Annihilationism (from Latin annihilō) is a Christian belief that apart from salvation the final punishment of human beings results in their total destruction (annihilation) rather than their everlasting torment. It is directly related to the doctrine of conditional immortality, the idea that a human soul is not immortal unless it is given eternal life. Annihilationism asserts that God will eventually destroy or annihilate the wicked, leaving only the righteous to live on in immortality. Some annihilationists believe the wicked will be punished for their sins in the Lake of Fire before being annihilated (e.g. Seventh-day Adventists), others that hell is a false doctrine of pagan origin (e.g. Jehovah's Witnesses). It stands in contrast to the traditional and long standing view of eternal torment, and the view that everyone will be saved (universal reconciliation or simply "universalism").
The belief is a minority view, although it has appeared throughout Christian history. Since 1800 the alternative interpretation of hell as annihilation seems to have prevailed even among many of the more conservative theologians.
It experienced a resurgence in the 1980s when several prominent theologians including John Stott were prepared to argue that it could be held sincerely as a legitimate interpretation of biblical texts (alternative to the more traditional interpretation of them), by those who give supreme authority to Scripture. Earlier in the 20th century, some theologians at the University of Cambridge including Basil Atkinson supported the belief. 20th century English theologians who favour annihilation include Bishop Charles Gore (1916), William Temple, 98th Archbishop of Canterbury (1924); Oliver Chase Quick, Chaplain to the Archbishop of Canterbury (1933), Ulrich Ernst Simon (1964), and G. B. Caird (1966).
Some Christian denominations which are annihilationist were influenced by the Millerite/Adventist movement of the mid-19th century. These include the Seventh-day Adventists, Bible Students, Christadelphians and the various Advent Christian churches. Additionally, the Church of England's Doctrine Commission reported in 1995 that "[h]ell is not eternal torment", but "non-being". Some Protestant and Anglican writers have also proposed annihilationist doctrines.
Annihilationists base the doctrine on their exegesis of Scripture, some early church writing, historical criticism of the doctrine of hell, and the concept of God as too loving to torment his creations forever. They claim that the popular conceptions of hell stem from Jewish speculation during the intertestamental period, belief in an immortal soul which originated in Greek philosophy and influenced Christian theologians, and also graphic and imaginative medieval art and poetry.
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Those who support annihilationism generally refer to New Testament texts such as Matthew 10:28 where Christ speaks of the wicked being destroyed "both body and soul" in fiery hell and to Old Testament texts such as Ezekiel 18:4 saying that "the soul that sins shall die". Their view of the afterlife generally appeals to New Testament references such as John 11:11 "our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep" and 1Thessalonians 4:15 "we shall not precede those who have fallen asleep". In this view mankind is mortal and the soul is in a dormant state having no concept of the passing of time when the body dies. According to this view, the dead in Christ are awaiting the resurrection of the dead mentioned by Paul in 1 Corinthians 15. The ancient Hebrews, according to some modern scholars, had no concept of the eternal soul. The afterlife was simply Sheol, the abode of the dead, a bleak end to existence akin to the Greek Hades.
Those who oppose annihilationism generally refer to the New Testament, especially the story of Rich man and Lazarus. By the time of Christ, the Jews largely believed in a future resurrection of the dead. Some annihilationists take these references to portray the temporary suffering of those who will be destroyed. The parable shows the rich man suffering in the fiery part of Hades (en to hade), where however he could see Abraham and Lazarus and converse with Abraham. Although, the parable of Lazarus could also be interpreted in the sense that it states "being in hades he lifted up his eyes", meaning that the Rich Man was in hades and was then resurrected ("lifted up his eyes"), therefore stating that at the time of the torment described and conversing with Abraham, he was no-longer in hades, but facing the lake of fire.
Church fathers and later
A majority of Christian writers, from Tertullian to Luther, have held to traditional notions of hell, especially Latin writers. However, the annihilationist position is not without some historical warrant. Early forms of conditional immortality can be found in the writings of Ignatius of Antioch (d. 108), Justin Martyr (d. 165), and Irenaeus (d. 202). However, the teachings of Arnobius (d. 330) are often interpreted as the first to defend annihilationism explicitly. One quote in particular stands out in Arnobius' second book of Against the Heathen:
Your interests are in jeopardy,-the salvation, I mean, of your souls; and unless you give yourselves to seek to know the Supreme God, a cruel death awaits you when freed from the bonds of body, not bringing sudden annihilation, but destroying by the bitterness of its grievous and long-protracted punishment.
Eternal hell/torment has been "the semiofficial position of the church since approximately the sixth century", according to Pinnock.
Additionally, at least one of John Wesley's recorded sermons are often reluctantly understood as implying annihilationism. Contrarily, the denominations of Methodism which arose through his influence typically do not agree with annihilationism.
