Anne Claude de Caylus
|Anne Claude de Caylus|
Count de Caylus by Alexandre Roslin, National Museum, Warsaw
|Born||October 31, 1692
|Died||September 5, 1765|
Anne Claude de Tubières-Grimoard de Pestels de Lévis, comte de Caylus, marquis d'Esternay, baron de Bransac (Anne Claude Philippe; October 31, 1692 – September 5, 1765), French antiquarian, proto-archaeologist and man of letters, was born at Paris.
He was the eldest son of Lieutenant-General Anne de Tubières, comte de Caylus. His mother, Marthe-Marguerite de Villette de Mursay, comtesse de Caylus (1673-1729), was the daughter of vice-admiral Philippe, Marquis de Villette-Mursay.
He was a cousin of Mme de Maintenon, who brought Marthe-Marguerite up like her own daughter. Marthe-Marguerite wrote valuable Souvenirs of the court of Louis XIV; these were edited by Voltaire (1770), and by many later editors.
While a young man, Caylus distinguished himself in the campaigns of the French army, from 1709 to 1714. After the peace of Rastatt (1714) he spent some time in travelling in Italy, Greece, the Levant, England and Germany, and devoted much attention to the study and collection of antiquities. He became an active member of the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture and of the Académie des Inscriptions. Chief among his antiquarian works must be the profusely illustrated Recueil d'antiquités égyptiennes, étrusques, grècques, romaines et gauloises (6 vols., Paris, 1752-1755), which was mined by the designers of Neoclassical arts for the rest of the century. His Numismata Aurea Imperatorum Romanorum, treats only the gold coinage of the Roman emperors, those worthy of collection by a grand seigneur. His concentration on the object itself marked a step towards modern connoisseuship, and in his Mémoire (1755) on the method of encaustic painting, the ancient technique of painting with wax as a medium mentioned by Pliny the Elder, he claimed to have rediscovered the method. Diderot, who was no friend to Caylus, maintained that the proper method had been found by J.-B. Bachelier.
Caylus was an admirable etcher, and copied many paintings of the great masters. He caused engravings to be made, at his own expense, of Bartoli's copies from ancient pictures and published Nouveaux sujets de peinture et de sculpture (1755) and Tableaux tirés de l'Iliade, de l'Odyssée, et de l'Enéide (1757).
He encouraged artists whose reputations were still in the making, and befriended the connoisseur and collector of prints and drawings Pierre-Jean Mariette when Mariette was only twenty-two, but his patronage was somewhat capricious. Diderot expressed this fact in an epigram in his Salon of 1765: "La mort nous a délivré du plus cruel des amateurs." Caylus had quite another side to his character. He had a thorough acquaintance with the gayest and most disreputable sides of Parisian life, and left a number of more or less witty stories dealing with it. These were collected (Amsterdam, 1787) as his Œuvres badines complètes. The best of them is the Histoire de M. Guillaume, cocher (c. 1730). His Contes, hovering between French fairy tales and oriental fantasies, between conventional charm and moral satire, have been collected and were published in 2005.
The Souvenirs du comte de Caylus, published in 1805, is of very doubtful authenticity. See also E. and J. de Goncourt, Portraits intimes du XVIIIième siècle; Charles Nisard's edition of the Correspondance du comte de Caylus avec le père Paciaudi (1877); and a notice by O. Uzanne prefixed to a volume of his Facties (1879).
- "Death has delivered us from the cruellest of connoisseurs."
- (Comte de Caylus) Julie Boch, ed. Contes. Édition critique, Honoré Champion, (series Bibliothèque des Génies et des Fées, vol. 12), 2005.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Julie Boch, editor, 2005. Comte de Caylus: Contes (H. Champion) in series "Sources classiques".ISBN 2-7453-1198-0 Notice
- [Three of his essays were anthologized in Charles Harrison, et al., 2001. Art In Theory 1648-1815: An Anthology of Changing Ideas (Blackwell): "On Drawings" (1732, "The Life of Antoine Watteau" (1748, and "On Composition" (1750).
- Leonardo da Vinci: anatomical drawings from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle, exhibition catalog fully online as PDF from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Caylus's da Vinci collection (see index)