Annonay

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Annonay
Annonay, view from the Aygas rise.
Annonay, view from the Aygas rise.
Coat of arms of Annonay
Coat of arms
Annonay is located in France
Annonay
Annonay
Coordinates: 45°14′27″N 4°40′17″E / 45.2408°N 4.6714°E / 45.2408; 4.6714Coordinates: 45°14′27″N 4°40′17″E / 45.2408°N 4.6714°E / 45.2408; 4.6714
Country France
Region Rhône-Alpes
Department Ardèche
Arrondissement Tournon-sur-Rhône
Canton Capital of Annonay-Nord and Annonay-Sud
Intercommunality Bassin d'Annonay
Government
 • Mayor (2008–2020) Olivier Dussopt
Area1 21.20 km2 (8.19 sq mi)
Population (2009)2 16,923
 • Density 800/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 07010 / 07100
Elevation 270–746 m (886–2,448 ft)
(avg. 358 m or 1,175 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Annonay (French pronunciation: ​[anɔnɛ]; Anonai in Occitan) is a French commune in the north of the Ardèche department in the Rhône-Alpes region of southern France. It is the most populous commune in the Ardèche department although it is not the capital which is the smaller town of Privas.

The inhabitants of the commune are known as Annonéens or Annonéennes[1]

Geography[edit]

Annonay is located 75 km (47 mi) south of Lyon, 13 km (8 mi) south-west of Saint-Rambert-d'Albon, and 13 km (8 mi) north-west of Saint-Vallier at the foot of the mountains of Vivarais just 6 km (4 mi) west of the river Rhône. Access to the commune is by the D121 from Davezieux in the north-east passing through the commune and the city and continuing to Villevocance in the south-west. There is also the D578 from the city to Quintenas in the south and the D206 to Saint-Marcel-les-Annonay in the north. There are also the D371 and the D370 in the east of the commune.[2]

Bordering regions with very different reliefs, the city is built on a hill over the deep gorges of the Deûme and the Cance and on the steep walls of the gorges themselves. The escarpment of Annonay is surrounded by plateaux and gentle hills used for cultivating cherries, apricots, apples, pears, and other crops. A reservoir created by damming the Ternay River north-west of the town provides water for industrial and domestic use.

The highest point of the town is located near a place called "Sagne Ronde" at 746 metres high, the lowest point is the bed of the Cance near the ruins of the "Mill Baru" at 270 metres. The Montmiandon overlooking the city, rises to 679 meters above sea level.

Annonay is a crossroads of trade routes: from the Rhône Valley to the region of Saint-Étienne (east-west); and the Lyon region to south of the Massif Central (north-south).

The commune consists of the capital: the city of Annonay; and several hamlets - Vissenty, Chatinais, and Boucieu. With residential development, these four entities have merged into one today. Further away is the hamlet of Toissieu.

The geology consists mainly of grey or light orange leucogranite and orthogneiss rich in biotite, sillimanite and cordierite with alternating bands of felsic and mafic material.

Neighbouring communes and villages[2][edit]

Toponymy[edit]

The origin of the name of the town has numerous hypotheses. One of these suggests that Annonay comes from Annoniacum meaning the domain of Annonius - a rich Roman who lived there.[3] Another explanation is that Annonay came from the presence of a food store of the Praefectus annonae. In any case, the site of the city has been occupied since Antiquity. Roman coins and medals were found during the digging of Rue Malleval in 1851.

History[edit]

Middle Ages[edit]

Bell Tower of the Trachin Chapel

The first written mention of Annonay dates from 403. A chronicle of archives in Vienne characterised the city as a small town "built by poor unclothed workers lost in the mountains of Haut-Vivarais".

A manuscript which has now disappeared, History of Annonay by P. Bartholomew Popon stated that Evance, Bishop of Vienne, had built on the site of Liberty Square a church dedicated to Saint-Mary or Our Lady in 584.

A charter of 790 ("The statutes of the Church of Vienne"), confirmed in 805, extracted from the cartulary of the Church of Vienne and quoted Annonay as the seat of a rural archpriest.

In the 13th and early 14th centuries the small town of Annonay was an important step on the road of pilgrimage to the Virgin of Puy-en-Velay. In witness to this hostelries for pilgrims, five monasteries including the Saint-Clair Convent, one Cordelier, and two priories one of which was the Chapel of Trachin.

The family de Roussillon dominated the region. One of its members, Guillaume de Roussillon, participated in the Crusades. From 1288 a charter was signed between the city and the Lord of Annonay. This granted some autonomy to the city: in particular the right to levy taxes.

In 1342 or 1347 Annonay suffered the Black Death which raged in Europe. A large part of the population was decimated. From 1365 two consuls were responsible for the city.

During the 15th century, Annonay affirmed itself as a commercial crossroads: exporting its wine, trading between the valley of the Rhône, the Dauphiné and the mountain by mule, the tannery developed using the waters of the Deume. The city, built on a rocky outcrop located between two rivers, was defended by the castle of Roussillon in the south and two fortified houses: in the north Maleton and in the west Du Peloux. A line of ramparts ringed all. The suburbs grew towards the Champ de Mars along the banks of the Cance and Deume. The relative prosperity however attracted thieves, highwaymen, and mercenaries. During the Hundred Years War the city strengthened its fortifications with watchtowers, such as the so-called Martyrs Tower. The walls were pierced by gates to control the entrance and exit to the city. There are written references to the Deume, Cance, and Champ entrances, to mention only the most important.