Although the Church of England has through most of its history been closer to John Calvin's view of conscious continuation of the immortal soul, rather than Martin Luther's "soul sleep," the doctrine of annihilation of the "wicked" following a judgment day at a literal return of Christ has had a following in the Anglican communion. In 1945 a report by the Archbishops' Commission on Evangelism, Towards the conversion of England, caused controversy with statements including that "Judgment is the ultimate separation of the evil from the good, with the consequent destruction of all that opposes itself to God's will."
Millerite and Adventist movement
Recently the doctrine has been most often associated with groups descended from or with influences from the Millerite movement of the mid-19th century. These include the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Church of God (7th day) - Salem Conference, the Bible Students, Jehovah's Witnesses, the Christadelphians, the followers of Herbert Armstrong, and the various Advent Christian churches. (The Millerite movement consisted of 50,000 to 100,000 people in the United States who eagerly expected the soon return of Jesus, and originated around William Miller).
George Storrs introduced the belief to the Millerites. He had been a Methodist minister and antislavery advocate. He was introduced to the view when in 1837 he read a pamphlet by Henry Grew. He published tracts in 1841 and 1842 arguing for conditionalism and annihilation. He became a Millerite, and started the Bible Examiner in 1843 to promote these views. However most leaders of the movement rejected these beliefs, other than Charles Fitch who accepted conditionalism. Still, in 1844 the movement officially decided these issues were not essential points of belief.
The Millerites expected Jesus to return around 1843 or 1844, based on Bible texts including Daniel 8:14, and one Hebrew Calendar. When the most expected date of Jesus' return (October 22, 1844) passed uneventfully, the "Great Disappointment" resulted. Followers met in 1845 to discuss the future direction of the movement, and were henceforth known as "Adventists". However they split on the issues of conditionalism and annihilation. The dominant group, which published the Advent Herald, adopted the traditional position of the immortal soul, and became the American Evangelical Adventist Conference. On the other hand, groups behind the Bible Advocate and Second Advent Watchman adopted conditionalism. Later, the main advocate of conditionalism became the World's Crisis publication, which started in the early 1850s, and played a key part in the origin of the Advent Christian Church. Storrs came to believe the wicked would never be resurrected. He and like-minded others formed the Life and Advent Union in 1863.
Seventh-day Adventist Church
Ellen G. White rejected the immortal soul concept in 1843. Her husband James White, along with Joseph Bates, formerly belonged to the conditionalist Christian Connection, and hinted at this belief in early publications. Together, the three constitute the primary founders of the church.
Articles appeared in the primary magazine of the movement in the 1850s, and two books were published. The view was apparently established by the middle of that decade. (In the 1860s, the group adopted the name "Seventh-day Adventist" and organized more formally.) D. M. Canright and Uriah Smith produced later books.
A publication with noticeable impact in the wider Christian world was The Conditionalist Faith of our Fathers (2 vols, 1965–1966) by Le Roy Froom. It has been described as "a classic defense of conditionalism" by Clark Pinnock. It is a lengthy historical work, documenting the supporters throughout history.
Seventh-day Adventists believe that the wicked will be punished in the lake of fire, before ultimately being destroyed. Their reading of biblical texts that are used in support of the traditional doctrine of hell is that these texts can be harmonized with this particular annihilationist understanding of hell. The Seventh-day Adventist view is that these biblical texts refer to the destructive forces that are employed and the results of this punishment as being eternal, and not that the wicked specifically experience conscious torment throughout eternity.
Church of God (7th day) – Salem Conference
According to the Church of God (7th day) – Salem Conference, the dead are unconscious in their graves and immortality is conditional. when God formed Adam, out of the dust of the ground, and before Adam could live, God breathed the breath of life into his body: "And man became a living soul" (Genesis 2:7). See also Ezekiel 18:4, 20. Psalm 146:4 says, "His (man's) breath goeth forth, he returneth to his earth (dust); in that very day his thoughts perish." No man has ascended to heaven except Jesus Christ (John 3:13).
Annihilationism seems to be gaining as a legitimate minority opinion within modern, conservative Protestant theology since the 1960s, and particularly since the 1980s. It has found support and acceptance among some British evangelicals, although viewed with greater suspicion by their American counterparts. Recently, a handful of evangelical theologians, including the prominent evangelical Anglican author John Stott, have offered at least tentative support for the doctrine, touching off a heated debate within mainstream evangelical Christianity.
The subject really gained attention in the late 1980s, from publications by two evangelical Anglicans, John Stott and Philip Hughes. Stott advocated the view in the 1988 book Essentials: A Liberal–Evangelical Dialogue with liberal David Edwards, the first time he publicly did so. However 5 years later he said he had held this view for around fifty years. Stott wrote, "Well, emotionally, I find the concept intolerable and do not understand how people can live with it without either cauterising their feelings or cracking under the strain." Yet he considers emotions unreliable, and affords supreme authority to the Bible. Stott supports annihilation, yet cautions, "I do not dogmatise about the position to which I have come. I hold it tentatively... I believe that the ultimate annihilation of the wicked should at least be accepted as a legitimate, biblically founded alternative to their eternal conscious torment." Philip Hughes published The True Image in 1989, which has been called "[o]ne of the most significant books" in the debate. A portion deals with this issue in particular.
