List of parties to the Kyoto Protocol

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Participation in the Kyoto Protocol      Parties; Annex I & II countries with binding targets      Parties; Developing countries without binding targets      Parties with no binding targets in the second period, which previously had targets      Countries that have denounced the Protocol      Signatory country      States not Party to the Protocol

As of June 2013, there are 192 parties to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This total includes 191 states (189 United Nations member states as well as the Cook Islands and Niue) and one supranational union (the European Union).[1][2] aimed at combating global warming. Canada denounced the convention effective 15 December 2012 and ceased to be a member from that date.

Parties[edit]

Signing is optional, indicating an intention to ratify the Protocol. Ratification means that an Annex I party (e.g. a developed country or one with an 'economy in transition') has agreed to cap emissions in accordance with the Protocol. 38 of the 39 Annex I parties have agreed to cap their emissions in this way, two others are required to do so under their conditions of accession into the EU, and one more intends to become an Annex I party.

Party[2][3] annex % for ratification reduction
commitment
for 2012
[4]
Signed Ratification / Acceptance Notes
1  Fiji 17 September 1998 17 September 1998
2  Antigua and Barbuda 16 March 1998 3 November 1998
3  Tuvalu 16 November 1998 16 November 1998
4  Maldives 16 March 1998 30 December 1998
5  Turkmenistan 28 September 1998 11 January 1999
6  Trinidad and Tobago 7 January 1998 28 January 1999
7  Panama 8 June 1998 5 March 1999
8  Bahamas 9 April 1996
9  Niue 8 December 1998 6 May 1999
10  Georgia 16 June 1999
11  Federated States of Micronesia 17 March 1998 21 June 1999
12  Jamaica 28 June 1999
13  Cyprus 16 July 1999 -[5]
14  Paraguay 25 August 1998 27 August 1999
15  Guatemala 10 July 1998 5 October 1999
16  Uzbekistan 20 November 1998 12 October 1999
17  Nicaragua 7 July 1998 18 November 1999
18  Bolivia 9 July 1998 30 November 1999
19  Palau 10 December 1999
20  Mongolia 15 December 1999
21  Ecuador 15 January 1999 13 January 2000
22  El Salvador 8 June 1998 13 January 2000
23  Honduras 25 February 1999 19 July 2000
24  Barbados 7 August 2000
25  Equatorial Guinea 16 August 2000
26  Lesotho 6 September 2000
27  Guinea 7 September 2000
28  Kiribati 7 September 2000
29  Mexico 9 June 1998 7 September 2000
30  Azerbaijan 28 September 2000
31  Samoa 16 March 1998 27 November 2000
32  Uruguay 29 July 1998 5 February 2001
33  Romania I 1.24% −8%[6] 5 January 1999 19 March 2001
34  Mauritius 9 May 2001
35  Gambia 1 June 2001
36  Vanuatu 17 July 2001
37  Senegal 20 July 2001
38  Nauru 16 August 2001
39  Cook Islands 16 September 1998 27 August 2001
40  Argentina 16 March 1998 28 September 2001
41  Burundi 18 October 2001
42  Bangladesh 22 October 2001
43  Malawi 26 October 2001
44  Malta 17 April 1998 11 November 2001 -[5]
45  Czech Republic I 1.24% −8%[6] 23 November 1998 15 November 2001
46  Colombia 30 November 2001
47  Morocco 25 January 2002
48  Dominican Republic 12 February 2002
49  Benin 25 February 2002
50  Djibouti 12 March 2002
51  Uganda 25 March 2002
52  Mali 27 January 1999 28 March 2002
53  Papua New Guinea 2 March 1999 28 March 2002
54  Cuba 15 March 1999 30 April 2002
55  Iceland I, II 0.02% +10%[7] 23 May 2002 55th state to ratify, this fulfills the first condition for coming-into-force