In 1487 the city had fourteen churches or chapels for about two thousand inhabitants. At the centre of town was the parish Church of Notre Dame to which was attached a college of canons of the order of Saint-Ruf. Until the Wars of Religion clerics represented up to half of the population.

Modern Times (16th and 17th centuries)[edit]

The Place Grenette

In 1524 Annonay was attached to the domain of the King of France in the wake of the revolt by the Constable of Bourbon: his property, which included Annonay, was confiscated. The country was then dominated by the Lévis-Ventadour, the Rohan-Soubises etc.

Wars of Religion[edit]

During this period Annonay had 3,500 inhabitants. The districts of Cance and Deume were neglected by the wealthy in favour of the Place Vielle (Old Square - now the Place de la Liberté or Liberty Square), Place Grenette, Rue des Forges (formerly Main Street and today Rue Franki Kramer).[3]

Annonay adopted Protestantism before Geneva. From 1528 a Franciscan monk, Etienne Machopolis - who had heard Martin Luther preach in Saxony, spread the new ideas. In 1539 two merchants from Annonay were burned alive for spreading the ideas of Luther. It was the excesses of the clergy that pushed people into the arms of the Reformation. Moreover in the region Protestants such as the Benay family had developed the culture of silkworms and protected the Italian artisans who came to develop the silk mills.

Annonay, when in the hands of Protestants, was taken for the first time in 1562 by the Catholic troops of Christophe of Saint-Chamond, Lord of Thorrenc and Andance. The city was retaken at the end of 1562 by the Protestants led by Jean de Saint-Romain, his own brother. Saint-Romain and his troops destroyed the Catholic places of worship in Annonay except for the Trachin Chapel which became a Protestant temple. On 10 January 1563 three thousand Catholics commanded by Saint-Chamond dislodged them from Annonay. The city was sacked in five days. The Edict of Amboise (March 1563) restored peace by giving Protestants freedom of worship in bailiwicks such as Annonay. To this misfortune was added another: plague broke out in 1564.

In 1568 the Protestants of Saint-Romain seized Annonay and slaughtered the college of Notre Dame. A few months later, in September, Catholics, under the command of Saint-Chamond, retook the city again. The troops of Saint-Romain reverted to the masters of Annonay on 17 July 1574. The houses of Cance and Bourgville districts were razed and the ramparts ruined, college and various Annonay chapels were completely destroyed except the Trachin Chapel. From 1574 the Protestant Lord Jean de Fay of Virieu was sent by Henry III to negotiate peace between Catholics and Protestants. A compromise was found in the castle of La Condamine: the Protestant lord was responsible for controlling the locations in the region which were disarmed. An edict of pacification was granted in 1577. The city then had a long period of peace but in the short term trade and industry were destroyed. The city, in ruins, had only 300 fires or about 1500 inhabitants. Religious orders were expelled. In 1583, 1584, and 1585, poor harvests caused inflation, food shortages, and famine. Plague wreaked havoc in Upper Vivarais.

With the signing of the Edict of Nantes the city regained prosperity. At the end of the 16th century thirty tanneries were located on the banks of the Deume and Cance, attracted by the quality of their waters and the prosperous farms nearby. The tanneries grew. There were 11 Tanners and 4 Dressers in 1590; there were 20 and 37 respectively in 1704.[4]

17th - 18th centuries[edit]

The first flight of the Montgolfière balloon

Catholicism became the new majority in the capital of Upper Vivarais due to the massive influx of foreign population. Reconstruction of the Church of Notre Dame was undertaken with a constrained budget. Meanwhile the Trachin Chapel, the only intact religious building, became the parish church. A Protestant church was built in the district of the Place Saint-Ursula. In September 1601 Annonay received a visit by the future Saint Francis de Sales and a little later from the future Saint John Francis Regis. The reconstruction of the city was characterised by the arrival of new religious communities and the creation of educational institutions such as the Convent of Santa Maria. A new hospital, joining the medieval structures of Notre-Dame La Belle and Notre-Dame de l’Aumône was created on 16 March 1686 at the Champ-de-Mars.

In 1685 the revocation of the Edict of Nantes affected Annonay. Protestants who were at that time 50% of the population[5] had to choose between exile, abjuration, or to continue practicing their religion in secret. The Protestants were mostly artisans, manufacturers, wine-growers, and traders.[6] A century later a census showed that there were only 7% Protestants mostly from the upper classes.[7]

The paper industry was started in Annonay in the 17th century with the Montgolfiers, papermakers originating from Auvergne, installed at Vidalon-lès-Annonay (today a hamlet in the commune of Davézieux). The Johannot, another Auvergne family, had been settled in Faya since 1634. Attracted to the water quality, the driving force of the rivers, and the abundance of raw materials (rags), they imported technological innovations from Holland: e.g. the Dutch pile.

In the maze of streets and small squares of Annonay, there was progress with the commissioning in 1726 of four public fountains fed by captive water sources.

In 1780 industrial production was booming: 25,000 cow hides and 500,000 sheep skins were processed by the tanneries. Paper mills produced 300 tonnes of paper. This success did not go smoothly: the employment in great numbers of the best workers by Montgolfier caused a scarcity of labour and demands for wage increases. There was a strike for two months in the Vidalon Workshop in late 1781 after a long period of tension between the employer and his employees, the first lost the best of his workforce through his intransigent attitude[8] at a time when fights between gavots and journeymen were common.[9]

In 1781, the term Bailiage was changed to Sénéchaussée.