John Wenham's 1974 book The Goodness of God contained a chapter which challenged the traditional view, and was the first book from an evangelical publishing house to do so. It was republished later as The Enigma of Evil. He contributed a chapter on conditionalism in the 1992 book Universalism and the Doctrine of Hell. He later published Facing Hell: An Autobiography 1913–1996, which explores the doctrine through an autobiographical approach. His interest in the topic stemmed from the 1930s as a student at the University of Cambridge, where he was influenced by Basil Atkinson. (Wenham is best known for his The Elements of New Testament Greek, which has been a standard textbook for students). He wrote:
- "I feel that the time has come when I must declare my mind honestly. I believe that endless torment is a hideous and unscriptural doctrine which has been a terrible burden on the mind of the church for many centuries and a terrible blot on her presentation of the gospel. I should indeed be happy if, before I die, I could help in sweeping it away. Most of all I should rejoice to see a number of theologians ... joining ... in researching this great topic with all its ramifications."
The Fire that Consumes was published in 1982 by Edward Fudge of the Churches of Christ. It was described as "the best book" by Clark Pinnock, as of a decade later. John Gerstner called it "the ablest critique of hell by a believer in the inspiration of the Bible." Clark Pinnock of McMaster Divinity College has defended annihilation. Earlier, Atkinson had self-published the book Life and Immortality. Theologians from Cambridge have been influential in supporting the annihilationist position, particularly Atkinson.
The view is also held by some liberal Christians within mainstream denominations.
The Church of England's Doctrine Commission reported in February 1995 that Hell is not eternal torment. The report, entitled "The Mystery of Salvation" states, "Christians have professed appalling theologies which made God into a sadistic monster. ... Hell is not eternal torment, but it is the final and irrevocable choosing of that which is opposed to God so completely and so absolutely that the only end is total non-being." The British Evangelical Alliance ACUTE report (published in 2000) states the doctrine is a "significant minority evangelical view" that has "grown within evangelicalism in recent years". A 2011 study of British evangelicals showed 19% disagreed a little or a lot with eternal conscious torment, and 31% were unsure.
Several evangelical reactions to the view were published. Another critique was by Paul Helm in 1989. In 1990, J. I. Packer delivered several lectures supporting the traditional view. The reluctance of many evangelicals is illustrated by the fact that proponents have had trouble publishing their views with evangelical publishing houses, with Wenham's 1973 book being the first.
Some well respected authors have remained neutral. F. F. Bruce wrote, "annihilation is certainly an acceptable interpretation of the relevant New Testament passages ... For myself, I remain agnostic. Eternal conscious torment is incompatible with the revealed character of God." Comparatively, C. S. Lewis did not systematize his own views. He rejected traditional pictures of the "tortures" of hell, as in The Great Divorce where he pictured it as a drab "grey town". Yet in The Problem of Pain, "Lewis sounds much like an annihilationist." He wrote:
- "But I notice that Our Lord, while stressing the terror of hell with unsparing severity usually emphasises the idea not of duration but of finality. Consignment to the destroying fire is usually treated as the end of the story—not as the beginning of a new story. That the lost soul is eternally fixed in its diabolical attitude we cannot doubt: but whether this eternal fixity implies endless duration—or duration at all—we cannot say."
The 'Catechism of the Catholic Church' (1992) describes hell as 'eternal death' (para 1861) and elsewhere states that 'the chief punishment of hell is that of eternal separation from God' (para 1035). What does 'eternal' mean in this context? St Thomas Aquinas, following Boethius, states that 'eternity is the full, perfect and simultaneous possession of unending life' (Summa Theologica I, question 10), so apparently eternal separation from God is a 'negative eternity', a complete and permanent separation from God. In the Collect (opening prayer) for the eighth Sunday after Pentecost in the Tridentine missal, we find the words 'qui sine te esse non possumus', meaning 'we who without Thee cannot be (or exist)'. Putting these two citations together in a literal sense would seem to suggest annihilationism, which, however, is contrary to Catholic teaching.
It is interesting to note that the Collect mentioned above found its way into the Anglican prayer-book, as the collect for the ninth Sunday after Trinity, but mistranslated so that it reads 'we who cannot do anything that is good without Thee'. Perhaps the Anglican translators (in the 16th century) feared that a correct translation of the Latin text might undermine the doctrine of everlasting torment in hell. In the modern ordinary form of the Mass of the Catholic Church, in the collect is included again, used on Thursday in the first week of Lent.
The doctrine is often, although not always, bound up with the notion of "conditional immortality", a belief that the soul is not innately immortal. They are related yet distinct. At death, both the wicked and righteous will pass into non-existence, only to be resurrected at the final judgment. God, who alone is immortal, passes on the gift of immortality to the righteous, who will live forever in heaven or on an idyllic earth or World to Come, while the wicked will ultimately face a second death.
