Anne Marie d'Orléans

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For "La Grande Mademoiselle", the greatest heiress in Europe, see Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans.
Anne Marie d'Orléans
Queen consort of Sardinia
Duchess consort of Savoy
Anne Marie d'Orléans, Princess of France and future Duchess of Savoy and Queen of Sardinia.jpg
Anne Marie d'Orléans, possibly by Louis Ferdinand Elle
Spouse Victor Amadeus II of Savoy
Issue
Detail
Maria Adélaïde, Dauphine of France
Maria Luisa, Queen of Spain
Victor Amadeus, Prince of Piedmont
Charles Emmanuel, King of Sardinia
Full name
French: Anne Marie d'Orléans
Italian: Anna Maria de Orleans
House House of Savoy
House of Orléans
Father Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
Mother Henrietta of England
Born (1669-08-27)27 August 1669
Château de Saint-Cloud, France
Died 26 August 1728(1728-08-26) (aged 58)
Villa della Regina, Piedmont
Signature

Anne Marie d'Orléans (27 August 1669 – 26 August 1728) was the first Queen consort of Sardinia and the maternal grandmother of Louis XV of France. She is also an important figure in British history (see Jacobite Succession below).

Youth[edit]

She was the daughter of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, younger brother of Louis XIV, and Henrietta of England, the youngest daughter of Charles I of England. Her mother died at the Château de Saint-Cloud ten months after Anne Marie's birth. A year later, her father married 21-year-old Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, who became very close to her stepdaughters. Her half-brother Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, the future regent of France, was born of her father's second marriage.

Her stepmother later described her as one of the most amiable and virtuous of women.[1]

Marriage[edit]

To maintain French influence in the Italian states, her uncle King Louis XIV arranged her marriage, at the age of fourteen, to Victor Amadeus II of Savoy, then Duke of Savoy, later King of Sicily and then of Sardinia. Louis XIV was an ally of her future mother in law, Marie Jeanne, and supported Marie Jeanne when she extended her regency even after her actual mandate as regent had come to an end in 1680: Marie Jeanne did in fact not surrender her position as regent until shortly before her son's wedding.[2]

The proxy marriage of Anne Marie and Víctor Amadeus took place at Versailles on 10 April 1684, the day after the signature of the marriage contract. Her husband-to-be was represented by her cousin, Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, duc du Maine. Louis XIV gave her a dowry of 900,000 livres.[3]

The Duke of Orléans accompanied his daughter as far as Juvisy-sur-Orge (18 kilometers south of Paris), and the comtesse de Lillebonne accompanied her all the way to Savoy. She met her husband Victor at Chambéry on 6 May, the nuptials being performed at the castle by the Archbishop of Grenoble. Two days later, the newlyweds made their "Joyous Entry" into Turin.

The first of the nine children she bore was Marie-Adélaïde, which occurred a few months past her 16th birthday, whose birth nearly cost Anne Marie her life, prompting administration of the viaticum.[4] Marie-Adélaïde married Louis, Duke of Burgundy, grandson of Louis XIV in 1697, and was the mother of Louis XV. But both she and her husband died before he could succeed to the throne.

This marriage was arranged with the assistance of the maréchal de Tessé and of Jeanne Baptiste d'Albert de Luynes, comtesse de Verrué, who was Victor's mistress from 1689 till 1700.

Her husband had two children with Jeanne. Nonetheless, when he fell ill with smallpox, Anne Marie nursed him until his recovery.

Duchess and Queen[edit]

After her arrival to Savoy, Anne Marie came under the influence under her pro-French mother-in-law, who maintained a powerful position as a French ally at the court of Savoy, and she was described as a dutiful and humble daughter-in-law, who loyally adhered to Marie Jeannes wishes.[5] Her close relationship with her mother-in-law was not well seen by her spouse, who regarded it as a political threat. When Victor Amadeus severed his ties with France in 1690, Anne Marie and her children accompanied her mother-in-law when they demonstratively left the capital in protest.[6]

Despite his marriage ties to France, Victor Amadeus joined the anti-French side in the War of the Spanish Succession. In 1706, Turin was besieged by French forces under the command of Anne Marie's half-brother Philippe d'Orléans, and Spanish forces of her cousin and son-in-law Philip V. She and her sons Victor Amadeus and Carlo Emanuele were forced to flee the city.