On 14 December 1782, thanks to Etienne and Joseph Montgolfier, the first balloon rose above Vidalon-lès-Annonay. It consisted of a large paper bag lined with cloth placed over a fire of wet straw and wool. It remained however a private experience: the first public official flight in a hot air balloon took place on 4 June 1783 at Annonay, or precisely from the Place des Cordeliers - in front of a chosen public: the Members of State particularly of Vivarais. Several other inventions are credited to Joseph Montgolfier: the hydraulic ram, the method of manufacture of Wove paper and filter paper, called joseph paper.

Annonay developed through trade. It benefited from an improved road network (even if it was as a result of the revolt of camisards).[10] In 1787 Annonay had 130 merchants for about 7,000 inhabitants. Among them: 11 drapers, 11 clothoiers, 26 grocers, 3 goldsmiths, 26 shoe merchants, and 28 tailors.[10] At the same time, the Catholic parish of the city was headed by a priest-archpriest, and vicars. The college of canons was composed of the prior and twelve canons. The monastery of the Poor Clares had twelve nuns and two lay sisters, the Convent of Santa Maria had thirty nuns and four lay sisters. Adding to this religious presence was the pastor of the Protestant community.

French Revolution[edit]

The French Revolution started down this organization. The region was characterised by a wave of dechristianisation which caused a certain spirit of resistance among the Catholic and Protestant populations. The Terror made victims such as Pierre-François Dulau-Dallemand, the pastor of Saint-Julien-Vocance; Bartholomew Montblanc, Vicar at Givors hidden around Annonay, and the priests of Rouville, Bac-et-Guards, and former Jesuits. To them must be added the three Sisters of Saint-Joseph from the community of Vernosc-lès-Annonay.

The representatives of Annonay, while being very favourable to the new order, adopted a moderate attitude. This moderation was well illustrated by the personality of the lawyer Boissy d'Anglas, closely linked to the Girondins. André Joseph Abrial, a native of Annonay, became Minister of Justice and was an author of the Civil Code (Code Napoleon).

19th century[edit]

Statue of the Montgolfier brothers (1883-1885)

During the first half of the 19th century, the need for an industrial workforce for paper-making and leather at Annonay attracted population from the surrounding countryside. The number of inhabitants doubled from 5,550 in 1801 to 11,398 in 1846 (it would reach 18,445 inhabitants in 1866). The physiognomy of the city changed with the rapid development or opening of new shopping streets (Rues Sadi Carnot, Montgolfier, Boissy d'Anglas, Tournon, Melchior de Vogue). A new city hall was built in a developing area.

In 1822, the Congregation of St. Basil, a Catholic order of priests was founded in the town.

On 26 February 1848, the city workers violently showed their support for the revolutionary Parisians (during February 1848), including the stoning of houses belonging to notable people. The army maintained order.[11]

With demographic pressure, the size of the existing infrastructure including the sole Catholic church did not allow proper welcoming of new residents to the faith. Two new churches were built: Saint-Francis and Saint-Joseph. Around the city, about a kilometre or two new town houses were built in the image of the Domain of Marc Seguin or Déomas Castle constituting a "sunbelt".

The tannery rode the industrial prosperity of Annonay. High-end gloves were made in Grenoble but the best skins came from Annonay. In 1870 the Annonay tannery processed 8 million skins and employed 50% of the workers in the city. Three thousand of them were working at the time in this industry.

Improving the road network and creating the first lines of railway put an end to Annonay's role as a commercial centre for the mountainous hinterland. The latter was now in direct contact with Saint-Étienne. The east-west trade that were advantageous to Annonay were replaced by north-south trade particularly following the valley of the Rhône. From now on Annonay, although the hometown of Marc Seguin, would be connected to the railway network by a branch line.

The Franco-Prussian War of 1870 blocked exports: the stocks of the Annonay works were blocked for a time in Paris. This crisis began the decline of the tanneries in Annonay compounded by weak industrial investment. More than 2,000 employees were laid off to go and find work in other areas.

Barthélémy Baru Canson married the daughter of Étienne de Montgolfier. New processes of papermaking were established and production became specialised. The paper mill employed 1,500 people around 1875. Such activity requires a lot of water which was supplied by the Ternay reservoir from 1867. Its water was also distributed to residents through standpipes positioned in each district.

While modern community life was started with the creation of the first sports clubs such as Annonéenne, a company gym which still exists; the nascent local press reported on events such as celebrations marking the centenary of the first flight of a balloon. Annonay improved its main entrance by creating a new road connecting the PLM station to the centre of town: the Boulevard of the Republic (1883-1888).

The 20th century[edit]

Valgelas Bridge

In the early 20th century, the city still retained its appearance after the Wars of religion except for the Station district. Construction works were mainly concentrated in the industrial valleys of Cance and Deume. The historic centre saw the building of Annonay's first department store "Les Galeries Modernes" (currently Public Service offices) and reconstruction on another site of the historic church of Notre-Dame. At this time the magic of electricity came (1910). The telephone was known and used. The national news with the laws on religious congregations and the separation of church and state was a passion in Annonay and in its surroundings. There were expulsions of monks and nuns with the Querelle des inventaires particularly active during violent protests motivated by the fear of a return to the excesses of 1793-1794.

The First World War with its refugees, its wounded, its mutilated, and its dead (552 from Annonay) put an end to the protests.

