Annie Oakley

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Annie Oakley
Annie Oakley by Baker's Art Gallery c1880s-crop.jpg
Oakley in her twenties (1880s)
Born Phoebe Ann Mosey
(1860-08-13)August 13, 1860
North Star, Ohio, U.S.
Died November 3, 1926(1926-11-03) (aged 66)
Greenville, Ohio, U.S.
Spouse(s) Frank E. Butler (1847–1926) (m. 1876–1926)
Parents Susan Wise Mosey (1830–1908), Jacob Mosey (1799–1866)
Signature Annie Oakley Signature.svg

Annie Oakley (August 13, 1860 – November 3, 1926), born Phoebe Ann Mosey, was an American sharpshooter and exhibition shooter. Oakley's "amazing talent"[1] led to a starring role in Buffalo Bill's Wild West show. Her timely rise to fame[2] allowed her to become one of the first American women to be a "superstar". Oakley also was variously known as "Miss Annie Oakley", "Little Sure Shot", "Watanya Cicilla", "Phoebe Anne Oakley", "Mrs. Annie Oakley", "Mrs. Annie Butler" and "Mrs. Frank Butler". Her death certificate gives her name as "Annie Oakley Butler".[3]

Early life[edit]

Annie Oakley was born Phoebe Ann (Annie) Mosey[4][5][6] on August 13, 1860, in a cabin less than 2 miles northwest of Woodland, now Willowdell, in Darke County, Ohio, a rural western border county of Ohio.[7] Her birthplace log cabin site is about five miles east of North Star. There is a stone-mounted plaque in the vicinity of the cabin site, which was placed by the Annie Oakley Committee in 1981, 121 years after her birth.

Annie's parents were Quakers of English descent from Hollidaysburg, Blair County, Pennsylvania: Susan Wise, age 18,[8][9] and Jacob Mosey, born 1799, age 49, married in 1848. They moved to a rented farm (later purchased with a mortgage) in Patterson Township, Darke County, Ohio, sometime around 1855.

Born in 1860, Annie was the sixth of Jacob and Susan's nine children.[10] Her siblings include Mary Jane (1851-1867), Lydia (1852-1882), Elizabeth (1855-1881), Sarah Ellen (1857-1939), Catherine (1859-1859), John (1861-1949), Hulda (1864-1934) and a stillborn infant brother in 1865.[11] Annie's father, who had fought in the War of 1812, became an invalid from overexposure during a blizzard in late 1865 and died of pneumonia in early 1866 at age 65.[12] Her mother later married Daniel Brumbaugh, had one more child, Emily (1868-1937), and was widowed for a second time.

Because of poverty following the death of her father, Annie did not regularly attend school as a child, although she did attend later in childhood and in adulthood.[13] On March 15, 1870, at age nine, Annie was admitted to the Darke County Infirmary, along with elder sister Sarah Ellen. According to her autobiography, she was put in the care of the Infirmary's superintendent, Samuel Crawford Edington and his wife Nancy, who taught her to sew and decorate. Beginning in the spring of 1870, she was "bound out" to a local family to help care for their infant son, on the false promise of fifty cents a week and an education. The couple had originally wanted someone who could pump water, cook, and who was bigger. She spent about two years in near-slavery to them where she endured mental and physical abuse. She would often have to do boys' work. One time the wife put Annie out in the freezing cold, without shoes, as a punishment because she had fallen asleep over some darning.[14] Annie referred to them as "the wolves". Even in her autobiography, she kindly never told the couple's real name.[15] According to biographer Glenda Riley, "the wolves" could have been the Studabaker family.[16] However, the 1870 U.S. Census suggests that "the wolves" were the Abram Boose family of neighboring Preble County.[17][18] Around the spring of 1872, Annie ran away from "the wolves". (According to biographer Shirl Kasper, it was only at this point that Annie had met and lived with the Edingtons, returning to her mother's home around the age of 15.)[19] Annie's mother married a third time, to Joseph Shaw, on October 25, 1874.[citation needed]

Annie began trapping at a young age, and shooting and hunting by age eight to support her siblings and her widowed mother. She sold the hunted game to locals in Greenville, such as shopkeepers Charles and G. Anthony Katzenberger, who shipped it to hotels in Cincinnati and other cities;[20] as well, she sold the game herself to restaurants and hotels in northern Ohio. Her skill eventually paid off the mortgage on her mother's farm when Annie was 15.[21]

Debut and marriage[edit]

The Amateur Circus at Nutley (1894) by American illustrator Peter Newell. The scene depicted in the center is of Annie Oakley, standing on horseback, demonstrating her shooting ability.