Those who describe and/or those who believe in this doctrine may not use "annihilationist" to define the belief, and the terms "mortalist" and "conditionalist" are often used. Edward Fudge (1982) uses "annihilationist" to refer to the both "mortalists" and "conditionalists" who believe in a universal resurrection, as well as those groups which hold that not all the wicked will rise to face the New Testament's "resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust".
Different understanding of Scripture
Some Annihilationists ask the question—why would God choose the words like "destroy, destruction, perish, death" to signify something other than their plain meaning? While a denial of the existence of Hell is not necessary, in this view, the suffering of the souls that inhabit it is terminated by their eventual death. Adventists, and perhaps others, then understand the term "hell" to refer to the process of destruction, not as a geographical location nor a permanently existing process.
|Psalm 1:6||... but the way of the ungodly shall perish|
|Psalm 92:7||... shall be destroyed forever|
|Matthew 10:28b||Rather, fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.|
|John 3:16||... whosoever believeth in him should not perish (Greek: destroyed) ...|
|Romans 6:23||For the wages of sin is death …|
|Philippians 3:19||whose end is "destruction" ...|
|2 Thessalonians 1:9||who shall be punished with everlasting destruction ...|
|Hebrews 10:39||But we are not of them who draw back unto perdition (Greek: destruction); but of them that believe to the saving of the soul.|
|James 4:12a||There is one lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy.|
|Revelation 20:14||This is the second death...|
Annihilationists understand there will be suffering in the death process, but ultimately the wages of sin is death, not eternal existence. Many affirm that Jesus taught limited conscience physical sufferings upon the guilty:
- "That servant who knows his master's will and does not get ready or does not do what his master wants will be beaten with many blows. But the one who does not know and does things deserving punishment will be beaten with few blows. (Luke 12:47–48)
The adjectives "many" and "few" in Luke 12 could not be used if eternal conscious torment was what Jesus was teaching. He would have used "heavier" and "lighter" if the duration of conscious sufferings were eternal because when the "few" stripes were over there could be no more suffering. By very definition "few" and "many" declare not unlimited (or eternal) sufferings.
Annihilationists declare eternal existence and life is a gift gotten only from believing the gospel; (John 3:16) Paul calls this gift (immortality) an integral part of the gospel message. "...who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and 'immortality' to light through the gospel." (2 Timothy 1:10). If all souls are born immortal, then why is humanity encouraged to seek it by Paul? "To them who by patient continuance in well doing 'seek' for glory and honour and immortality, eternal life:" (Romans 2:7) And also, why would Jesus offer humanity an opportunity to "live forever", if all live forever? …"if any man eat of this bread, he shall live forever:" (John 6:51).
The foundation of the annihilationist view is based on passages that speak of the unsaved as perishing (John 3:16) or being destroyed (Matthew 10:28). Annihilationists believe that verses speaking of the second death refer to ceasing to exist. Opponents of this view argue that the second death is the spiritual death (separation from God) that occurs after physical death (separation of soul and body). Annihilationists are quick to point out that spiritual death happens the moment one sins and that it is illogical to believe further separation from God can take place. In addition, annihilationists claim that complete separation from God conflicts the doctrine of omnipresence in which God is present everywhere, including hell. Some annihilationists accept the position that hell is a separation from God by taking the position that God sustains the life of his creations: when separated from God, one simply ceases to exist.
Opponents of annihilationism often argue that ceasing to exist is not eternal punishment and therefore conflicts with passages such as Matthew 25:46: "And these shall go away into everlasting punishment but the righteous into eternal life." This argument uses a definition of the word "punishment" that must include some form of suffering. However, in common usage, punishment might be described as "an authorized imposition of deprivations—of freedom or privacy or other goods to which the person otherwise has a right, or the imposition of special burdens—because the person has been found guilty of some criminal violation, typically (though not invariably) involving harm to the innocent" (according to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). By this definition, annihilationism is a form of punishment in which deprivation of existence occurs, and the punishment is eternal.
We may note that the 'Catechism of the Catholic Church' (1992), para. 1472, states that 'grave sin deprives us of communion with God, and therefore makes us incapable of eternal life, the privation of which is called the 'eternal punishment' of sin.'
- Genesis 3:19 We came from dust and to dust we will return.
- Psalms 146:4 Our thoughts/plans perish and spirit departs upon death.
- Ecclesiastes 9:5 For the living know that they shall die: but the dead know not any thing, neither have they any more a reward; for the memory of them is forgotten.
- Ezekiel 18:20 The soul who sins is the one who will die.
- Jeremiah 19:5 Jeremiah 32:35 Burning one's offspring in the Valley of Ben Hinnom (which is where concept of Gehenna or Hell comes from) is NOT a commandment of God nor did it even enter His Mind.
