Germaine de Staël
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Anne Louise Germaine de Staël-Holstein (French: [stal]; 22 April 1766 – 14 July 1817), commonly known as Madame de Staël, was a French woman of letters of Swiss origin whose lifetime overlapped with the events of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era. She was one of Napoleon's principal opponents. Celebrated for her conversational eloquence, she participated actively in the political and intellectual life of her times. Her works, both critical and fictional, made their mark on the history of European Romanticism.
Anne Louise Germaine Necker was born in Paris, France. Her father was the prominent Swiss banker and statesman Jacques Necker, who was the Director of Finance under King Louis XVI of France. Her mother was Suzanne Curchod, hostess of one of the most popular salons of Paris, where figures such as Buffon, Marmontel, Grimm, Edward Gibbon, the Abbé Raynal, and Jean-François de la Harpe were frequent guests. Mme Necker wanted to endow her daughter with the intellectual education and Calvinist discipline instilled in her by her own Protestant pastor father, yet she habitually brought Germaine as a young child to sit at her feet in her salon, where the sober intellectuals took pleasure in stimulating the brilliant child. This exposure occasioned a breakdown in adolescence, but the seeds of a literary vocation had been sown irrevocably.
During the next few years after Jacques Necker's dismissal from office, they resided in the Swiss village of Coppet at the Château de Coppet, her father's estate on Lake Geneva, which she later would make famous. They returned to the Paris region in 1785, and Mlle Necker continued to write miscellaneous works, including a three-act romantic drama, Sophie, written in 1786, and a five-act tragedy, Jeanne Grey, written in 1787. Both plays were published in 1790.
Soon Germaine's parents became impatient for her to marry; and they are said to have objected to her marrying a Roman Catholic, which, in France, considerably limited her choice. There is a legend that William Pitt the Younger thought of her. The somewhat notorious lover of Julie de Lespinasse, Guibert, a cold-hearted coxcomb of some talent, certainly paid her addresses.
Finally, she married Baron Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein, who was first an attaché of the Swedish legation, and then minister. For a great heiress and a very ambitious girl, the marriage did not seem brilliant, for Staël had no fortune and no very great personal distinction. A singular series of negotiations, however, secured from the king of Sweden a promise of an ambassadorship for 12 years and a pension in case of its withdrawal, and the marriage took place on 14 January 1786.
The husband was 37, the wife 20. Mme de Staël was accused of extravagance, and later an amicable separation of property had to be made between the couple. This was a mere legal formality, however, and on the whole the marriage seems to have been acceptable to both parties, neither of whom had any affection for the other. The baron obtained money and the lady obtained, as a guaranteed ambassadress of a foreign power of consideration, a much higher position at court and in society than she could have secured by marrying almost any Frenchman, without the inconveniences which might have been expected had she married a Frenchman superior to herself in rank. Mme de Staël was not a persona grata at court, but she seems to have played the part of ambassadress fairly well.
Then in 1788 (a year prior to the French Revolution) she appeared as an author under her own name (Sophie had been already published, but anonymously) with some Lettres sur J. J. Rousseau, a fervid panegyric which demonstrated evident talent but little in the way of critical discernment. She was at this time, and indeed generally, enthusiastic for a mixture of Rousseauism and constitutionalism in politics. Her novels were bestsellers and her literary criticism was highly influential. When she was allowed to live in Paris she greatly encouraged any political dissident from Louis's regime. She exulted in the meeting of the estates general, and most of all when her father, after being exiled to Brussels by a state intrigue, was once more recalled and triumphantly escorted into Paris. This triumph however was short-lived.
Her first child, a boy, was born the week before Necker finally left France in unpopularity and disgrace; and the increasing disturbances of the Revolution made her privileges as ambassadress very important safeguards. She visited Coppet once or twice, but for the most part in the early days of the revolutionary period she was in Paris taking an interest in, and attending the Assembly, and holding a salon on the Rue du Bac, attended by Talleyrand, Abbé Delille, Clermont-Tonnerre, and Gouverneur Morris.
At last, the day before the September massacres (1792), she fled, befriended by Manuel and Tallien. Her own account of her escape is, as usual, so florid that it provokes the question whether she was really in any danger. Directly it does not seem that she was; but she had generously strained the privileges of the embassy to protect some threatened friends, and this was a serious matter.
Salons at Coppet and Paris
She then moved to Coppet, and there gathered round her a considerable number of friends and fellow-refugees, the beginning of the salon which at intervals during the next 25 years made the place so famous. However, in 1793 she made a long visit to England, and established a connection with other emigrants: Talleyrand, Narbonne, Montmorency, Jaucourt and others. There was not a little scandal about her relations with Narbonne; and this Mickleham sojourn (the details of which are known from, among other sources, the letters of Fanny Burney) has never been altogether satisfactorily accounted for.
