Annona reticulata

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Annona reticulata
Annona reticulata Blanco1.197-cropped.jpg
Custard Apple or Wild Sweetsop
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Magnoliids
Order: Magnoliales
Family: Annonaceae
Genus: Annona
Species: A. reticulata
Binomial name
Annona reticulata
L.
Range of Annona reticulata-Native.svg
Native range of A. reticulata
Synonyms

Annona humboldtiana Kunth
Annona humboldtii Dunal[1]
Annona excelsa Kunth
Annona laevis Kunth
Annona longifolia Sessé & Moc.
Annona riparia Kunth
Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.) Baill.[2]
Rollinia deliciosa Saff.
Annona mucosa Jacq.
Rollinia orthopetala A. DC.
Rollinia pulchrinervia A. DC.
Rollinia sieberi A. DC. [3]

Custard-apple, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 423 kJ (101 kcal)
25.2 g
Dietary fiber 2.4 g
0.6 g
1.7 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(7%)
0.08 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(8%)
0.1 mg
Niacin (B3)
(3%)
0.5 mg
(3%)
0.135 mg
Vitamin B6
(17%)
0.221 mg
Vitamin C
(23%)
19.2 mg
Trace metals
Calcium
(3%)
30 mg
Iron
(5%)
0.71 mg
Magnesium
(5%)
18 mg
Phosphorus
(3%)
21 mg
Potassium
(8%)
382 mg
Sodium
(0%)
4 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Annona reticulata is a small deciduous or semi-evergreen tree in the plant family Annonaceae.[4] It is best known for its fruit, called custard apple, a common name it shares with fruits of several other species in the same genus: A. cherimola[5] and A. squamosa[6] or sometimes it is called wild-sweetsop, bull's heart, bullock's-heart, or ox-heart. The flavor of the fruit is sweet and pleasant, but less popular than that of A. cherimola.

Description[edit]

It is a small deciduous or semi-evergreen tree reaching 8 metres (26 ft) to 10 metres (33 ft) tall with an open, irregular crown.[7]

Custard Apple for sale at a fruit vendor near Sangareddi, Telangana, India
Stems and leaves
The slender leaves are hairless, straight and pointed at the apex (in some varieties wrinkled), 10 centimetres (3.9 in) to 20 centimetres (7.9 in) long and 2 centimetres (0.79 in) to 7 centimetres (2.8 in) wide.[7]
Flowers
The yellow-green flowers are generally in clusters of three or four 2 centimetres (0.79 in) to 3 centimetres (1.2 in) diameter, with three long outer petals and three very small inner ones.[7]
Fruits and reproduction
The fruits are variable in shape: heart-shaped, spherical, oblong or irregular. The size ranges from 7 centimetres (2.8 in) to 12 centimetres (4.7 in), depending on the cultivar. When ripe, the fruit is brown or yellowish, with red highlights and a varying degree of reticulation, depending again on the variety. The flesh varies from juicy and very aromatic to hard with a repulsive taste.[7] The flavor is sweet and pleasant, akin to the taste of 'traditional' custard.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Possibly a native of the Caribbean[8] and Central America,[1] Annona reticulata is now pantropical[8] and can be found growing between altitudes of 0 metres (0 ft) to 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) in areas of Central America that have alternating seasons.[7] It is cultivated in many tropical countries, and also occurs as feral populations in many parts of the world, including Southeast Asia, Taiwan, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Australia, and Africa.

Cultivated and naturalized[8] in many parts of the world including Southeast Asia, Taiwan, India (Bengali - Ata, Nona; Hindi - Ramphal), Australia, and West Africa.

Native
Nearctic:
Central Mexico: Veracruz
Neotropic:
Central America: Belize, Chiapas, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama
Caribbean: Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Martinique, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, Jamaica, Cuba
Northern South America: Guyana, Venezuela
Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Para, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
Western South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Paraguay[3][9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (11 July 1997). "Taxon: Annona reticulata L.". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 16 April 2008. 
  2. ^ Missouri Botanical Garden (1753). "Annona reticulata L.". Tropicos. Retrieved 16 April 2008. 
  3. ^ a b Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (15 December 2000). "Taxon: Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.) Baill.". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 16 April 2008. 
  4. ^ Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). "PLANTS Profile, Annona reticulata L.". The PLANTS Database. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 16 April 2008. 
  5. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (11 July 1997). "Taxon: Annona cherimola Mill.". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 17 April 2008. 
  6. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (11 July 1997). "Taxon: Annona squamosa L.". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 17 April 2008. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Mahdeem, H. (5 July 1998). "Annona reticulata". Neglected Crops. Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture, Purdue University. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 16 April 2008. 
  8. ^ a b c Aluka. "Entry for Annona reticulata Linn. [family ANNONACEAE]". African Plants. Ithaka Harbors, Inc. Retrieved 16 April 2008. 
  9. ^ Bioversity International. [species_id=101 "Result set for: Annonaceae Annona reticulata"]. New World Fruits Database. Retrieved 16 April 2008. 

External links[edit]

Mahdeem, H. (5 July 1998). reticulata "Annona reticulata". Neglected Crops. Retrieved 16 April 2008.