56  Norway I, II 0.26% +1%[7] 29 April 1998 30 May 2002
 European Union[8] I, II 31.68% −8%[6] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002 All ratifications of the then-EU-members are deposited simultaneously (see 57–72). For the purpose of counting ratification for satisfying the entry-into-force condition the EU is not counted.[9]
57  Austria I, II 0.4% −8% (−13%)[6] 24 September 1998 31 May 2002
58  Belgium I, II 0.8% −8% (−7.5%)[6] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
59  Denmark I, II 0.4% −8% (−21%)[6] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002  Greenland: applied
 Faroe Islands: not applied
60  Finland I, II 0.4% −8% (0%)[6][10] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
61  France I, II 2.7% −8% (0%)[6][10] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002  French Guiana,  Guadeloupe,  Martinique,  Réunion: applied
 French Polynesia,  New Caledonia,  Wallis and Futuna,  French Southern Territories,  Mayotte,  Saint Pierre and Miquelon: not applied
62  Germany I, II 7.4% −8% (−21%)[6] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
63  Greece I, II 0.6% −8% (+25%),[6][7] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
64  Ireland I, II 0.2% −8% (+13%),[6][7] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
65  Italy I, II 3.1% −8% (−6.5%)[6] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
66  Luxembourg I, II 0.1% −8% (−28%)[6] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
67  Netherlands I, II 1.2% −8% (−6%)[6] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002  Aruba: not applied
 Curaçao: not applied
 Sint Maarten: not applied
 Caribbean Netherlands: not applied
68  Portugal I, II 0.3% −8% (+27%),[6][7] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
69  Spain I, II 1.9% −8% (+15%),[6][7] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
70  Sweden I, II 0.4% −8% (+4%),[6][7] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
71  United Kingdom I, II 4.3% −8% (−12.5%)[6] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
72  Slovakia I 0.42% −8%[6] 26 February 1999 31 May 2002
73  Japan I, II 8.55% −6% 28 April 1998 4 June 2002
74  Latvia I 0.17% −8% 14 December 1998 5 July 2002
75  Seychelles 20 March 1998 22 July 2002
76  South Africa 31 July 2002
77  Slovenia I -[11] −8%[6] 21 October 1998 2 August 2002
78  Grenada 6 August 2002
79  Costa Rica 27 April 1998 9 August 2002
80  Bulgaria I 0.6% −8%[6] 18 September 1998 15 August 2002
81  Hungary I 0.52% −6%[6] 21 August 2002
82  Cambodia 22 August 2002
83  Brazil 29 April 1998 23 August 2002
84  Bhutan 26 August 2002
85  Chile 17 June 1998 26 August 2002
86  India 26 August 2002
87  Tanzania 26 August 2002
88  Cameroon 28 August 2002
89  Thailand 2 February 1999 28 August 2002
90  People's Republic of China 29 May 1998 30 August 2002  Hong Kong: applied since 8 April 2003
 Macao: not applied
91  Sri Lanka 3 September 2002
92  Malaysia 12 March 1999 4 September 2002
93  Peru 13 November 1998 12 September 2002
94  Viet Nam 3 December 1998 25 September 2002
95  Estonia I 0.28% −8%[6] 3 December 1998 14 October 2002
96  Liberia 5 November 2002
97  South Korea 25 September 1998 8 November 2002
98  Poland I 3.02% −6%[6] 15 July 1998 13 December 2002
99  New Zealand[12] I, II 0.19% 0%[10] 22 May 1998 19 December 2002  Tokelau: not applied
100  Lithuania I -[11] −8%[6] 21 September 1998 3 January 2003
101  Jordan 17 January 2003