In the summer, she returned to Coppet and wrote a pamphlet on the queen's execution. The next year, her mother died, and the fall of Robespierre opened the way back to Paris. Her husband (whose mission had been in abeyance and who was in Holland for three years) was accredited to the French republic by the regent of Sweden; his wife reopened her salon and for a time was conspicuous in the motley and eccentric society of the Directory. She also published several small works, the chief being the essays Sur l'influence des passions "On the influence of passions" (1796), and Sur la litérature considérée dans ses rapports avec les institutions sociales (1800).
It was during these years that Mme de Staël was of chief political importance. Narbonne's place had been supplanted by Benjamin Constant, whom she first met at Coppet in 1794, and who had a very great influence over her, as in return she had over him. Both personal and political reasons threw her into opposition to Bonaparte. Her own preference for a moderate republic or a constitutional monarchy was quite sincere, and, even if it had not been so, her own character and Napoleon's were too much alike in some points to admit of their getting on together. For some years, she was able to alternate between Coppet and Paris without difficulty, though not without knowing that the First Consul disliked her. In 1797 she, as above mentioned, separated formally from her husband. In 1799, he was recalled by the king of Sweden, and in 1802 he died, duly attended by her. Besides a daughter (Gustavine, 1787–1789) who died in infancy and the eldest son Auguste Louis (1790–1827), they had two other children – a son Albert (1792–1813), and a daughter Albertine (1797–1838), who afterwards married Victor, 3rd duc de Broglie. The paternity of these children is uncertain.
Conflict with Napoleon
The date of the beginning of what Mme de Staël's admirers call her duel with Napoleon is not easy to determine. Judging from the title of her book Dix annees d'exil ("Ten years of exile"), it should be put at 1804; judging from the time at which it became pretty clear that the first man in France and she who wished to be the first woman in France were not likely to get on together, it might be put several years earlier. Napoleon said about her, according to the Memoirs of Mme. de Remusat, that she "teaches people to think who never thought before, or who had forgotten how to think."
It displeased Napoleon that Mme de Staël should show herself recalcitrant to his influence. But it probably pleased Mme de Staël to quite an equal degree that Napoleon should apparently put forth his power to crush her and fail. Both personages had a curious touch of theatricality. If Mme de Staël had really desired to take up her struggle against Napoleon seriously, she need only have established herself in England at the peace of Amiens, but she lingered on at Coppet. There, she was shadowed by Napoleon's spies due to her tendency to defy Napoleon's orders, firstly that she keep away from Paris, and later out of France altogether, leaving her restless and lonely in rural Switzerland and constantly yearning after her beloved Paris.
In 1802, she published the first of her noteworthy books, the novel Delphine, in which the femme incomprise was in a manner introduced to French literature, and in which she and not a few of her intimates appeared in transparent disguise. In the autumn of 1803, she returned to Paris. Had she not made her anxiety about exile so public, it remains unclear whether Napoleon would have exiled her; but, as she began at once appealing to all sorts of persons to protect her, he seems to have thought it better that she should not be protected. She was directed not to reside within 40 leagues of Paris, and after considerable delay she determined to go to Germany.
She journeyed, in company with Constant, by Metz and Frankfurt to Weimar, and arrived there in December. There she stayed during the very long winter and then went to Berlin, where she made the acquaintance of August Wilhelm Schlegel, who afterwards became one of her intimates at Coppet. Thence she travelled to Vienna, where, in April, the news of her father's dangerous illness and shortly of his death (8 April) reached her.
She returned to Coppet, and found herself its wealthy and independent mistress, but her sorrow for her father was deep and certainly sincere. She spent the summer at the chateau with a brilliant company; in the autumn she journeyed to Italy accompanied by Schlegel and Sismondi, and there gathered the materials of her most famous work, Corinne, whose main protagonist was inspired by the Italian poet Diodata Saluzzo Roero.
She returned in the summer of 1805, and spent nearly a year in writing Corinne; in 1806 she broke the decree of exile and lived for a time undisturbed near Paris. In 1807 Corinne, the first aesthetic romance not written in German, appeared. It is in fact, what it was described as being at the time of its appearance, a picaresque tour couched in the form of a novel. The famous quote, "Tout comprendre rend très-indulgent", commonly translated as "To know all is to forgive all", is found in Corinne, Book 18, chapter 5.