The period between the two wars was marked by the presidential visit of Alexandre Millerand in 1923 on the occasion of the inauguration of the monument in honour of Marc Seguin and by the 150th anniversary of the first flight of the balloon (1933). The appearance of the city remained the same: dirty, dark streets, few new buildings like the "Vanaude" house. The "sunbelt" of castles contrast with the city centre of slums and polluting industries. On the economic front mechanical industries grew: machines for the tannery of the Mercier brothers and especially for the manufacturing of buses. The old craft business of Jean-Joseph Besset became Renault then Irisbus, who manufacture its entire range of buses and coaches for France. These entrepreneurs invented the concept of the industrial zone. The descendants of the Montgolfier brothers, B. and E. de Canson invented tracing paper and photographic paper. Weaving experiencing strong growth.

During the Second World War Annonay was the site of the last battles of 1940. On 6 June 1944 the local resistance of the Secret Army were the first to liberate their own city. These facts earned the city the Croix de Guerre 1939-1945 and a citation at the order of the nation.

When peace returned, industrial sectors developed in Annonay such as food processing and pharmaceutical production. Other industries declined following the marginalisation of the work of leather and textile after great social conflict. The face of the city changed. From 1949 near the Besset factory a new district was created from scratch on farmland. It contains large housing subdivisions, schools, sports facilities and shops. Catholics built their fourth church in the city. Urbanization moved towards Boulieu-lès-Annonay, Roiffieux, and especially Davézieux with its industrial and commercial area. In the centre, renovation of the old town, reconstruction of the banks of the Deume and the hillsides of Cance are scheduled. From a city with black façades, slums, and industrial wastelands, Annonay has become a colourful city made of new or rehabilitated buildings. The Deume has been covered for more than one kilometre and a new axis conveys traffic: the Avenue de l'Europe.

The Annonay people celebrated with great pomp the centenary of the railway line (1970), Marc Seguin (1975 and 1986) and the bicentennial of the first flight of the hot air balloon (1983).

The 21st century[edit]

Panoramic view of Annonay

The city bore the brunt of deindustrialisation. Economic jewels disappeared causing job losses (industrial weaving, manufacture and processing of paper). At the same time new companies emerged bringing hope in the fields of food and cleaning equipment.

Although more discrete in a secular society religious life remains. The Catholic community created the parish of Sainte-Claire by merging the parishes of the city of Annonay, Roiffieux, Vocance, Villevocance, Vanosc, Saint-Julien-Vocance, Monestier, and the hamlet of Toissieu. The Protestant community is shared between the Evangelical Church and the United Protestant Church of France. The Muslim community built the House of the Orient, a building which includes the first mosque in Annonay.

On 8 March 2001, an ETA suspect was arrested at a local roadblock.

Associative and cultural life is rich. The people of Annonay celebrated the centennial of the opening of the new Church of Notre Dame (2012) and the establishment of the Joseph Besset factory (2013).

Heraldry[edit]

Arms of Annonay
The motto of Annonay is Cives et semper cives meaning "Citizens and always citizens"

Blazon:
Chequy of Or and Gules of 4 tires.



Administration[edit]

List of Successive Mayors[12]

Mayors from 1942
From To Name Party Position
1942 1944 Pierre Lapize de Sallee
1944 1944 Jacques Meaudres de Sugny PCF
1944 1950 Ferdinand Janvier SFIO Senior Executive
1950 1953 Joseph Pourret SFIO
1953 1959 Daniel Aime SFIO College Director
1959 1965 Fernand Duchier CNIP Industrialist
1965 1971 Daniel Aime SFIO Former College Director
1971 1977 Henri Faure UDR Industrialist
1977 1983 Jean Parizet PS Senior Executive
1983 1986 Régis Perbet RPR Director of Farm cooperative, MP 1980-1992
1986 1997 Claude Faure RPR Senior Executive
1997 2001 Jean-Claude Tournayre PS Architect
2001 2008 Gérard Weber UMP Physiotherapist, MP 2002-2007
2008 2020 Olivier Dussopt PS MP for Ardeche

(Not all data is known)

Twinning[edit]

Annonay has twinning associations with:[13]

Demography[edit]

In 2009 the commune had 16,923 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]

Evolution of the Population (See database)
1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851
5,800 5,550 6,083 7,748 8,277 9,031 10,384 11,938 13,214
1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896
13,679 16,271 18,445 17,033 15,848 17,291 17,308 17,626 17,028
1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954
17,490 17,300 16,661 15,032 14,690 15,427 15,669 15,462 16,201
1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2009 -
18,434 20,757 20,832 19,484 18,525 17,522 - 16,923 -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)


Population of Annonay

Distribution of Age Groups[edit]

The population of the town is relatively old. The proportion of people above the age of 60 years (28%) is higher than the national rate (21.8%) and the county rate (26.8%). Like the national and departmental proportions, the female population of the commune is higher than the male population. The rate (54%) is higher by more than two points than the national rate (51.9%).

Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Annonay and Ardèche Department in 2009

Annonay Annonay Ardèche Ardèche
Age Range Men Women Men Women
0 to 14 Years 18.0 14.8 18.7 16.9
15 to 29 Years 18.4 16.6 15.4 14.0
30 to 44 Years 19.5 16.3 19.9 18.9
45 to 59 Years 18.4 18.3 21.5 20.6
60 to 74 Years 14.9 17.1 16.1 16.4
75 to 89 Years 10.2 15.1 8.0 11.7
90 Years+ 0.5 1.9 0.4 1.5

Sources:

Economy[edit]

Annonay has a strong industrial tradition. In the past it was noted for its leather goods. Although the industry has declined, the Tannerie d'Annonay (Tannery) continues the tradition under the Grison brand.