102  Tunisia 22 January 2003
103  Laos 6 February 2003
104  Solomon Islands 29 September 1998 13 March 2003
105  Moldova 22 April 2003
106  Armenia 25 April 2003
107  Kyrgyzstan 13 May 2003
108  Ghana 30 May 2003
109  Switzerland I, II 0.32% −8% 16 March 1998 9 July 2003
110  Guyana 5 August 2003
111  Botswana 8 August 2003
112  Marshall Islands 17 March 1998 11 August 2003
113  Myanmar 13 August 2003
114  Saint Lucia 16 March 1998 20 August 2003
115  Namibia 4 September 2003
116  Madagascar 24 September 2003
117  Belize 26 September 2003
118  Philippines 15 April 1998 20 November 2003
119  Israel 16 December 1998 15 March 2004
120  Ukraine I -[11] 0%[10] 15 March 1999 12 April 2004
121  Togo 2 July 2004
122  Rwanda 22 July 2004
123  Yemen 15 September 2004
124  Niger 23 October 1998 30 September 2004
125  Sudan 2 November 2004
126  Russia I 17.4% 0%[10] 11 March 1999 18 November 2004 With Russia's ratification the "55 percent of 1990 carbon dioxide emissions of the Parties included in Annex I" clause was satisfied and the treaty brought into force, effective 16 February 2005.
127  Macedonia 18 November 2004
128  Indonesia 13 July 1998 3 December 2004
129  Liechtenstein I 0.0015% −8% 29 June 1998 3 December 2004
130  Nigeria 10 December 2004
131  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 19 March 1998 31 December 2004
132  Pakistan 11 January 2005
133  Qatar 11 January 2005
134  Egypt 15 March 1999 12 January 2005
135  Mozambique 18 January 2005
136  Oman 19 January 2005
137  Dominica 25 January 2005
138  United Arab Emirates 26 January 2005
139  Saudi Arabia 31 January 2005
140  Algeria 16 February 2005
141  Venezuela 18 February 2005
142  Kenya 25 February 2005
143  Kuwait 11 March 2005
144  Democratic Republic of the Congo 23 March 2005
145  Burkina Faso 31 March 2005
146  Albania 1 April 2005
147  Ethiopia 14 April 2005
148  North Korea 27 April 2005
149  Haiti 6 July 2005
150  Mauritania 22 July 2005
151  Eritrea 28 July 2005
152  Iran 22 August 2005
153  Belarus I -[11] none yet[13] 26 August 2005
154    Nepal 16 September 2005
155  Guinea-Bissau 18 November 2005
156  Swaziland 13 January 2006
157  Syria 27 January 2006
158  Bahrain 31 January 2006
159  Cape Verde 10 February 2006
160  Monaco I 0.0015% −8% 29 April 1998 27 February 2006
161  Singapore 12 April 2006
162  Zambia 5 August 1998 7 July 2006
163  Libya 24 August 2006
164  Suriname 25 September 2006
165  Sierra Leone 10 November 2006
166  Lebanon 13 November 2006
167  Gabon 12 December 2006
168  Republic of the Congo 12 February 2007
169  Bosnia and Herzegovina 16 April 2007
170  Côte d'Ivoire 23 April 2007
171  Croatia I -[11] −5% 11 March 1999 27 April 2007
172  Angola 8 May 2007
173  Montenegro 4 June 2007
174  Serbia 24 September 2007
175  Australia I, II 2.1% +8%[7] 29 April 1998 3 December 2007
176  Tonga 14 January 2008
177  Central African Republic 18 March 2008
178  Saint Kitts and Nevis 8 April 2008
179  Comoros 10 April 2008
180  Sao Tome and Principe 24 July 2008
181  Timor-Leste 14 October 2008
182  Tajikistan 5 January 2009
183  Turkey I, -[14] -[11] none yet[13] 28 May 2009 [15][16][17]
184  Kazakhstan [18] -[19] none yet[20] 12 March 1999[21] 19 June 2009
185  Zimbabwe 30 June 2009
186  Iraq 28 July 2009
187  Chad 18 August 2009
188  Brunei 20 August 2009
189  San Marino 28 April 2010
190  Somalia 26 July 2010
191  Afghanistan 25 March 2013 [22]
total parties: 191 (incl. EU) I: 38 + EU
II: 21+EU
33, 63.9% -%: 31 (24)
0%: 3 (5)
+%: 3 (8)