The publication was taken as a reminder of her existence, and the police of the empire sent her back to Coppet. She stayed there as usual for the summer, and then set out once more for Germany, visiting Mayence, Frankfurt, Berlin and Vienna. She was again at Coppet in the summer of 1808 (in which year Constant broke with her, subsequently marrying Charlotte von Hardenberg) and set to work at her book, De l'Allemagne. It took her nearly the whole of the next two years, during which she did not travel much or far from her own house.
She had bought property in America and thought of moving there, but she was determined to publish De l'Allemagne in Paris. Straining under French censorship, she wrote to the emperor a provoking and perhaps undignified letter. Napoleon's mean-spirited reply to her letter was the condemnation of the whole edition of her book (ten thousand copies) as not French, and her own exile from the country.
She retired once more to Coppet, where she was not at first interfered with, and she found consolation in a young officer of Swiss origin named Albert de Rocca, twenty-three years her junior, whom she married privately in 1811. The intimacy of their relations could escape no one at Coppet, but the fact of the marriage (which seems to have been happy enough) was not certainly known till after her death. They had one son, Louis-Alphonse de Rocca (1812–1842), who would marry Marie-Louise-Antoinette de Rambuteau, daughter of Claude-Philibert Barthelot de Rambuteau.
The operations of the imperial police in regard to Mme de Staël are rather obscure. She was at first left undisturbed, but by degrees the chateau itself became taboo, and her visitors found themselves punished heavily. Mathieu de Montmorency and Mme Récamier were exiled for the crime of seeing her; and she at last began to think of doing what she ought to have done years before and withdrawing herself entirely from Napoleon's sphere. In the complete subjection of the Continent which preceded the Russian War this was not so easy as it would have been earlier, and she remained at home during the winter of 1811, writing and planning. On 23 May she left Coppet almost secretly, and journeyed through Bern, Innsbruck and Salzburg on her way to Vienna. There she obtained an Austrian passport to the frontier, and after some fears and trouble, receiving a Russian passport in Galicia, she at last escaped from Napoleon's omnipotent eyes and far reach.
She journeyed slowly through Russia and Finland to Sweden, making a stay at Saint Petersburg, spent the winter in Stockholm, and then set out for England. Here she received a brilliant reception and was much lionized during the season of 1813. She published De l'Allemagne in the autumn, was saddened by the death of her second son Albert, who had entered the Swedish army and fell in a duel brought on by gambling, undertook her Considérations sur la révolution française, and when Louis XVIII had been restored returned to Paris.
She was in Paris when the news of Napoleon's landing arrived and at once fled to Coppet, but a singular story, much discussed, is current of her having approved Napoleon's return. There is no direct evidence of it, but the conduct of her close ally Constant may be quoted in its support, and it is certain that she had no affection for the Bourbons. In October, after Waterloo, she set out for Italy, not only for the advantage of her own health but for that of her second husband, Rocca, who was dying of consumption.
Her daughter married Duke Victor de Broglie on 20 February 1816, at Pisa, and became the wife and mother of French statesmen of distinction. The whole family returned to Coppet in June, and Lord Byron now frequently visited Mme. de Staël there. Despite her increasingly ill-health she returned to Paris for the winter of 1816-1817, and her salon was much frequented. A warm friendship sprang up between Mme. de Staël and the Duke of Wellington, whom she had first met in 1814, and she used her influence with him to have the size of the Army of Occupation greatly reduced. But she had already become confined to her room if not to her bed. She died on 14 July, and Rocca survived her little more than six months. Her deathbed conversion to Roman Catholicism surprised many, including Wellington, who remarked that while she was greatly afraid of death he had thought her incapable of believing in the afterlife.
Auguste Comte included Madame de Staël in his Calendar of Great Men. In a book with the same name, Comte's disciple Frederic Harrison wrote about Staël and her works: "In Delphine a woman, for the first time since the Revolution, reopened the romance of the heart which was in vogue in the century preceding. Comte would daily recite the sentence from Delphine, 'There is nothing real in the world but love.' [Pos. Pol. iv. 44). Our thoughts and our acts, he said, can only give us happiness through results: and results are not often in our own control. Feeling is entirely within our power; and it gives us a direct source of happiness, which nothing outside can take away." Her works, Harrison wrote, "precede the works of Scott, Byron, Shelley, and partly of Chateaubriand, their historical importance is great in the development of modern Romanticism, of the romance of the heart, the delight in nature, and in the art, antiquities, and history of Europe."