Irisbus (a Renault Vehicles Industries and Fiat Iveco joint venture) builds buses and is the largest single employer with around 2,000 staff with several associated businesses.

The multinational paper company Arjo Wiggins subsidiary Papeteries Canson et Montgolfier SA, which dates back to 1557 owns three of the several paper factories in the town.

Other industries in or close to the town include plastics, textiles, and pharmaceutical companies including Ciba, Aguettant and Tetra Médical.

There are a number of vineyards near the town.

The average salary in the area is 23,300 euro.

Culture and heritage[edit]

Civil heritage[edit]

The Montgolfier brothers[edit]

"The Montgolfier brothers"
  • A Statue of the brothers Joseph and Etienne de Montgolfier located in the Place de Liberation. A work by the sculptor Henri Cordier, it was inaugurated on 5 June 1888.[14]
  • The Pyramid stone obelisk, the work of Étienne-François Imbard located on the Boulevard de la République. Built between 1819 and 1822, it commemorates the first ballooning experience of the Montgolfier brothers.[15]
  • The Montgolfier-Canson Paper Mill (18th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg is registered as an historical monument.[16]

Marc Seguin[edit]

Statue of Marc Seguin
  • A Monument to Marc Seguin, Place de la Liberté ( 1923 ). This bronze statue, the work of François Clémencin, was removed by the German army in 1942 then was replaced by a statue by the same sculptor which was inaugurated on 1 June 1947.[14]
  • The Domain of Marc Seguin at Varagnes (19th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg is registered as a historical monument.[17]

Boissy d'Anglas[edit]

Fountains[edit]

Jean-Baptiste Béchetoille fountain
  • The Jean-Baptiste Béchetoille fountain (1900). The work of the architect Millefaud.[14]
  • The Fountain in the Place Grenette (1726).
  • The Fountain in the Place de la Liberté opened in 1923.

Other sites of interest[edit]

Château of Déomas.
  • The City Hall of neoclassical inspiration (1835), rebuilt twice after fires (1870 and 1926).
  • The Fortified house of Nicolas du Peloux in Rue de la Postern (Governor in 1577).
  • Bourgeois mansions in Rue de Trachin from the 17th and 18th centuries.
  • The Valgelas Bridge (14th century), a former city gate.[19]
  • The La Vanaude House at 33 Avenue Marc-Seguin (1930)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg is registered as an historical monument. It is the work of the architects Hugues Gosselin and Maurice Frappa.[20]
  • The César Filhol Museum in Rue Bechetoille (1700), formerly the royal bailiwick house.[21] The museum contains two items that are registered as historical objects:
    • A Group Sculpture: Virgin of Pity (16th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[22]
    • A Statue: Christ (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[23] possibly by Veyrines.
  • The Place Mayol (16th century) with a door of glazing beads.
  • The Chateau of Déomas (1876) illustration of the "Sun Belt of Annonay".[24]
  • Substantial remains of the railway line between Firminy, Bourg-Argental, and Saint-Rambert-d'Albon:
    • Vidalon Tunnel, a passage on a ledge above the Deûme (covered in vegetation in 2013);
    • Retaining walls with characteristic stone-setting of the "Station district" (in the Place de la Gare in Annonay); Sacré-Cœur tunnel;
    • the Vissenty cutting.

Religious heritage[edit]