Annie soon became well known throughout the region. On Thanksgiving Day 1875,[22] the Baughman & Butler shooting act was being performed in Cincinnati.

Traveling show marksman and former dog trainer Frank E. Butler (1847–1926), an Irish immigrant, placed a $100 bet per side (worth $2,148 today) with Cincinnati hotel owner Jack Frost, that he, Butler, could beat any local fancy shooter.[23] The hotelier arranged a shooting match between Butler and the 15-year-old Annie saying, "The last opponent Butler expected was a five-foot-tall 15-year old girl named Annie."[22] After missing on his 25th shot, Butler lost the match and the bet. Another account mentions that Butler actually hit on his last shot, but the bird fell dead about two feet beyond the boundary line.[24] He soon began courting Annie, and they married on August 23, 1876. They did not have children.[22]

According to a modern-day account in The Cincinnati Enquirer, it's possible that the shooting match may have actually taken place in 1881 and not 1875.[24] Unfortunately, it appears the time of the event was never recorded. Biographer Shirl Kasper states the shooting match took place in the spring of 1881 near Greenville, possibly in North Star as mentioned by Butler during interviews in 1903 and 1924. Other sources seem to coincide with the North Fairmount location near Cincinnati if the event occurred in 1881.[24] The Annie Oakley Center Foundation mentions Oakley visiting her married sister, Lydia Stein, at her home near Cincinnati in 1875.[25] That information is incorrect as Lydia didn't marry Joseph C. Stein until March 19, 1877.[26] Although speculation, it is most likely that Oakley and her mother visited Lydia in 1881 as she was seriously ill from tuberculosis.[27] The Bevis House hotel was still being operated by Martin Bevis and W.H. Ridenour in 1875. It first opened around 1860 after the building was previously used as a pork packaging facility. Jack Frost didn't obtain management of the hotel until 1879.[24][28] The Baughman & Butler shooting act first appeared on the pages of The Cincinnati Enquirer in 1880. They signed with Sells Brothers Circus in 1881 and made an appearance at the Coliseum Opera House later that year.[24][29]

Regardless of the actual date of the shooting match, Oakley and Butler were married a year afterward. A certificate is currently on file with the Archives of Ontario, Registration Number 49594, reporting Butler and Oakley being wed on June 20, 1882 in Windsor, Ontario.[30] Many sources say that the marriage took place on August 23, 1876 in Cincinnati,[25] yet there is no recorded certificate to validate that date. A possible reason for the contradicting dates may be that Butler's divorce from his first wife, Henrietta Saunders, was not yet final in 1876. An 1880 U.S. Federal Census record shows Saunders as married.[31] Sources mentioning Butler's first wife as Elizabeth are inaccurate; Elizabeth is actually his granddaughter, her father being Edward F. Butler.[32] Throughout Oakley's show-business career, the public was often led to believe that she was five to six years younger than her actual age. Claiming the later marriage date would have better supported her fictional age.[25]

Career and touring[edit]

Aim at the high mark and you will hit it. No, not the first time, not the second time and maybe not the third. But keep on aiming and keep on shooting for only practice will make you perfect. Finally you'll hit the bull's-eye of success.


— Annie Oakley , Annie Oakley exhibit at the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame in Fort Worth, Texas

Annie and Frank Butler lived in Cincinnati for a time. Oakley, the stage name she adopted when she and Frank began performing together,[6][33][34] is believed to have been taken from the city's neighborhood of Oakley, where they resided. Some people believe she took on the name because that was the name of the man who had paid her train fare when she was a child.[25]

Oakley circa 1899

They joined Buffalo Bill's Wild West in 1885. At 5 feet tall, Oakley was given the nickname of "Watanya Cicilla" by fellow performer Sitting Bull, rendered "Little Sure Shot" in the public advertisements.