- Malachi 4:1–3 God will "burn up" the wicked at the judgment, and they will be ashes under the sole of the feet of the righteous. "For, behold, the day cometh, it burneth as a furnace; and all the proud, and all that work wickedness, shall be stubble; and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith Jehovah of hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branch...they shall be ashes under the soles of your feet in the day that I make, saith Jehovah of hosts"
- Matthew 10:28 Both body and soul are destroyed in hell. "And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell."
- John 3:16 People who don't believe in Jesus shall perish and not receive eternal life.
- John 6:51 Jesus offer... to "live forever" would make no sense apart from the fact that not all will live or exist forever.
- 2Thessalonians 1:9 Everlasting destruction is having been destroyed and having no way to undo that.
- Romans 6:23 For the wages of sin is death.
- 1Corinthians 15:12–49 Only those who belong to Christ will be raised with imperishable, immortal bodies, all others perish as a man of dust.
- 2Peter 2:6 God made Sodom and Gomorrah an example of what is coming to the wicked, specifically by reducing Sodom and Gomorrah to ashes: "and turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah into ashes condemned them with an overthrow, having made them an example unto those that should live ungodly"
- Revelation 20:14–15 The wicked will suffer a second death, the same fate that death itself suffers (and death will be abolished—1 Corinthians 15:26): "And death and Hades were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death, even the lake of fire. And if any was not found written in the book of life, he was cast into the lake of fire."
John Wenham has classified the New Testament texts on the fate of the lost:
- 10 texts (4%) "Gehenna"
- 26 (10%) to "burning up"
- 59 (22%) to "destruction, perdition, utter loss or ruin"
- 20 (8%) to "separation from God"
- 25 (10%) to "death in its finality" or "the second death"
- 108 (41%) to "unforgiven sin", where the precise consequence is not stated
- 15 (6%) to "anguish"
Wenham claims that just a single verse (Revelation 14:11) sounds like eternal torment. This is out of a total of 264 references. Ralph Bowles argues the word order of the verse was chosen to fit a chiastic structure, and does not support eternal punishment.
- Psalm 52:5 "Surely God will bring you down to everlasting ruin: He will snatch you up and pluck you from your tent; he will uproot you from the land of the living."
- Psalm 78:66 "He beat back his enemies; he put them to everlasting shame."
- Isaiah 33:14 "The sinners in Zion are terrified; trembling grips the godless: 'Who of us can dwell with the consuming fire? Who of us can dwell with everlasting burning?'"
- Isaiah 66:24 "And they will go out and look on the dead bodies of those who rebelled against me; the worms that eat them will not die, the fire that burns them will not be quenched, and they will be loathsome to all mankind."
- Jeremiah 23:40 "I will bring on you everlasting disgrace—everlasting shame that will not be forgotten."
- Jeremiah 25:9 "...I will completely destroy them and make them an object of horror and scorn, and an everlasting ruin."
- Daniel 12:2 "Multitudes who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake: some to everlasting life, others to shame and everlasting contempt."
- Matthew 8:12 "...where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth."
- Matthew 10:15 "... it will be more bearable for Sodom and Gomorrah on the day of judgment.."
- Matthew 11:24 "... it will be more bearable for Sodom on the day of judgment than for you"
- Matthew 18:8 "...It is better for you to enter life maimed or crippled than to have two hands or two feet and be thrown into eternal fire."
- Matthew 22:13 "...where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth." Same as Matt 8:12
- Matthew 25:41 "Then he will say to those on his left, 'Depart from me, you who are cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels.'"
- Mark 9:46–48 "And if your eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out. It is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye than to have two eyes and be thrown into hell, where 'the worms that eat them do not die, and the fire is not quenched.'"
- Revelation 14:11 "And the smoke of their torment will rise for ever and ever. There will be no rest day or night for those who worship the beast and its image, or for anyone who receives the mark of its name."
- Revelation 20:10 "And the devil, who deceived them, was thrown into the lake of burning sulfur, where the beast and the false prophet had been thrown. They will be tormented day and night for ever and ever."
These Christians point to biblical references to eternal punishment, as well as eternal elements of this punishment, such as the unquenchable fire, the everlasting shame, the "worm" that never dies, and the smoke that rises forever, as consistent with the traditional view of eternal, conscious torment of the wicked in hell although those who hold to annihilationism have written credible responses to these scriptures.
Incompatibility with God's love
Inherent in the annihilationist stance are notions of divine justice and love
The traditional doctrine of eternal torment in hell could seem to suggest that torment, or torture, is a legitimate form of punishment, since God Himself employs it, but it's clearly stated in Christian Scriptures that only God is liable to do this
Besides, in argumenting against suicide St. Thomas teaches that “everything naturally loves itself, the result being that everything naturally keeps itself in being, and resists corruptions so far as it can.” Thus it might seem that although the damned themselves may by bad judgment prefer their own non-existence, on the objective side annihilation be a far greater, not lesser punishment. If this is true, Divine Goodness and Mercy is no argument for, but against annihilationism; the problem of hell remains but is treated elsewhere.