Church in the hamlet of Toissieu
  • The Church Our Lady of the Assumption, in the neo-Byzantine Roman style, built between 1904 and 1912. Its bell tower contains a Carillon of five bells with a weight more than 2,100 kg (4,630 lb). It replaced a church of the same patronage located on the Place de la Liberté.[25] The work of the architects Rey, Allengry, and Joly. Its interior decoration (paste paintings) is inspired by the Litanies of the Blessed Virgin, the Litany of Loreto, the Bible, hagiography, and the history of Annonay.[14][15][19][26][27][28][29] Consecrated in 1954, it contains many items that are registered as historical objects:
    • 2 Statues: Adoring Angels (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[30]
    • A Statue: Virgin and child (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[31]
    • A Gallery Organ (1880)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[32] [33] signed Cavaillé-Coll.
    • A Choir Organ (1848)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[34] [35]
    • 2 Statues: Acolyte Angels (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[36]
    • 2 Statues: Cherubs (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[37]
    • A Bust-Reliquary: Saint John of the Cross (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[38]
    • A Bust-Reliquary: Saint Peter of Alcantara (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[39]
  • The Church of Saint Francis of Assisi, in neo-Gothic style (1863-1866).[25]
  • The Church of Saint Joseph of Cance, in neo-Gothic style (1870-1872).[25]
  • The Church of the Holy Family of Perrières, in modern style (1957-1958).[25]
  • The Church of Saint Maurice of Toissieu, in neo-Gothic style (1876-1878).[25]
  • The Chapel of the Evangelical Free Church, Boulevard de la République (1900).
  • The Temple of the Reformed Church, Rue Franki Kramer, portal from the 18th century.
  • Orient House, Muslim cultural and religious centre (2008-2013).
  • The Chapel of the Hospital, dating from the 17th century.[14][19] The chapel contains many items that are registered as historical objects:
    • A Sideboard (19th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[40]
    • 2 Apothecary Jars (19th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[41]
    • A Venetian Wall lamp mirror (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[42]
    • A Chest of Drawers with diamond corners (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[43]
    • A Painting: Christ on the Cross (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[44]
    • A Painting: The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[45]
    • A Painting with gold frame: Pope Clement VI (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[46]
    • A Painting with gold frame: Saint Jerome (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[47]
    • A Painting with gold frame: Adoration of the Trinity (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[48]
    • 24 Apothecary Jars (19th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[49]
    • A Mortar and pestle (1654)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[50]
    • A Mortar and pestle with chopping block (13th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[51]
  • The Chapel of the Convent of Saint Mary (1633)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg is registered as an historical monument. The convent was built on the foundations of a castle called Malatour in 1630 with the Chapel built later in 1633.[14] [19] [52] [53] The chapel contains several items that are registered as historical objects:
    • A Triptyche: 3 paintings of the life of Saint Francis Regis (1888)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[54]
    • A Retable (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[55]
    • A framed Painting: Raphael Sara and Tobie (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[56]
    • Wood panelling and Paintings (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[57]
Madonna on the Saint-Denis rocks
  • The Vierge des Fouines Statue (Nosy Virgin Statue) or Our Lady of Faith Statue placed on the rocks of Saint-Denis. 5.22 metres tall and the work of Bachini from Lyon. It was blessed on 26 September 1943.[14]
  • The Chapel of Trachin is in Gothic style with an octagonal bell tower (there are remains of a priory dating from 1320).[58] The chapel contains several items that are registered as historical objects:
    • A Decorative ceiling painting (19th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[59]
    • A Bust of Saint François-de-Sales (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[60]
    • A Painting: the Nativity of the Virgin (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[61]
    • A Painting: Saints Jacques and Philippe (1658)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[62]
    • A Statue: Virgin and child (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[63]
  • The Chapel of Vidalon-les-Annonay contains a Gallery Organ (1818)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg that is registered as an historical object.[64] [65]
  • The former Chapel of Saint-Clair in Rue Sadi Carnot (14th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg is registered as an historical monument.[66] It was built in Gothic style from 1348 to 1356.
  • The Cemetery chapel at Toissieu.

Military Heritage[edit]

  • The War Memorial (1914-1918, 1939-1945, and subsequent wars). Designed by architect Maurice Luquet, the statues The pensive soldier and The Stricken Woman were sculpted by Paul Landowski. It was inaugurated on 25 June 1922.[14]
  • The Monument of Mobiles (1907) at the cemetery. Designed by architect Theodore Joly and sculptor Aimé Millet.[14]
  • An Old door from the castle dating from the 12th century.
  • The Soubises Vaults, remnants of the walls with a covered path around (12th-13th centuries).[19]
  • The Tower of Martyrs, from the 12th century, the remains of the ramparts of the city, this tower is located above the Deume. It is said that the condemned were thrown to their death in the shallow river. It is also believed that the name may come from the Martins ford which it defended.[14][19]

Cultural heritage[edit]

Facade of the Bassin d'Annonay theatre
  • The "Italian" Theatre (1887), in the Place des Cordeliers, built on the site of the chapel of the former Franciscan convent.

Notable people linked to the commune[edit]

  • François-Antoine de Boissy d'Anglas
  • Guillaume de Roussillon, Lord of Annonay from 1271 to 1277. Sent by the king of France, Philippe III the Bold and Pope Gregory X to Saint Jean d'Acre which, in 1275, was the capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Victim of a plot by Charles of Anjou and Guillaume de Beaujeu, Grand Master of the Knights Templar: he did not return and his son Artaud took the succession of the "old castle".
  • Pierre Bertrand (1280-1349): cardinal, Jurist who defended the jurisdiction of the church at the conferences of Vincennes (1329).
  • Charles Francis of Aviau of the Woods of Sanzay (1736-1826), Archbishop of Vienne and founder, during the Revolution, of a clandestine seminar on the site of the town college (College of the Sacred Heart).
  • Louis de Beaudine Romanet de Lestranges (1749-1815), general of the armies of the Republic, born in Saint-Félicien and died at Annonay.
  • Count Abrial (1750-1826): politician and magistrate who played an important role under the Consulate, the Empire, and the Restoration.
  • André Barthélémy Boissonnet (born 24 August 1765 at Annonay, died 26 May 1839 at Sézanne), French general and politician of the 19th century.
  • Barthélémy de Canson (1774-1859): Peer of France and famous papermaker for his creation of Canson art paper.
  • The Monneron brothers, founders of the Monneron Bank (1791-1792): Paul Mérault Monneron, Chief Engineer of the La Perouse expedition, Joseph François Augustin Monneron, Pierre Antoine Monneron, Louis Monneron, and Charles Claude Ange Monneron.
  • The Montgolfier Brothers
  • Marc Seguin (1786-1875), engineer, inventor of the wire-cable suspension bridge and the fire-tube boiler.
  • Auguste Bravais (1811-1863), physicist who created the mathematical models of crystal structures known as Bravais lattices. He made one of the first scientific ascents of Mont Blanc (1844).
  • Marie-Joseph Canteloube de Malaret (born at Annonay on 21 October 1879, died in Paris on 4 November 1957): composer, a pupil of Vincent d'Indy, a specialist in folk songs of the French provinces and in particular "Chants d'Auvergne". He also wrote operas.
  • Vital Chomel (born on 24 August 1922 at Annonay): curator then Director of the Archives of Isère (1958-1988), author of important books on his specialty and the Dauphiné in general.
  • Jacques Trémolin: known as a storyteller on animals, this aristocratic resistance fighter and communist organised, under the pseudonym Loyola (a reference to his education with the Jesuits), the liberation of the city in June 1944 where he proclaimed a republic and was mayor until the its recovery by the Germans.
  • The Bechetoille family, merchant-drapers and bankers.
  • The Johannot family, a Protestant family who created the first paper mill in Annonay in 1634. (The "Jo" in Arjomari: a group of four large French papermills) (Jean-Baptiste Johannot, Jean-Joseph Johannot)
  • The Binet family, of Protestant origin, cousins of Johnannot and known for their manufacture of felt and baize with the same name used for drying the paper pulp. This technique is still used today for the production of banknotes.
  • Olivier Dussopt (1978-), politician
  • Maurice Grimaud (1913-2009), chief of police of Paris in May 1968 and was the grandson of Antoine Grimaud (1852-1926), Mayor of Annonay from 1904 to 1919.
  • Fred (1924-) and René Mella (1926-), tenors of Les Compagnons de la chanson.
  • Roger Dumas (1932-) comedian and French author, born in the commune.
  • François Joseph Clozel (1860-1918), governor of French West Africa.
  • Abou Lagraa (1970-) dancer and contemporary choreographer, born in Annonay.
  • Davy Mourier (1976-), actor, writer, director, designer, and French animator, born in the commune.
  • Jacques Rouviere (1938-), writer, verbicruciste, and former director of the Bank of France. Member of the Academy of Letters Pyrenees.
  • Paul Desgrand (1799-1878), cousin of the Montgolfiers and the Seguin brothers, he was a great merchant of French textiles and played an important role at Creusot before the Schneiders then at Lyon as a silk merchant where he finished his career in Tassin-la-demi-lune.
  • Clément Grenier (1991-), football player of Olympique Lyonnais and champion of Europe U19.