During her first engagement with the Buffalo Bill show, Oakley experienced a tense professional rivalry with rifle sharpshooter Lillian Smith. Oakley temporarily left the Buffalo Bill show but returned two years later, after Smith departed, in time for the Paris Exposition of 1889.[35] This three-year tour only cemented Oakley as America's first female star. She earned more than any other performer in the show, except for "Buffalo Bill" Cody himself. She also performed in many shows on the side for extra income.[35]

In Europe, she performed for Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, King Umberto I of Italy, President Marie François Sadi Carnot of France and other crowned heads of state. Oakley had such good aim that, at his request, she knocked the ashes off a cigarette held by the newly crowned German Kaiser Wilhelm II.[36]

The Annie Oakley Foundation suggests that she was not the source of a widely repeated quip related to the event: "Some uncharitable people later ventured that if Annie had shot Wilhelm and not his cigarette, she could have prevented World War I."[36] After the outbreak of World War I, however, Oakley sent a letter to the Kaiser requesting a second shot. The Kaiser did not respond.[37]

Wild West show poster

Oakley promoted the service of women in combat operations for the United States armed forces. She wrote a letter to President William McKinley on April 5, 1898, "offering the government the services of a company of 50 'lady sharpshooters' who would provide their own arms and ammunition should the U.S. go to war with Spain."[38]

The Spanish-American War did occur, but Oakley's offer was not accepted. Theodore Roosevelt, did, however, name his volunteer cavalry the "Rough Riders" after the "Buffalo Bill's Wild West and Congress of Rough Riders of the World" where Oakley was a major star.

The same year that McKinley was fatally shot by an assassin, 1901, Oakley was also badly injured in a train accident, but she recovered after temporary paralysis and five spinal operations. She left the Buffalo Bill show and in 1902 began a quieter acting career in a stage play written especially for her, The Western Girl. Oakley played the role of Nancy Berry and used a pistol, a rifle and rope to outsmart a group of outlaws.[8]

Following her injury and change of career, it only added to her legend that her shooting expertise continued to increase into her 60s.

Throughout her career, it is believed that Oakley taught upwards of 15,000 women how to use a gun. Oakley believed strongly that it was crucial for women to learn how to use a gun, as not only a form of physical and mental exercise, but also to defend themselves.[9] She said: "I would like to see every woman know how to handle guns as naturally as they know how to handle babies."

Shooting prowess[edit]

Biographers, such as Shirl Kasper, repeat Oakley's own story about her very first shot at the age of eight. "I saw a squirrel run down over the grass in front of the house, through the orchard and stop on a fence to get a hickory nut." Taking a rifle from the house, she fired at the squirrel, writing later that, "It was a wonderful shot, going right through the head from side to side".[39]

The Encyclopaedia Britannica notes that:

Oakley never failed to delight her audiences, and her feats of marksmanship were truly incredible. At 30 paces she could split a playing card held edge-on, she hit dimes tossed into the air, she shot cigarettes from her husband's lips, and, a playing card being thrown into the air, she riddled it before it touched the ground.[40]

Perhaps Oakley's most famous trick was her ability to repeatedly split a playing card, edge-on, and put several more holes in it before it could touch the ground, while using a .22 caliber rifle, at 90 feet (27 m).[41]

RA. Koestler-Grack reports that, on March 19, 1884, she was being watched by Chief Sitting Bull when:

Oakley playfully skipped on stage, lifted her rifle, and aimed the barrel at a burning candle. In one shot, she snuffed out the flame with a whizzing bullet. Sitting Bull watched her knock corks off of bottles and slice through a cigar Butler held in his teeth.[42]

Libel cases[edit]

In 1904, sensational cocaine prohibition stories were selling well. The newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst published a false story that Oakley had been arrested for stealing to support a cocaine habit. The woman actually arrested was a burlesque performer who told Chicago police that her name was "Annie Oakley".