Many annihilationists[who?] believe that the concept of an immortal soul separate from the body comes from Greek philosophy, particularly from Plato. For example, Plato's Myth of Er depicts disembodied souls being sent underground to be punished after death. Hellenistic culture had a significant influence on the early Christian church, see also Hellenistic Judaism. By this scenario, the soul does not appear in the Bible and is seen there only by those taught to assume that the soul exists in the first place.
- Clark Pinnock
- Edward Fudge
- Greg Boyd
- Harold Camping
- Homer Hailey
- E. Earle Ellis
- Ben Witherington III (scholar/ theologian)
Others have remained "agnostic", not taking a stand on the issue of hell. The two listed are also British:
- F. F. Bruce, who described himself as "agnostic" on this issue
- N. T. Wright rejects eternal torment, universalism, and apparently also annihilation; but believes those who reject God will become dehumanized, and no longer be in the image of God
- Problem of Hell
- Christian conditionalism (or "conditional immortality")
- Universal reconciliation ("Universalism" in a Christian context)
- Oblivion (eternal)
- L. E. Froom, The Condionalist Faith of our Fathers (Washington, DC: Review and Herald, 1965-1966).
- Richard Bauckham "Universalism: a historical survey" (@ theologicalstudies.org.uk), Themelios 4.2 (September 1978): 47-54. "Here and there, outside the theological mainstream, were some who believed that the wicked would be finally annihilated (in its commonest form. this is the doctrine of 'conditional immortality')." "Since 1800 this situation has entirely changed, and no traditional Christian doctrine has been so widely abandoned as that of eternal punishment.3 Its advocates among theologians today must be fewer than ever before. The alternative interpretation of hell as annihilation seems to have prevailed even among many of the more conservative theologians."
- Edwards, D. L. & Stott, J. Essentials : A Liberal–Evangelical Dialogue London : Hodder & Stoughton, 1988, pp. 313–320.
- Gore, The Religion of the Church Oxford: Mowbray, 1916, pp. 91f.
- Temple, W., Christus Veritas London: Macmillan, 1924, p. 209
- Quick O.C., Doctrines of the Creed London: Nisbet, 1933, pp. 257f.
- Simon U., The End is Not Yet Welwyn: Nisbet, 1964, pp. 206f.
- Caird G. B., The Revelation of St John the Divine London: A. and C. Black., 1966, pp. 186f., 260
- Crockett, Four Views on Hell, p52–53 (he accepts the traditional view)
- James H. Charlesworth, Casey Deryl Elledge, J. L. Crenshaw Resurrection: the origin and future of a Biblical doctrine 2006 p37 "One may ask, however, How widespread was early belief in the resurrection? ... These sources allege that both Pharisees and Essenes held strong support for the afterlife, while Sadducees refused to"
- St. Ignatius: Epistle to the Magnesians - http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0105.htm
- St. Justin Martyr: Dialogue with Trypho (Chapter V) - http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/justinmartyr-dialoguetrypho.html
- St. Irenaeus: Against Heresies: Book II, Chapter 34 - http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0103234.htm
- Arnobius, Against the Heathen: Book II, paragraph 61, last sentence.
- Pinnock, "Fire then Nothing", p40
- Furthermore, it should be noted that this comment was made in regard to Calvinism and their insistence that some were pre-destined to receive Christ, and others to be eternally punished. How much weight this statement of Wesley's should be placed on his idea of eternal condemnation remains debated. Actually, the terminology "being destroyed body and soul in hell" is from the lips of Jesus. Matthew 10:28 "And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. But rather fear Him who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell." However, the word "destroy" in the original Greek (apollumi) does not necessarily mean to annihilate or cause to become non-existent. This word has the idea of ruin as to its useful original purpose. SERMON 128, Preached at Bristol, in the year 1740 - http://gbgm-umc.org/umhistory/wesley/sermons/serm-128.stm
- Towards the conversion of England Church of England Commission on evangelism - 1946 "... but gives the idea that ' ' everyone goes to heaven when he dies. ' ' 198 During their earlier years children have to learn how to discriminate between the world of experience and the world of imagination. "
- An Inquiry; Are the Souls of the Wicked Immortal? In Three Letters, 1841. Six Sermons on the Inquiry: Is there Immortality in Sin and Suffering?, 1842; followed by several later versions; reprint
- It had the motto "No immortality, or endless life except through Jesus Christ alone." Sources: Lest We Forget 1:4 (1991). "George Storrs: 1796–1879: A Biographical Sketch". HarvestHerald.com. Retrieved June 2010.