- Journal de Jeunesse, 1785
- Sophie ou les sentiments secrets, 1786 (published in 1790)
- Jane Gray, 1787 (published in 1790)
- Lettres sur les ouvrages et le caractère de J.-J. Rousseau, 1788
- Éloge de M. de Guibert
- À quels signes peut-on reconnaître quelle est l'opinion de la majorité de la nation?
- Réflexions sur le procès de la Reine, 1793
- Zulma : fragment d'un ouvrage, 1794
- Réflexions sur la paix adressées à M. Pitt et aux Français, 1795
- Réflexions sur la paix intérieure
- Recueil de morceaux détachés (comprenant : Épître au malheur ou Adèle et Édouard, Essai sur les fictions et trois nouvelles : Mirza ou lettre d'un voyageur, Adélaïde et Théodore et Histoire de Pauline), 1795
- De l'influence des passions sur le bonheur des individus et des nations, 1796
- Des circonstances actuelles qui peuvent terminer la Révolution et des principes qui doivent fonder la République en France
- De la littérature dans ses rapports avec les institutions sociales, 1799
- Delphine, 1802
- Épîtres sur Naples
- Corinne ou l'Italie, 1807
- Agar dans le désert
- Geneviève de Brabant
- La Sunamite
- Le capitaine Kernadec ou sept années en un jour (comédie en deux actes et en prose)
- La signora Fantastici
- Le mannequin (comédie)
- De l'Allemagne, 1810/1813
- Réflexions sur le suicide, 1813
- De l'esprit des traductions
- Considérations sur les principaux événements de la Révolution française, depuis son origine jusques et compris le 8 juillet 1815, 1818 (posthumously)
- Mme de Staël has been referred to on at least two occasions in the writings of Judith Martin, writing as syndicated etiquette columnist Miss Manners.
- Mme de Staël is mentioned in The Passion, by Jeanette Winterson.
- Republican activist Victor Gold quoted Madame de Staël when characterizing American Vice President Dick Cheney, "Men do not change, they unmask themselves."
- De Stael is credited in Tolstoy's epilogue to War and Peace as a factor of the 'influential forces' which historians say led to the movement of humanity in that era.
- Mme de Staël is quoted by Meadow Soprano in Season 2, Episode 7 of The Sopranos when she tells her parents, 'Madam de Staël says, in life one must choose between boredom and suffering.'
- Mme de Stael is cited by Auguste Comte in his first major work, Cours de Philosophie Positive, and in his Calendar of Great Men, and in Frederic Harrison's book with the same name.
- Mme de Stael is referenced in "I Want It All" from Baby by Maltby & Shire
- Mme de Stael is used several times to characterize Mme de Grandet in Stendhal's Lucien Leuwen.
- Mme de Stael is mentioned several times, always approvingly, by Russia's national poet, Alexander Pushkin.
- Mme de Stael is frequently quoted by Emerson and she is credited with introducihg him to recent German thought.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Staël, Madame de". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press
- Angelica Goodden. Madame de Staël: the dangerous exile. Oxford University Press, 2008. Page 31.
- Memoirs of Madame de Remusat, trans. Cashel Hoey and John Lillie, p. 407. Books.Google.com
- Panizza, Letizia; Wood, Sharon. A History of Women's Writing in Italy. p. 144.
- Abramowitz, Michael (2 April 2007). "Rightist Indignation". Washington Post. Retrieved 30 June 2007.
- (French) Bredin, Jean-Denis. Une singulière famille: Jacques Necker, Suzanne Necker et Germaine de Staël. Paris: Fayard, 1999 (ISBN 2213602808).
- Fairweather, Maria. Madame de Staël. New York: Carroll & Graf, 2005 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7867-1339-9); 2006 (paperback, ISBN 0-7867-1705-X); London: Constable & Robinson, 2005 (hardcover, ISBN 1-84119-816-1); 2006 (paperback, ISBN 1-84529-227-8).
- Herold, J. Christopher. Mistress to an Age: A Life of Madame de Staël. New York: Grove Press, 2002 (paperback, ISBN 0-8021-3837-3).
- Winegarten, Renee. Germaine de Staël & Benjamin Constant: a Dual Biography. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008 (ISBN 9780300119251).
- Winegarten, Renee. Mme. de Staël. Dover, NH : Berg, 1985 (ISBN 0907582877).
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- (French) Stael.org, with detailed chronology
- (French) BNF.fr (Searching "stael").
- Works by Anne Louise Germaine de Staël at Project Gutenberg
- "Staël, Germaine de" in The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition: 2001-05.
- The Great de Staël Richard Holmes on de Staël from The New York Review of Books