Most of the newspapers that printed the story had relied on the Hearst article, and upon learning of the libelous error, they immediately retracted the false story with apologies. Hearst, however, tried to avoid paying the anticipated court judgments of $20,000 ($503,000, adjusted for inflation in 2012 dollars) by sending an investigator to Darke County, Ohio with the intent of collecting reputation-smearing gossip from Oakley's past. The investigator found nothing.[43]

The original Annie Oakley spent much of the next six years winning 54 of 55 libel lawsuits against newspapers. She collected less in judgments than were her legal expenses, but to her, a restored reputation justified the loss of time and money.[43]

Later years and death[edit]

Oakley in 1922

In 1912, the Butlers, now temporarily retired, traveled to Cambridge, Maryland, the Dorchester County seat. They soon bought a plot of land in an area called Hambrooks, situated on the Choptank River, and proceeded to have a brick rancher built, renting rooms at local hotels during the house's construction. They moved into the house by 1913. The Annie Oakley House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1996.

They became friends with the locals and in particular were good friends with the Andrews family (Sarah Ingalls Andrews, widow, and her six children), who migrated from South Dakota and settled in Dorchester County at about the same time as the Butlers. Sarah's husband was Cassian Andrews, a younger brother of Byron Andrews, both from Evansville, Wisconsin.[citation needed][relevant? ]

In 1917, the Butlers moved to North Carolina and returned to public life.

Oakley continued to set records into her sixties, and she also engaged in extensive, albeit quiet, philanthropy for women's rights and other causes, including the support of specific young women she knew. She embarked on a comeback and intended to star in a feature-length silent movie. In a 1922 shooting contest in Pinehurst, North Carolina, sixty-two-year-old Oakley hit 100 clay targets in a row from 16 yards (15 m).[44]

In late 1922, Oakley and Butler suffered a debilitating car accident that forced her to wear a steel brace on her right leg. Yet after a year and a half of recovery, she again performed and set records in 1924.[45]

Her health declined in 1925 and she died of pernicious anemia in Greenville, Ohio, at the age of 66 on November 3, 1926.[46][47] She was cremated in Cincinnati two days later and buried at Brock Cemetery near Greenville, Ohio.[24][48] Assuming their marriage had been in 1876, Oakley and Butler had been married just over 50 years.[35]

Butler was so grieved by her death, according to B. Haugen, that he stopped eating and died 18 days later in Michigan.[49] Biographer Shirl Kasper reported the death certificate said Butler died of "Senility". He was buried next to Oakley.[11][50] It is rumored that Oakley's ashes, placed in one of her prized trophies, were laid next to Butler in his coffin prior to burial.[51] Both were interred at the cemetery on Thanksgiving Day (November 25, 1926).[52]

After her death, her incomplete autobiography was given to Fred Stone, the stage comedian,[53] and it was discovered that her entire fortune had been spent on her family and her charities.[54]

She was inducted into the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame in Fort Worth, Texas.

The Little Sure Shot of the Wild West[edit]

Annie Oakley's 1894 "exhibition of rifle shooting at glass balls, etc.", in an Edison Kinetoscope movie

In 1894, Oakley and Butler performed in Edison's Kinetoscope film, The "Little Sure Shot of the Wild West," an exhibition of rifle shooting at glass balls, etc.[55] Filmed November 1, 1894, in Edison's Black Maria studio by William Heise (0:21 at 30 frame/s; 39 ft.),[56] it was about the 11th film made after commercial showings began on April 14, 1894.[57]

Oakley's early movie star opportunity followed from Buffalo Bill's friendship with Thomas Edison, which developed after Edison personally built, for the Wild West Show, what in the 1890s was the world's largest electrical power plant.[45] Buffalo Bill and fifteen of his show Indians appeared in two Kinetoscopes filmed September 24, 1894.[58]

Surname[edit]

There are a number of variations given for Oakley's family name, Mosey. Many biographers and other references give the name as "Moses".[59]

Although the 1860 U.S. Census shows the family name as "Mauzy", this is considered an error introduced by the census taker.[60][61] Oakley's name appears as "Ann Mosey" in the 1870 U.S. Census[17][18] and "Mosey" is engraved on her father's headstone[62] and appears in his military record; "Mosey" is the official spelling by the Annie Oakley Foundation, maintained by her living relatives.[4][6][63] The spelling "Mosie" has also appeared.