Former parties[edit]

Country annex % for ratification reduction target 2008/12 Signed Ratification/Acceptance Notes
 Canada I, II 3.33% −6% 29 April 1998 17 December 2002 Renounced December 2011, effective 15 December 2012.[23]
total countries: 1 I: 1
II: 1
1 -%: 1
0%: 0
+%: 0

Signed but not intending to ratify[edit]

Country annex % for ratification reduction target 2008/12 Signed Notes
 United States I, II 36.1% −7% 12 November 1998 Federal government has not ratified
total countries: 1 I: 1
II: 1
1 -%: 1
0%: 0
+%: 0

Not signatories or parties[edit]

As of 2014 there are several other states which are not Party to the Protocol:

  • members of the UNFCCC: Andorra, South Sudan
  • observers of the UNFCCC (UNFCC ratification required first): Palestine, Holy See[24]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kyoto Protocol Status of Ratification (pdf)" (PDF). Retrieved 12 October 2006. 
  2. ^ a b "Status of Ratification". UNFCCC's Kyoto Protocol Background. Retrieved 28 October 2010. 
  3. ^ "Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change". United Nations Treaty Series. 2013-07-23. Retrieved 2013-07-24. 
  4. ^ As per Kyoto protocol annex B
  5. ^ a b Cyprus and Malta become EU members after the signature of the Kyoto protocol, but have not yet changed their status to become annex I/II/B states and thus have no commitment for emissions reduction. However, as EU members they are obliged to participate in the EU ETS
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y The EU15 has a total aggregate figure −8% for reduction; emissions will be pooled among member states through internal EU reduction assignments mentioned in the brackets (thus increases in some member states are compensated by bigger reductions in others). The 12 member states that entered the union later – in 2004 and 2007 retain their individual Kyoto targets ranging from none for non-annex Cyprus and Malta to −8%. [1]
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h increase allowed
  8. ^ The EU member states are also members of the UNFCCC on their own, in addition to their common representation through the EU.
  9. ^ Full text of the Kyoto Protocol, Article 25(4)
  10. ^ a b c d e Neither reduction required, nor increase allowed – emissions should stay at their 1990 level.
  11. ^ a b c d e f For some reason despite being annex-I states some countries' emissions are not calculated into the total percentage for entry into force of the Kyoto protocol.
  12. ^ The states in free association with New Zealand, the Cook Islands and Niue have their own separate memberships in the UNFCCC.
  13. ^ a b Annex I countries that were not parties to the UNFCCC at the time of signing of the Kyoto protocol have no reduction targets assigned.
  14. ^ Turkey was removed from the annex II list in 2001 at its request its economy to be recognised as a transition one
  15. ^ (Turkish)Ntvmsnbc.com "Kyoto’dan sonra Türkiye’yi neler bekliyor? (English translation:What's after Kyoto protocol for Turkey?)" (Turkish)Ntvmsnbc.com "Türkiye, Kyoto protokolüne katılıyor (English translation:Turkey joins to Kyoto protocol)" (Turkish)Ntvmsnbc.com "Şimdi KYOTO zamanı (English translation:It's time for Kyoto)"
  16. ^ Bianet Turkey Will Sign The Kyoto Protocol
  17. ^ Turkish Weekly Turkey's Participation in Kyoto Protocol Published in Official Gazette
  18. ^ Kazakhstan has declared that it wants to become annex I state after its ratification of the protocol, but its reduction target under annex B is not yet determined.
  19. ^ At the time of signing of the Kyoto protocol Kazakhstan was not annex I state, that's why its emissions are not calculated in the figure for the ratification.
  20. ^ To be determined after Kazakhstan becomes annex I state
  21. ^ Xinhua Kazakhstan's parliament approves Kyoto protocol
  22. ^ "Afghanistan ratifies Kyoto Protocol". Pajhwok Afghan News. April 3, 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-04. 
  23. ^ "Canada withdrawing from Kyoto". The Toronto Star. 12 December 2011. 
  24. ^ "Parties to the Convention and Observer States". UNFCC. Retrieved 27 January 2013.