Annus mirabilis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Annus Mirabilis)
Jump to: navigation, search

Annus mirabilis is a Latin phrase that means wonderful year, "year of wonders" or "year of miracles". This term was originally used to refer to the year 1666 (see below), and today is used to refer to several years during which events of major importance are remembered.

1492 – Catholic Monarchs[edit]

The Catholic Monarchs (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) built in 1492 the most powerful monarchy in the Western World by the conquest of Granada (January 2) and the discovery of America (October 12). On March 31 they expelled the Jews from Spain. 1492 is also the year of construction of the first grammar of a modern language: Gramática de la lengua castellana; the author, Antonio de Nebrija (a prominent counselor of the Monarchs) said in it, comparing Spanish with Latin: siempre la lengua fue compañera del imperio ("the language was always the companion of empire").[1]

In the history of the Hispanic monarchy there were more anni mirabiles. John H. Elliott proposes 1625, in the middle of the Thirty Years War.[2]

1543 – The year of science[edit]

Main article: Scientific Revolution

The beginning of the Scientific Revolution[3] when

1666 – The year of wonders[edit]

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first known written usage of the Latin phrase "Annus Mirabilis" is as the title of a poem composed by English poet John Dryden about the events of 1666. The phrase "annus mirabilis" translates as "wonderful year" or "year of miracles". In fact, the year was beset by great calamity for England (including the Great Fire of London), but Dryden chose to interpret the absence of greater disaster as miraculous intervention by God, as "666" is the Number of the Beast and the year 1666 was expected by some to be particularly disastrous.

In addition to this, the English fleet defeated a Dutch fleet in the St James' Day Battle, for a great victory at sea. (However, in 1667 the Dutch burned several major warships of the English fleet in the raid on the Medway and Charles II was forced to sue for peace.)

Isaac Newton[edit]

Main article: Isaac Newton

In the year 1666, Isaac Newton made revolutionary inventions and discoveries in calculus, motion, optics and gravitation. As such, it has later been called Isaac Newton's "Annus Mirabilis." It was in this year when Isaac Newton was alleged to have observed an apple falling from a tree, and hit upon the law of universal gravitation (Newton's apple). He was afforded the time to work on his theories due to the closure of Cambridge University by an outbreak of plague.[4][5]

1759 – William Pitt[edit]

A series of victories by the British military in 1759 in North America, Europe, India, and in various naval engagements, is occasionally referred to as William Pitt's annus mirabilis, and was the decisive year of the Seven Years' War.[6][7]

1776 – The Liberty year[edit]

For this year the term annus mirabilis is often used. [8] David Hume died in August, but could experience the Independence Day and The Wealth of Nations from Adam Smith.

1905 – Albert Einstein[edit]

The year 1905 has very much been linked to the term annus mirabilis, as Albert Einstein made important discoveries concerning the photoelectric effect, Brownian motion and the special theory of relativity as well as the famous E = mc2. His articles, collectively known as his Annus Mirabilis papers, were published in Annalen der Physik in 1905.[9]

Other[edit]

This phrase has since been used to refer to other years. The examples here are primarily from the English-speaking world.