According to biographer Shirl Kasper, Oakley herself insisted that her family surname be spelled "Mozee", leading to arguments with her brother, John. Kasper speculates that Oakley may have considered "Mozee" to be a more phonetic spelling. There is also popular speculation that young Oakley had been teased about her name by other children.[61]

Prior to their double wedding in March 1884, both Oakley's brother, John, and one of her sisters, Hulda, changed their surnames to "Moses".[4][63]

Eponym[edit]

During her lifetime, the theatre business began referring to complimentary tickets as "Annie Oakleys". Such tickets traditionally have holes punched into them (to prevent them from being resold), reminiscent of the playing cards Oakley shot through during her sharpshooting act.

Representations on stage, literature and screen[edit]

  • In 1935, Barbara Stanwyck played Oakley in a fictionalized film called Annie Oakley.
  • The 1946 Broadway musical Annie Get Your Gun is loosely based on her life. The original stage production starred Ethel Merman, who also starred in the 1966 revival. A 1950 film version starred Betty Hutton. Some years after headlining the 1948 national tour, Broadway legend Mary Martin returned to the role for a 1957 NBC television special that also featured John Raitt as Frank Butler.
  • From 1954 to 1956, Gail Davis played Oakley in the Annie Oakley television series.
  • A fictionalized Oakley appeared in the 1966 comedy film Carry On Cowboy. Oakley was played by Angela Douglas.
  • In 1976, Geraldine Chaplin played Oakley in Buffalo Bill and the Indians with John Considine as Frank Butler.
  • In 1982, Diane Civita played Oakley, opposite Richard Donner as Bill Cody, in an episode of Voyagers!, where, during Cody's performances for Queen Victoria, Oakley engaged in a marksmanship contest with a Russian duke.
  • In 1982, the British rock band Squeeze released a song called "Annie Get Your Gun".
  • In 1983, New American Library published The Secret Annie Oakley, by Marcy Heidish, which established that her husband Frank Butler was not an envious competitor, as portrayed in the Broadway musical, but was her greatest support from the day they met.[64]
  • In 1985, Jamie Lee Curtis portrayed her in the "Annie Oakley" episode of the children's video series Shelley Duvall's Tall Tales and Legends.
  • In 1996, Reba McEntire portrayed Oakley in Buffalo Girls alongside Anjelica Huston, Melanie Griffith and Tom Wopat.
  • In 1998, A Shooting Star: A Novel About Annie Oakley by Sheila Solomon Klass was republished.
  • In 1999, Annie Get Your Gun was revived on Broadway with Bernadette Peters in the title role. Susan Lucci assumed the role when Peters took a vacation from the show, Cheryl Ladd assumed the role from Peters and was followed by Reba McEntire and Crystal Bernard. That same year, Marilu Henner portrayed Oakley in an off-Broadway production.
  • In 2004, Elizabeth Berridge played Oakley in the Touchstone Pictures film Hidalgo.
  • In 2006, an episode of PBS's American Experience documented Oakley's life.
  • In 2009, the band Watchout! There's Ghosts released a song called "Don't Shoot Me, Annie Oakley".
  • In 2009, an episode of the Canadian television series Murdoch Mysteries entitled "Mild, Mild West" featured the character of Oakley, portrayed by Sarah Strange.
  • In 2010, The Geraghtys released a song titled "Annie Oakley", that references the famous sharpshooter.
  • In 2010, in an episode of the crime comedy-drama Castle, Richard Castle refers to detective Kevin Ryan as "Annie Oakley" after he shot at him but missed.
  • In 2013, a fictionalized version of Oakley appeared in the post-apocalyptic novel The Cartographer's Handbook by Alex Shaw.
  • In 2014, the folk music group Love.Stop.Repeat released a song titled "Annie Oakley", with lyrics about her life and exploits.