When the war was ended in 1713 by the Treaty of Utrecht, Victor Amadeus received the Kingdom of Sicily, formerly a Spanish possession. Anne Marie's stepmother wrote: I shall neither gain nor lose by the peace, but one thing I shall enjoy is to see our Duchess of Savoy become a queen, because I love her as though she were my own child ...[7] He was forced to exchange Sicily for the less important domain of Sardinia in 1720, but retained the title of King. When Victor Amadeus left for his coronation in Sicily, he had originally planned to leave Anne Marie behind to function as regent in his absence, but as he feared that she would let herself be directed by his mother because of her loyalty to her, he changed his mind and took her along with him instead.[8] At the death of her eldest son in 1715, both she and Victor Amadeus was inflicted with a severe depression and left the capital to mourn, leaving Marie Jeanne to handle their official representational tasks.[9]

As the Savoyard consort, Anne-Marie had the use of the Royal Palace of Turin, the vast Palazzina di caccia di Stupinigi outside the capital, and the Vigna di Madama Reale.[10]

Queen Anne Marie died of heart failure at her villa on 26 August 1728, the day before her 59th birthday. She is buried at the Basilica of Superga in Turin, where all her children, except Marie-Adélaïde and Maria Luisa, are also buried.

Jacobite succession[edit]

From 1714 to 1720, Anne Marie d'Orléans was the heiress presumptive to the Jacobite claim to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland. These claims were held at the time by James Francis Edward Stuart ("the Old Pretender", son of James II). Ann Marie became heiress presumptive with the death of James' sister Queen Anne in 1714. She was displaced as heir by the birth of the Old Pretender's son, Charles Edward Stuart ("Bonnie Prince Charlie"), on 31 December 1720. Charles Edward and his brother Henry, Cardinal Stuart, both died without legitimate issue, so the descendants of Anne Marie d'Orléans inherited the Jacobite claim, i.e. they would have inherited the British crown had it not been for the Act of Settlement, which excluded the claims of the Catholic Stuarts and d'Orléans' and settled the throne on the nearest Protestant relatives, the Hanoverians.

Issue[edit]

During her marriage, Anne Marie gave birth nine children, of whom only three survive to adulthood and one outlived her:[11][12]

Ancestors[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Williams, H. Noel. "A Rose of Savoy, Marie Adelaide of Savoy, duchesse de Bourgogne, Mother of Louis XV". InternetArchive.org. Retrieved 2009-12-15. 
  2. ^ Clarissa Campbell Orr: Queenship in Europe 1660-1815: The Role of the Consort. Cambridge University Press (2004)
  3. ^ Williams. H. Noel, A Rose of Savoy, Marie Adelaide of Savoy, duchesse de Bourgogne, Mother of Louis XV, New York, 1909, pg.17
  4. ^ Williams, H. Noel. A Rose of Savoy: Marie Adelaide of Savoy, duchesse de Bourgogne, Mother of Louis XV, New York, 1909, pg.34
  5. ^ Clarissa Campbell Orr: Queenship in Europe 1660-1815: The Role of the Consort. Cambridge University Press (2004)
  6. ^ Clarissa Campbell Orr: Queenship in Europe 1660-1815: The Role of the Consort. Cambridge University Press (2004)
  7. ^ Pevitt, Christine. Philippe, Duc d'Orléans: Regent of France Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1997, p.133
  8. ^ Clarissa Campbell Orr: Queenship in Europe 1660-1815: The Role of the Consort. Cambridge University Press (2004)
  9. ^ Clarissa Campbell Orr: Queenship in Europe 1660-1815: The Role of the Consort. Cambridge University Press (2004)
  10. ^ Fraser, Antonia. Love and Louis XIV Anchor Books, 2006. pgs. 70-71.
  11. ^ Genealogical Database by Herbert Stoyan [retrieved 19 June 2014].
  12. ^ Complete Genealogy of the House of Savoy [retrieved 19 June 2014] -mentioned only eight children-.
Anne Marie d'Orléans
Cadet branch of the House of Bourbon
Born: 27 August 1669 Died: 26 August 1728
Italian royalty
Preceded by
Marie Jeanne of Savoy-Nemours
Duchess consort of Savoy
1684–1728
Succeeded by
Polyxena Christina of Hesse-Rotenburg
Preceded by
Maria Luisa of Savoy
Queen consort of Sicily
1713–1720
Succeeded by
Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Preceded by
Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Queen consort of Sardinia
1720–1728
Succeeded by
Polyxena Christina of Hesse-Rotenburg