- Letter from Fitch to Storrs, January 25, 1844
- Gary Land, "Conditional Immortality" entry in Historical Dictionary of the Seventh-day Adventists. Scarecrow, 2005, p68–69
- Roswell F. Cottrell, Review and Herald 1853 – the first clear statement. James White, "Destruction of the Wicked" series, Review and Herald 1854 ?. D. P. Hall, articles in 1854, republished as the book Man Not Immortal, 1854. J. N. Loughborough series; republished as Is the Soul Immortal?, 1856
- D. M. Canright, History of the Doctrine of the Immortality of the Soul, 1871. Uriah Smith, Man's Nature and Destiny, 1884
- Le Roy Froom [and team], The Conditionalist Faith of our Fathers, 2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, 1965–66; online link. See also article series in the Review. One pair of reviews is Alfred-Félix Vaucher, "The History of Conditionalism". Andrews University Seminary Studies 4:2 (July 1966), p193–200 [Vol. II]. He considers it of "greatest use" to theologians and other readers, and presents only "few reservations" for such a "voluminous work". It is aimed at English readers, and thus focuses on Great Britain and America; Vaucher expounds on continental European supporters. He disagrees with the inclusion of the Waldenses as conditionalists, and other descriptions of their history. Vaucher, review in Andrews University Seminary Studies 5 (1967), p202–204 [Vol. I]. Vaucher praises Froom's "erudition"; a "monumental work" without "rival". He questions whether several individuals should be claimed for conditionalism, or that the Pharisees taught an immortal soul. He challenged the preaching tone of books, and related artwork
- Clark Pinnock, "The Conditional View", p147 footnote 21; in William Crockett, ed., Four Views on Hell. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan, 1992
- Brian P. Phillips, "Annihilation or endless torment?". Ministry 69:8 (August 1996), p15,17–18
- Samuele Bacchiocchi, "Hell: Eternal Torment or Annihilation?" chapter 6 in Immortality Or Resurrection?. Biblical Perspectives, 1997; ISBN 1-930987-12-9, ISBN 978-1-930987-12-8
- "Fundamental Beliefs" (1980) webpage from the official church website. See "25. Second Coming of Christ", "26. Death and Resurrection", "27. Millennium and the End of Sin", and "28. New Earth". The earlier 1872 and 1931 statements also support conditionalism
- The Handbook of Seventh-day Adventist Theology (2000) from the Commentary Reference Series
- White, Edward (1878). Life in Christ: A Study of the Scripture Doctrine On the Nature of Man, the Object of the Divine Incarnation, and the Conditions of Human Immortality.. White does posit an intermediate conscious state of the soul pace the standard conditional immortality belief that the dead are unconscious. Petavel, Emmanuel (1892). The Problem of Immortality. Petavel, Emmanuel (1889). The Extinction of Evil: Three Theological Essays. Three early essays from one of the classical advocates of conditional immortality, a French author. See especially "Appendix 1: Answers to Objections Urged Against the Doctrine of the Gradual Extinction of Obdurate Sinners," beginning on page 147 of the book. Hudson, Charles Frederic (1857). Debt and Grace as Related to a Doctrine of the Future Life. See Hudson's book Christ Our Life below for an expanded biblical defense. Hudson, Charles Frederic (1860). Christ Our Life: The Scriptural Argument for Immortality Through Christ Alone.
- John Stott: A Global Ministry by Timothy Dudley-Smith, p353
- J. I. Packer (Spring 1997). "Evangelical Annihilationism in Review". Reformation & Revival 6 (2). pp. 37–51.
- Essentials: A Liberal-Evangelical Dialogue by David L. Edwards with a response from John Stott. 1988, p314 [313–320]
- In 1993. John Stott: A Global Ministry, 354
- Essentials, p314
- Essentials, p314–15
- Essentials, p320
- Philip Edgcumbe Hughes, The True Image: The Origin and Destiny of Man in Christ. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans; and Leicester, United Kingdom: Inter-Varsity Press, 1989, p398-407. As cited by Packer (and Pinnock)
- John Wenham, The Goodness of God. London: InterVarsity Press, 1974
- John Wenham, The Enigma of Evil, Britain: InterVarsity Press, 1985; a 2nd edition. A new edition with an extended chapter on the debate was published by Eagle books in 1994, from Guilford, England. As cited by Phillips
- Wenham, "The Case for Conditional Immortality" in N. M. S. Cameron, ed., Universalism and the Doctrine of Hell. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992. A report on the Fourth Edinburgh Conference on Christian Dogmatics
- John Wenham, Facing Hell: An Autobiography 1913–1996. Paternoster Press: 1998
- Wenham in Universalism and the Doctrine of Hell, p190,191; as quoted by Phillips
- Edward W. Fudge, The Fire that Consumes: A Biblical and Historical Study of Final Punishment. Houston: Providential, 1982. Author's webpage. Fudge is a member of the Churches of Christ
- Four Views on Hell, p137 footnote 5
- As cited by Phillips
- An early article was Pinnock, "Fire, then Nothing". Christianity Today (March 20, 1987), p40–41. He lists the evangelical authors who persuaded him as: Stott, Fudge, Hughes, and Green (as cited elsewhere in this article), and Stephen Travis, I Believe in the Second Coming of Christ. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982, p196–199. Listed in Four Views on Hell, p137 footnote 5
- Basil F. C. Atkinson, Life and Immortality: An Examination of the Nature and Meaning of Life and Death as They Are Revealed in the Scriptures. Taunton, England: printed by E. Goodman, 196–?. As cited by Phillips, and WorldCat
- John Stott: A Global Ministry, p353
- An Exposition of the Seven Church Ages (1965), 133-135; The Revelation of the Seven Seals (1967), 487
- Church of England, "The Mystery of Salvation: The Doctrine Commission of the General Synod" (1995), p199; published by Church House Publishing, London, 1995; copyrighted by The Central Board of Finance of the Church of England, 1995, ISBN 0-7151-3778-6
- Evangelical Alliance; Alliance Commission on Unity and Truth among Evangelicals (2000). "Conclusions and Recommendations". In Hilborn, David. The Nature of Hell. London: Paternoster Publishing. pp. 130–5. ISBN 978-0-9532992-2-5.