Influence[edit]

Overall Oakley was a world-wide star thanks to her sharpshooting talents. Annie earned the most of the performers in the Buffalo Bill show.[35] Gaining financial and economic power, Annie did not forget her roots. She and Butler together often donated and gave to charity organizations for orphans [35] Beyond her monetary influence, Oakley proved to be a great influence on women.

Oakley promoted women to serve in war, although President Roosevelt rejected her suggestion of women sharpshooters.[65] Beyond this suggestion to the president, Oakley believed women should learn to use a gun, not for skills like hers, but for the empowering image it gave.[66] In Laura Browder's piece "Her Best Shot: Women and Guns In America" Browder discussed how Oakley's stardom gave hope to women and youth. Oakley pushed for women to be independent and educated.[67]

Other works like Carl McIntosh's "New Star for the American Wise Man?", written in 1905 and Joanne Meyerowitz's ideas of the 'Feminine Mystique' in 1946-1958, show a long lasting impression made by Oakley and women like her. McIntosh writes from the male point of view, including the struggles men faced in 1905 like that of conformity and maintaining masculinity while women like Oakley, whom he lists, made it more difficult by making their presence known.[68] McIntosh describes how this impacted men to continue to be dominant with women like Oakley interfering.[69] Meyerowitz further supports Oakley's identity as strong and tough. Oakley's intimidating identity by being able to outshoot any man aided in breaking the constraints of Meyerowitz's described 'Feminine Mystique' which described women as sexual objects in the 1946-1958 time period.

Oakley's influence threatened many. Her libel suits against 55 false publishings illustrated how she could provoke jealousy and a threat as a woman. Oakley was associated with lesbianism as she was a rising star; these sorts of accusations were meant to darken her identity as woman.[70]