Culture[edit]

  • Archives: Parish and Civil Records, genealogical analysis, municipal Proceedings
  • Museum of the Canson & Montgolfier paper-makers: traces the history of the cottage industry of paper. It is the only museum to present a large working paper machine.
  • Vivarois Municipal Museum César Filhol: presents local ethnology, collections, and traces the history of local inventions by the Montgolfiers and Seguins.
  • Occitan culture still holds a significant place[67]
  • Jean-Pierre Mocky used the town as the setting for his film Litan (1982).
  • The 2003 part-British funded movie L'homme du train (The Man on the Train) was filmed in Annonay.

Culinary Specialities[edit]

Local press[edit]

The regional newspaper Le Dauphiné Libéré is available in Annonay. It also hosts the headquarters of the weekly Le Reveil du Vivarais. Another weekly L'Hebdo de l'Ardèche also covers the territory. Since the early 2000s a free monthly made its appearance, L'Indispensable is distributed among traders in the Annonay basin. It informs readers about cultural events taking place around the region.

Festivals[edit]

Each year
  • In February:
    • The Premier International Festival of Film[68]
  • In June:
    • The Festival of Hot air Ballooning (1st weekend).
    • The Festi'roc 07, a Christian modern music festival, it is organized by the Catholic parishes of the Annonay Basin.
  • In November:
    • The Love of good food of Ardèche and Upper Vivarais, (3rd weekend). This is organized by the association of the same name. During a weekend, the Place des Cordeliers becomes a showcase of Ardèche products. Sixty exhibitors and many activities punctuate this event.
  • The Championship of France for Hot air Ballooning

Picture Gallery[edit]

Historical Bibliography[edit]

(French)

