Anointing of Jesus

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For the anointing of Jesus' body after his death, see Epitaphios (liturgical) and Lamentation of Christ.
Mary Magdalene is traditionally depicted with a vessel of ointment, in reference to the Anointing of Jesus.

The anointing of Jesus is one of the relatively few events reported by each of the four Gospels, although the details of the accounts differ. All report the anointing of Jesus with expensive perfume by a woman, who pours the contents of an alabastron jar of "nard" (or spikenard), a very expensive perfume, over Jesus. The anointing angers some of the onlookers because the perfume could have been sold for a year's wages—which the Gospel of Mark enumerates as 300 denarii—and the money given to the poor. Matthew's gospel states that the "disciples were indignant" and John's states that it was Judas who was most offended. John adds that he was bothered because he (Judas) was a thief and desired the money for himself. Jesus is described as justifying the action of the woman by stating that the poor will always exist, and can be helped whenever desired.

The identification of the woman by Luke as one "who lived a sinful life" and by John as Mary of Bethany played a part in the long-standing identification of Mary Magdalene as a former prostitute by the Western church, once all three figures were thought to be the same "composite Magdalene".

The honorific anointing with perfume is an action frequently mentioned in other literature from the time; however using long hair to dry Jesus's feet, as in John and Luke, is not recorded elsewhere, and should be regarded as an exceptional gesture.[1]

Events in the
Life of Jesus
according to the Gospels
Life of Jesus
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Gospel accounts[edit]

The event (or events - see discussion below) is reported in Matthew 26, Mark 14, Luke 7, and John 12.[2] Matthew and Mark are very similar:

Matthew 26:6-13

While Jesus was in Bethany in the home of Simon the Leper, 7 a woman came to him with an alabaster jar of very expensive perfume, which she poured on his head as he was reclining at the table. When the disciples saw this, they were indignant. “Why this waste?” they asked. 9 “This perfume could have been sold at a high price and the money given to the poor. Aware of this, Jesus said to them, “Why are you bothering this woman? She has done a beautiful thing to me. 11 The poor you will always have with you,[a] but you will not always have me. When she poured this perfume on my body, she did it to prepare me for burial. Truly I tell you, wherever this gospel is preached throughout the world, what she has done will also be told, in memory of her.

Mark 14:3-9

While he was in Bethany, reclining at the table in the home of Simon the Leper, a woman came with an alabaster jar of very expensive perfume, made of pure nard. She broke the jar and poured the perfume on his head. Some of those present were saying indignantly to one another, “Why this waste of perfume? It could have been sold for more than a year’s wages[a] and the money given to the poor.” And they rebuked her harshly. “Leave her alone,” said Jesus. “Why are you bothering her? She has done a beautiful thing to me. The poor you will always have with you, and you can help them any time you want. But you will not always have me. 8 She did what she could. She poured perfume on my body beforehand to prepare for my burial. Truly I tell you, wherever the gospel is preached throughout the world, what she has done will also be told, in memory of her.”

Luke 7:36-50

When one of the Pharisees invited Jesus to have dinner with him, he went to the Pharisee’s house and reclined at the table. A woman in that town who lived a sinful life learned that Jesus was eating at the Pharisee’s house, so she came there with an alabaster jar of perfume. As she stood behind him at his feet weeping, she began to wet his feet with her tears. Then she wiped them with her hair, kissed them and poured perfume on them. When the Pharisee who had invited him saw this, he said to himself, “If this man were a prophet, he would know who is touching him and what kind of woman she is—that she is a sinner.” Jesus answered him, “Simon, I have something to tell you.” “Tell me, teacher,” he said. “Two people owed money to a certain moneylender. One owed him five hundred denarii,[a] and the other fifty. Neither of them had the money to pay him back, so he forgave the debts of both. Now which of them will love him more?” Simon replied, “I suppose the one who had the bigger debt forgiven.” “You have judged correctly,” Jesus said. Then he turned toward the woman and said to Simon, “Do you see this woman? I came into your house. You did not give me any water for my feet, but she wet my feet with her tears and wiped them with her hair. You did not give me a kiss, but this woman, from the time I entered, has not stopped kissing my feet. You did not put oil on my head, but she has poured perfume on my feet. Therefore, I tell you, her many sins have been forgiven—as her great love has shown. But whoever has been forgiven little loves little.” Then Jesus said to her, “Your sins are forgiven.” The other guests began to say among themselves, “Who is this who even forgives sins?” Jesus said to the woman, “Your faith has saved you; go in peace.”

John 12:1-8

Six days before the Passover, Jesus came to Bethany, where Lazarus lived, whom Jesus had raised from the dead. Here a dinner was given in Jesus’ honor. Martha served, while Lazarus was among those reclining at the table with him. Then Mary took about a pint of pure nard, an expensive perfume; she poured it on Jesus’ feet and wiped his feet with her hair. And the house was filled with the fragrance of the perfume. But one of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, who was later to betray him, objected, “Why wasn’t this perfume sold and the money given to the poor? It was worth a year’s wages.” He did not say this because he cared about the poor but because he was a thief; as keeper of the money bag, he used to help himself to what was put into it. “Leave her alone,” Jesus replied. “It was intended that she should save this perfume for the day of my burial. You will always have the poor among you, but you will not always have me.”