The identity of the American cowgirl roots Oakley as a key influence. The American cowgirl is an icon by which Oakley provided substantial backing and proof that women are just as capable as men, when given the opportunity.[71]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Krohn, Katherine E. (2005). Wild West Women (book). Lerner Publications. p. 55.  "Sitting Bull was deeply moved by Annie's talent. He thought her ability with a gun was amazing."Wills, Charles M. (2007). Annie Oakley: A Photographic Story of a Life (book). DK Children. p. 71.  "Like Annie, Lillian showed amazing talent with a gun at an early age."
  2. ^ Buffalo Bill Wild West Show's champion marksman Captain Bogardus only toured for a year [1], which created a lucky opening for Annie Oakley to replace Bogardus and become a superstar.
  3. ^ Death certificate. Department of Vital Records. State of Ohio
  4. ^ a b c "We Hope "Mosey" Ends the Debate" (PDF). Taking Aim Newsletter. annieoakleyfoundation.org. Summer 2003. 
  5. ^ Edwards, Bess. "Annie Oakley's Life and Career". annieoakleyfoundation.org.  "Born … Phoebe Ann Mosey…"
  6. ^ a b c Archived October 15, 2002 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Tall Tales and the Truth: Was Annie really born in 1866?". Annie Oakley Foundation at web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2002-10-15.  (the answer is no: born in August 13, 1860/death November 3, 1960/she was happily married – in a cabin northwest of Woodland/Willowdell)
  8. ^ a b Wukovits, John. Legends of the West: Annie Oakley. Chelsea House Publishers. Philadelphia, 1991.
  9. ^ a b Wills, Chuck. Annie Oakley. DK Publishing. London, 2007.
  10. ^ "Annie Oakley". American Experience. Archived from the original on 6 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-07. August 13, 1860: Annie Oakley is born Phoebe Ann Moses, on the family farm in Darke County, Ohio, fifth [sic] of seven surviving children. Her Quaker parents, Jacob and Susan, have moved from Pennsylvania, where they ran an inn. In Ohio, the family supports itself with subsistence farming. ... 
  11. ^ a b Find-a-grave.com, "Annie Oakley". Retrieved February 12, 2014.
  12. ^ Riley, Glenda (1994). The Life and Legacy of Annie Oakley. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 5. 
  13. ^ Kasper, Shirl (1992). Annie Oakley. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 6, 20. ISBN 0-8061-2418-0. 
  14. ^ Freifeld, Riva (director and producer) (2006). The American Experience: Annie Oakley. Boston, MA: WGBH. 
  15. ^ Whiting, Jim. What's so great about Annie Oakley. Mitchell Lane Publishers. Delaware, 2007.
  16. ^ Riley, Glenda (1994). The Life and Legacy of Annie Oakley. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 7. 
  17. ^ a b Billene Statler Nicol, ed. (2010). "AnnieMoseyCensus1870Enlarged" (JPG). Archived from the original on August 9, 2014. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  18. ^ a b "TH-266-11929-69872-17". U.S. Census, Harrison Township, Preble County, Ohio. FamilySearch. 1870. p. 54. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  19. ^ Kasper, Shirl (1992). Annie Oakley. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 6, 7. ISBN 0-8061-2418-0. 
  20. ^ Riley, Glenda (1994). The Life and Legacy of Annie Oakley. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 11. 
  21. ^ "Annie Oakley". Dorchester County Public Library, Cambridge, MD. 
  22. ^ a b c "Biography: Frank Butler". pbs.org. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  23. ^ Longford Genealogy, Retrieved Oct. 8, 2014.
  24. ^ a b c d e f Suess, Jeff (July 20, 2014). "Did Annie Oakley shooting contest happen in Cincinnati?". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved October 1, 2014. (subscription required (help)). 
  25. ^ a b c d Annie Oakley Center Foundation, Retrieved Oct. 2, 2014.
  26. ^ FamilySearch, Retrieved Oct. 2, 2014.
  27. ^ Geni, Retrieved Oct. 2, 2014.
  28. ^ State of Ohio Works Progress Administration, Cincinnati: A Guide to the Queen City and its Neighbors, page 209, Retrieved Oct. 6, 2014.
  29. ^ LifePaths, Paul Lines, ''Annie Oakley: The Real Story'' (2011), Retrieved Oct 6, 2014.
  30. ^ Archives of Ontario via Ancestry.com (Ontario, Canada, Marriages 1801-1928), Retrieved on Oct. 1, 2014.
  31. ^ Ancestry.com, 1880 U.S. Federal Census, Retrieved Oct. 7, 2014.
  32. ^ Ancestry.com, 1900 U.S. Federal Census, Retrieved Oct. 7, 2014.
  33. ^ "Annie Oakley". American Experience. Archived from the original on 6 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-07. Narrator: Frank Butler was Annie's ticket out of Greenville. They soon married. For the next six years, while Butler and his new shooting partner John Graham performed on the variety circuit, Annie stayed in the background. That was about to change [when] Butler and Graham were playing a theater in Springfield, Ohio, when John Graham suddenly fell ill. Annie filled in, holding the targets. That night Frank kept missing – until a jeering spectator shouted, "Let the girl shoot!" Frank obliged. Annie hit the targets every time – much to the delight of the raucous crowd. "Butler and Graham" soon ceased to be. Mrs. Butler took a stage name, borrowed from her paternal grandmother – Annie Oakley. 