  • 1644–1645 – The string of victories by the Scottish general, James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, in 1644–1645 during the English Civil War is sometimes called the "Year of Miracles".
  • 1666 – In Roman numerals, the year 1666 contains all the numerals in decreasing order: MDCLXVI.
  • 1797 - William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote Lyrical Ballads and other important works of poetry.
  • 1922 – In the English-speaking world, 1922 has been described as the annus mirabilis of Modernism, due to the publication of many major literary works, including James Joyce's Ulysses and T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land.
  • 1939 – This phrase has also been used to describe 1939 Hollywood because of all the classic films produced this year.
  • 1944 – Used to describe the year that the Russian army trapped 25 of 33 German divisions in Operation Bagration one of the most sudden and complete military disasters in history. This contributed to ending WWII in Europe more than any other operation of the time. Andrew Robert's The Storm of War: A New History of the Second World War
  • 1946 – The British Chancellor of the Exchequer Hugh Dalton described 1946 as the then Labour Government's 'Annus mirabilis'
  • 1963 – The phrase "Annus Mirabilis" was also used by Philip Larkin as the title for one of his best-known poems, written in 1967 and published in High Windows (1974), which celebrated the onset of more relaxed sexual mores in 1960s Britain, specifically mentioning the year 1963 as a sort of personal "annus mirabilis".[10]
  • 1967 was Celtic F.C.'s annus mirabilis. The club won every competition they entered: the Scottish League, the Scottish Cup, the Scottish League Cup, the Glasgow Cup, and the European Cup (the quintuple).
  • 1972 was Ajax A.F.C.'s annus mirabilis. The club won every competition they entered (4): Dutch league, European Cup, Dutch Cup and Intercontinental Cup (the Quadruple); [11] as well the European Supercup final match but this latter result was not recognized by UEFA, making it an unofficial quintuple.
  • mid-1970s – The phrase was used[12] to describe the mid-1970s uptick in sugar prices which skyrocketed Cuban sugar-based earning.
  • 1989 – Annus Mirabilis has been used to describe 1989 and the political events which took place in Eastern Europe, which saw the end of communist governments in several countries (See: Revolutions of 1989) including Poland, East Germany, Hungary and Czechoslovakia.[13]
  • 2009 was Barcelona F.C.'s annus mirabilis. The club won all 6 competitions they entered: the Spanish League, the Spanish Cup, the Spanish Super Cup, the European Champions League, the European Super Cup, and the World Club Cup.[11][14]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Bibliographic use of expression related to 1492
  2. ^ The Count-Duke of Olivares: The Statesman in an Age of Decline, Yale University Press, 1986, ISBN 0300044992, pg. 226.
  3. ^ [1] Western New England College
  4. ^ "Universal Gravitation – The Physics Hypertextbook". Retrieved December 10, 2012. "In the same year [1666] I began to think of gravity extending to the orb of the moon, .... All this was in the two plague years of 1665 and 1666, for in those days I was in the prime of my age for invention, and minded mathematics and philosophy more than at any time since." 
  5. ^ "Newton's Birth Date and The Anni Mirabiles". Retrieved December 10, 2012. "In the beginning of the year 1665 I found the Method of approximating series & the Rule for reducing any dignity of any Binomial into such a series. The same year in May I found the method of Tangents of Gregory & Slusius, & in November had the direct method of fluxions & the next year in January had the Theory of Colors & in May following I had entrance into the inverse method of fluxions. And the same year I began to think of gravity extending to the orb of the Moon & (having found out how to estimate the force with which a globe revolving within a sphere presses the surface of the sphere) from Keplers rule of the periodical times of the Planets being in sesquialterate proportion of their distances from the centers of their Orbs, I deduced that the forces which keep the Planets in their Orbs must be reciprocally as the squares of their distances from the centers about which they revolve: and thereby compared the force requisite to keep the Moon in her Orb with the force of gravity at the surface of the earth ... All this was in the two plague years of 1665 and 1666. For in those days I was in the prime of my age of invention & minded Mathematics & Philosophy more than at any time since." 
  6. ^ Blanning p.299
  7. ^ Monod p.167
  8. ^ John H. Lienhard: Inventing Modern : Growing up with X-Rays, Skyscrapers, and Tailfins. Oxford University Press, 2003 p.39, 2009 Exhibition Catalogue p.66-73
  9. ^ Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore
  10. ^ Philip Larkin, "Annus Mirabilis"
  11. ^ a b Sid Lowe. "Barcelona's Annus mirabilis will be hard to emulate (part one)". World Soccer. Retrieved December 10, 2012. 
  12. ^ Gott, Richard: Cuba: A New History, page 242. Yale University Press, 2004.
  13. ^ Isaacs, J and Downing, T: Cold War, page 397. Bantam Press, 1998.
  14. ^ "Lionel Messi's annus mirabilis". BBC Sport. Retrieved December 10, 2012. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Blanning, T.C.W.The Culture of Power the Power of Culture: Old Regime Europe 1660–1789. Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • Monod, Paul Kléber. Imperial Island: A History of Britain and Its Empire, 1660–1837. Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.