అన్నమయ్య పాటలు (All Annamayya songs lyrics in Telugu Script)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Life and Times of Sri Tallapaka Annamacharya". Svasa.org. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  2. ^ Jackson (1999), p. 105.
  3. ^ a b Jackson (1999), p. 216.
  4. ^ Jackson (1999), p. 265.
  5. ^ "Pension for Annamayya's descendants". The Hindu (Chennai, India). May 23, 2008. 
  6. ^ T. Kothandaramaiah. "The Legacy of Tallapaka Poets". saranagathi.org. 
  7. ^ "Annamacharya's 600th birth anniversary celebrated". The Hindu (Chennai, India). April 6, 2009. 
  8. ^ "Annamayya preached oneness 600 years ago". The Hindu (Chennai, India). May 4, 2007. 
  9. ^ "All are equal before God". The Hindu (Chennai, India). July 14, 2000. Retrieved June 5, 2013. 
  10. ^ "A classical touch to Annamayya kritis". The Hindu (Chennai, India). February 5, 2005. 
  11. ^ Campbell, AD (1849). A grammar of the Telugu language (3 ed.). Hindu Press. p. xiii. 
  12. ^ Annamayya, (translators) Velcheru Narayana Rao, David Shulman (2005). God on the Hill: Temple Poems from Tirupati. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0195182847. Retrieved June 5, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Alara chanchalamaina". Sahityam. September 25, 2009. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  14. ^ "Anni mantramulu". Sahityam. November 7, 2009. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  15. ^ "Bhavayami gopalabalam". Sahityam. July 6, 2010. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  16. ^ "Bhavamulona bahyamunandunu". Sahityam. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  17. ^ "Jo achyutananda jo jo mukunda". Sahityam. January 24, 2012. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  18. ^ "Kanti sukravaramu". Sahityam. June 9, 2010. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  19. ^ "Kulukaka nadavaro". Sahityam. October 19, 2010. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  20. ^ "Muddugare yasoda". Sahityam. October 2, 2010. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  21. ^ "Nitya pujalivivO". Sahityam. June 17, 2010. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Jackson, William. 'Religious and Devotional Music: Southern Area’ (1999). In Porter, James; Rice, Timothy & Goertzon, Chris. The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. New York & London: Taylor & Francis. 

External links[edit]