  34. ^ "Tall Tales and the Truth: Born Phoebe Anne Oakley Mozee?". web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2002-10-15.  (the answer is no: "Her mother, Susan, named her Phoebe Ann…"; her father Jacob is surnamed "Mosey" in the National Archives War of 1812 military records; "In the 1870 Census, Annie is listed as Ann Mosey" – but, several other surname spellings appeared later. "The professional name Oakley was assumed in 1882, when Annie began to perform with Frank Butler; …")
  35. ^ a b c d e http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/biography/oakley-annie/
  36. ^ a b "Tall Tales and the Truth: Did she shoot the Kaiser's cigarette?". Annie Oakley Foundation at web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2002-10-15. 
  37. ^ Large, David Clay (1999). "Thanks, But No Cigar". In Cowley, Robert. What if?: the world's foremost military historians imagine what might have been. Putnam. pp. 290–91. ISBN 978-0-399-14576-6. OCLC 41338197. 
  38. ^ The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Letter to President William McKinley from Annie Oakley. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
  39. ^ Kasper, Shirl (1992). Annie Oakley. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-8061-2418-0. 
  40. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, article on Annie Oakley.
  41. ^ "Annie Oakley of the Wild West (book review)". girlswithguns.org. 
  42. ^ Koestler-Grack, RA., Annie Oakley, Facts On File, Incorporated, Infobase Publishing, 2010, pp. 28-29.
  43. ^ a b "Annie Oakley (1860-1926)". pbs.org. 2006-02-14. 
  44. ^ "Annie Oakley". lkwdpl.org Women in History. 
  45. ^ a b "Annie Oakley". dorchesterlibrary.org Dorchester County Public Library. 
  46. ^ "Champion Rifle Shot. Chipped Ash From Wilhelm's Cigarette. Bullets Lifted Home Mortgage.". New York Times. November 14, 1926. Retrieved 2009-04-08. 
  47. ^ "Little Sureshot". Time magazine. November 15, 1966. Retrieved 2009-04-08. As it must to all men, Death came to Mrs. Annie Oakley. Butler, 66, most marked markswoman in history, at Greenville, Ohio, after long illness. 
  48. ^ "Famous Ohio Gravesites". ohiotraveler.com. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  49. ^ Haugen, B., Annie Oakley: American Sharpshooter, Capstone, 2006, p. 88.
  50. ^ Kasper, Shirl (1992). Annie Oakley. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 243–244. ISBN 0-8061-2418-0. 
  51. ^ Roadside America.com, Retrieved Oct. 1, 2014.
  52. ^ Brenda Haugen, Annie Oakley: American Sharpshooter, page 89, Retrieved Oct. 1, 2014.
  53. ^ "United States". Time magazine. December 6, 1926. Retrieved 2009-04-08. From Greenville, Ohio, I received a heavy brown pasteboard box, which I carried to the stage of the Globe Theatre, Manhattan, and opened in the presence of a notary public. It contained several scrapbooks, with clippings, photographs, letters and a typed autobiography up to 1890 of my late friend, Annie Oakley Butler, ablest markswoman in history, who died last month. There was no letter of explanation but it seemed apparent that Annie Oakley, with whom I played in a circus some 20 years ago, wished me to be her Boswell. 
  54. ^ Glenda Riley, The Life and Legacy of Annie Oakley, page 196, Retrieved Oct. 2, 2014.
  55. ^ As titled/described by Raff & Gammon, Price list of films, ca. June 1895, p. 1 [MI].
  56. ^ DIGITAL ID edmp 4030 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.mbrsmi/edmp.4030 Library of Congress Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division Washington, D. C. 20540 USA.
  57. ^ Chronological Title List of Edison Motion Pictures - Library of Congress Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division Washington, D. C. 20540 USA
  58. ^ "Buffalo dance / Thomas A. Edison, Inc. ; producer, W.K.L. Dickson.". Library of Congress Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division. 1994-05-13. Retrieved 2009-10-15. 
  59. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about Annie Oakley". Annie Oakley Center Foundation. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  60. ^ Billene Statler Nicol, ed. (2010). "Mosey1860Census" (JPG). Archived from the original on July 31, 2014. Retrieved July 31, 2014. 
  61. ^ a b Kasper, Shirl (1992). Annie Oakley. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-8061-2418-0. 
  62. ^ "Jacob Mosey". FindAGrave.com. Retrieved 2009-10-15. 
  63. ^ a b "Tall Tales and the Truth: Born Phoebe Anne Oakley Mozee?". web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2002-10-15.  (the answer is "no": "Her mother, Susan, named her Phoebe Ann…"; her father Jacob is surnamed "Mosey" in the National Archives War of 1812 military records; "In the 1870 Census, Annie is listed as Ann Mosey" – but, several other surname spellings appeared later. "The professional name Oakley was assumed in 1882, when Annie began to perform with Frank Butler; it was not a family name.")
  64. ^ http://www.csmonitor.com/1983/0803/080303.html
  65. ^ The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Letter to President William McKinley from Annie Oakley. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
  66. ^ http://www.jstor.org/stable/27650088
  67. ^ http://www.jstor.org/stable/27650088
  68. ^ http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978947
  69. ^ http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978947
  70. ^ http://www.jstor.org/stable/2902813
  71. ^ http://www.jstor.org/stable/30041628

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