  • François Chomel, Annonay pas à pas, pierre à pierre, Édition du Vivarais, Annonay, 1995, 250 p.
  • Pierre Fanget, Annonay ma ville, Annonay, 1971.
  • Abbé Filhol, Histoire religieuse et civile d’Annonay et du Haut–Vivarais depuis l’origine de cette ville jusqu’à nos jours, Tomes 1, 2, 3 et 4, Moussy ainé, 1882.
  • Emmanuelle Faure, Claude Osset, Annonay, Mémoire en images, Éditions Alan Sutton, Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire, 127 pages, 2004.
  • Emmanuelle Faure, Bernard Faure, Claude Osset, Annonay en Fêtes, 1860–2000, Jean Pierre Huguet Editeur, Saint-Julien-Molin-Molette, 2002, 283 p.
  • La Gazette d’Annonay, Hebdomadaire local paraissant entre 1889 et 1944.
  • Antoine Grimaud, Annonay, la vie municipale de 1870 à 1920, Imprimerie Hervé, Annonay, 1926, 540 p.
  • Gaston Grimaud, Mon vieil Annonay, Decombe frères, Annonay, 1948, 48 p.
  • Le Journal d’Annonay, Hebdomadaire local paraissant entre 1865 et 1944.
  • Abbé Léorat Picansel, Annonay pendant la Terreur, Tomes 1 et 2, Amis du Fonds Vivarois, 1988.
  • Rémy Bernard, Histoire d’Annonay et sa région, Horvath, Roanne, 1981, 149 p.
  • Le Réveil du Vivarais et de la vallée du Rhône, Hebdomadaire local paraissant depuis 1944.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002 [1], the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Inhabitants of Ardèche (French)
  2. ^ a b Google Maps
  3. ^ a b Municipal Bulletin municipal of the city of Annonay: a little history. 1982 (French)
  4. ^ National Archives, Paris (French)
  5. ^ Dictionary of Administrative and demographic history, vol. Ardèche d'Alain Molinier, Édition du CNRS, 1976 (French)
  6. ^ Vauban, Memoir on the Huguenots (French)
  7. ^ Departmental Archives of Ardèche: Enumeration of citizens attached to the protestant religion Year X (1801) (French)
  8. ^ Jean Nicolas, The French Rebellion: popular movements and social conscience, 1661-1789, Paris: Gallimard, 2008. Collection Folio, ISBN 978-2-07-035971-4, p. 461 (French)
  9. ^ Jean Nicolas, The French Rebellion: popular movements and social conscience, 1661-1789, Paris: Gallimard, 2008. Collection Folio, ISBN 978-2-07-035971-4, p. 519 (French)
  10. ^ a b Municipal Archives of Annonay
  11. ^ Éric Darrieux, The reception in the villages of Ardèche of the Second Republic, in Rives nord-méditerranéennes, Paysans et pouvoirs local, le temps des révolutions, read online 22 July 2005, consulted on 10 December 2008 (French)
  12. ^ List of Mayors of France
  13. ^ National Commission for Decentralised cooperation (French)
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Pierre Fanget, Annonay my town, Annonay, 1971 (French)
  15. ^ a b c Emmanuelle Faure and Claude Osset, Annonay - A Memoir in pictures, Éditions Alan Sutton, Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire, 127 Pages, 2004 (French)
  16. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA07000021 Montgolfier-Canson Paper Mill (French)
  17. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00116875 Domain of Marc Seguin (French)Camera aabb.svg
  18. ^ Painting by Vinchon (French)
  19. ^ a b c d e f Abbot Filhol, Religious and Civil History of Annonay and Upper–Vivarais since the origin of the city to the present day, Vols 1, 2, 3, and 4, Moussy ainé, 1882 (French)
  20. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA07000015 La Vanaude ZHouse (French)
  21. ^ César Filhol Museum (French)
  22. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000023 Group Sculpture: Virgin of Pity (French)Camera aabb.svg
  23. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000022 Statue: Christ (French)Camera aabb.svg
  24. ^ The Château de Déomas (French)
  25. ^ a b c d e Parish of Sainte Claire d’Annonay-Vocance website (French)
  26. ^ Echo of Notre Dame (L’), Bulletin of the Parish of Notre Dame, appearing between 1931 and 1944
  27. ^ Antoine Grimaud, Annonay, municipal life from 1870 to 1920, Imprimerie Hervé, Annonay, 1926, 540 pages (French)
  28. ^ Gaston Grimaud, My old Annonay, Decombe frères, Annonay, 1948, 48 pages (French)
  29. ^ Annonay Official website (French)
  30. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000461 2 Statues: Adoring Angels (French)
  31. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000460 Statue: Virgin and child (French)
  32. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000449 Gallery Organ (French)
  33. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000013 Gallery Organ Instrumental part (French)
  34. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000448 Choir Organ (French)
  35. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000012 Choir Organ Instrumental part (French)
  36. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000011 2 Statues: Acolyte Angels (French)Camera aabb.svg
  37. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000010 2 Statues: Cherubs (French)Camera aabb.svg
  38. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000009 Bust-Reliquary: Saint John of the Cross (French)
  39. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000008 Bust-Reliquary: Saint Peter of Alcantara (French)Camera aabb.svg
  40. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000472 Sideboard (French)
  41. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000471 2 Apothecary Jars (French)
  42. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000470 Venetian Wall lamp mirror (French)
  43. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000469 Chest of Drawers with diamond corners (French)
  44. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000468 Painting: Christ on the Cross (French)
  45. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000467 Painting: The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian (French)
  46. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000466 Painting with gold frame: Pope Clement VI (French)
  47. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000465 Painting with gold frame: Saint Jerome (French)
  48. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000464 Painting with gold frame: Adoration of the Trinity (French)
  49. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000459 24 Apothecary Jars (French)
  50. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000026 Mortar and pestle (French)Camera aabb.svg
  51. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000025 Mortar and pestle with chopping block (French)Camera aabb.svg
  52. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00116626 Chapel of the former Convent of Saint Mary (French)
  53. ^ Chapelle Saint Mary - Annonay (French)
  54. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000463 Triptyche: 3 paintings of the life of Saint Francis Regis (French)
  55. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000016 Retable (French)
  56. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000015 Framed Painting: Raphael Sara and Tobie (French)Camera aabb.svg
  57. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000014 Wood panelling and Paintings (French)Camera aabb.svg
  58. ^ The Chapel of Trachin at Annonay by Jean Ribon and Maurice Frappa (French)
  59. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000462 Decorative ceiling painting (French)
  60. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000020 Bust of Saint François-de-Sales (French)
  61. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000019 Painting: the Nativity of the Virgin (French)
  62. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000018 Painting: Saints Jacques and Philippe (French)
  63. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000017 Statue: Virgin and child (French)
  64. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000447 Gallery Organ (French)
  65. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM07000021 Gallery Organ Instrumental part (French)
  66. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00116625 Chapel of Saint-Clair (French)
  67. ^ Website dedicated to the occitan of the Annonay region in Ardèche (French)
  68. ^ The International Festival of Premier Films (French)