- 21st Century Evangelicals: A snapshot of the beliefs and habits of evangelical Christians in the UK. Evangelical Alliance and Christian Research, 2011, p9
- Eryl Davies, The Wrath of God, Evangelical Movement of Wales.W. G. T. Shedd, The Doctrine of Endless Punishment, was reissued by Banner of Truth Trust. As cited by Phillips
- Paul Helm, The Last Things: Death, Judgment, Heaven and Hell. Banner of Truth, 1989
- Letter from F. F. Bruce to John Stott in 1989, as quoted in John Stott: A Global Ministry, 354
- According to F. F. Bruce, in his foreword to Edward Fudge, The Fire That Consumes, p.viii
- Pinnock, "The Conditional View", in Crockett; p150 incl. footnote 28
- C. S. Lewis, The Problem of Pain. London and Glasgow: Collins, 1940, p114–115; emphasis in original
- Zühlsdorf, Fr. John. WDTPRS: Thursday in the 1st Week of Lent. Posted on 17 March 2011.
- Essentials, p316
- Edward Fudge, The Fire That Consumes: A Biblical and Historical Study of Final Punishment (Houston: Providential Press, 1982).
- chapter 6, "Hell: Not Endless" in The Enigma of Evil by John Wenham, p68–92; esp. 81–83. Quotations are Wenham's terms, not the Bible's necessarily. The first edition of the book was titled, The Goodness of God, but contained little or none of this discussion
- Ralph G. Bowles, "Does Revelation 14:11 Teach Eternal Torment? Examining a Proof-text on Hell". Evangelical Quarterly 73:1 (2000), p21–36
- Millard Erickson, Christian Theology, 2nd Ed. (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 1998), pp1242–1244.
- S. th. II/II 64 V
- Michael Green, Evangelism Through the Local Church. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1990, p69–70
- N. T. Wright, Surprised by Hope, chapter 11 "Purgatory, Paradise, Hell"; preview; as cited elsewhere
- William Crockett, ed., Four Views on Hell
- Edward Fudge and Robert Peterson, Two Views of Hell: A Biblical & Theological Dialogue. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 2000
- Neusner, Jacob; Avery-Peck, Alan Jeffery (2000). Judaism in Late Antiquity: Part Four: Death, Life-After-Death, Resurrection and the World-To-Come in the Judaisms of Antiquity. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. p. 342. ISBN 90-04-11262-6.
- Bacchiocchi, Samuele (1997). Immortality or Resurrection? A Biblical Study on Human Nature and Destiny. Berrien Springs, Michigan: Biblical Perspectives. ISBN 1-930987-12-9. OCLC 38849060.
- Clark Pinnock, "The Destruction of the Finally Impenitent". Criswell Theological Review 4:2 (1990), p243–259. Reprinted in A Journal from the Radical Reformation 2:1 (Fall 1992), p4–21
- Stanley Grenz, "Directions: Is Hell Forever?" Christianity Today 42:11 (October 5, 1998), p?
- Christopher W. Morgan and Robert A. Peterson, eds., Hell Under Fire: Modern Scholarship Reinvents Eternal Punishment. Zondervan, 2004; ISBN 0-310-24041-7, ISBN 978-0-310-24041-9
- Robert A. Peterson, Hell on Trial: The Case for Eternal Punishment. P&R Publishing, 1995; ISBN 0-87552-372-2, ISBN 978-0-87552-372-9
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- "Hell Truth - Does Hell Burn Forever?" Comprehensive site covering the topic of hell and annihilationism, Amazing Facts
- Jewish not Greek Shows how Biblical hermeneutics proves "Annihilationism" and not the Greek philosophical view of innate immortality.
- Afterlife.co.nz The Conditional Immortality Association of New Zealand Inc. is a non-profit organization established to promote a Biblical understanding of human nature, life, death and eternity as taught throughout Scripture.
- "Hell – Eternity of Hell" in Catholic Encyclopedia
- Evangelicals and the Annihilation of Hell - Part 1, Part 2 by Alan W. Gomes. (Note the article incorrectly states Edward Fudge is from the Adventist tradition)
- "Undying Worm, Unquenchable Fire" by Robert A. Peterson. Christianity Today 44:12 (October 23, 2000)