Summary of the accounts:

All four have a setting in a house for a meal, a woman, and expensive perfume poured on Jesus, to which someone objects.
Location: All except Luke identify Bethany
Host or house: Matthew and Mark say "in the home of Simon the Leper"; John does not offer a definitive host or house; Luke says the house of a Pharisee named Simon.
Description of woman: John identifies Mary of Bethany, Luke "a woman in that town who lived a sinful life", which has usually been taken to mean a prostitute. Matthew and Mark just say "a woman".
Where poured: over the head according to Mark and Matthew, or feet according to John and Luke. Wiping with hair mentioned for both accounts giving feet.
Jesus's comments: Matthew, Mark and John are very similar, recording slightly different wordings of "The poor you will always have with you" and "She poured perfume on my body beforehand to prepare for my burial". These are not in Luke, who instead records comments on hospitality and forgiveness of sins that are not in the other accounts.[3]

Debate[edit]

The anointing of Jesus is a subject of considerable debate.

One debate is that some[4] hold that the anointing is actually two separate events; one occurring at the beginning of Jesus' ministry in which he offered forgiveness to a repentant woman, and the other in which he is anointed in preparation for his burial. Luke's gospel speaks of Jesus' feet being anointed by a woman who had been sinful all her life, and who was crying; and when her tears started landing on the feet of Jesus, she wiped his feet with her hair. Also unique to Luke's version is the inclusion of the Parable of the Two Debtors in the middle of the event.

Some[citation needed] hold that this story could not have occurred only a few days before to the crucifixion, due to the numerous events that followed in Luke's gospel. John 12:1-8[5] names her Mary, and the text assumes her to be Mary, a sister to Lazarus, as it also identifies her sister Martha. Although the iconography of the woman's act has traditionally been associated with Mary Magdalene, there is no biblical text identifying her as such. According to the Gospel of Mark 14:3 the perfume in his account was the purest of Spikenard.

Another debate is over the implications of "the poor you always have with you"; some[who?] criticized this response as lax morality, others[who?] have responded that due to his impending crucifixion, Jesus is simply explaining that what was done was not a choice between two moral acts, but a necessity, and would no more be criticized in Jesus' day as a modern man purchasing a coffin for a loved one, even though there are poor that could be fed instead. In the autobiographical Palm Sunday, author Kurt Vonnegut reports being invited to preach on Palm Sunday in 1980, and chooses for his text the Gospel of John's version of the anointing. Vonnegut did so because he had "seen so much un-Christian impatience with the poor encouraged by the quotation"; he questioned the translation, saying it lacked the mercifulness of the Sermon on the Mount, and took the opportunity to offer his own translation:[6]

Perhaps a little something has been lost in translation....I would like to recapture what has been lost. Why? Because I, as a Christ-worshipping agnostic, have seen so much un-Christian impatience with the poor encouraged by the quotation "For the poor always ye have with you."...If Jesus did in fact say that, it is a divine black joke, well suited to the occasion. It says everything about hypocrisy and nothing about the poor. It is a Christian joke, which allows Jesus to remain civil to Judas, but to chide him for his hypocrisy all the same. 'Judas, don't worry about it. There will still be plenty of poor people left long after I'm gone.'

The key to understanding Jesus' response is to recognize that he is quoting scripture here. Mark reports that on the cross Jesus said, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?" the first verse of Psalm 22, and one must read the whole psalm to understand the full import of Jesus' trust in God even in the midst of his great suffering. So too here Jesus is quoting Deuteronomy 15:11, "Since you always have the poor with you, I therefore command you,'Open your hand to the poor and needy in your land.'" Jesus always showed special care and concern for the poor, and his disciples would be expected to continue to do so. But this is a special, one time event on the eve of Jesus' death.

Location[edit]

Christ in the House of Simon by Dieric Bouts

Mark and Matthew say that this occurred while Jesus was in Bethany relaxing at the home of Simon the Leper, a man whose significance is not explained any further by surviving texts of Mark or Matthew. Some, who assume that the accounts in the four gospels are speaking of the same event, would identify the host as Simon the Pharisee, as mentioned in Luke's account. However, given the nearness to Jesus' crucifixion, and the fact that the host Simon is called a leper elsewhere, has caused this identification to come under considerable debate. Luke's gospel states that Jesus had been invited to dinner, though the location is not specified. The Gospel of John identifies the location of the anointing prior to the crucifixion as Bethany, the home of Lazarus and his two sisters, but does not specify the precise location. The Roman Catholic Church follows the Synoptic Gospels in the location of the event. John and Luke also differ from Matthew and Mark by relating that the anointing is to the feet rather than the head. This, some argue, points to the idea that Luke is speaking of an entirely different event.

The Scholars Version note to Mark 14:3-9 states: "…The disciples miss the point, which Jesus makes clear: the woman has signaled his impending death and burial. It must be unintentional irony when Mark has Jesus predict that this story will always be told in memory of a woman whose very name escapes him."

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hornsby, 339-342
  2. ^ "The anointing of Jesus". TextExcavation.com. 2009-04-21. Retrieved 2012-02-03. 
  3. ^ See for all points Hornsby, 339
  4. ^ Mack, Burton L. & Vernon K. Robbins, Patterns of Persuasion in the Gospels (2008), pp. 85-106 ISBN 1-60608-220-5
  5. ^ John 12:1-8
  6. ^ Vonnegut, Kurt (1981). Palm Sunday. Dell. pp. 324–330. ISBN 0-440-57163-4. "Whatever it was that Jesus really said to Judas was said in Aramaic, of course-and has come to us through Hebrew and Greek and Latin and archaic English. Maybe He only said something a lot like, "The poor you always have with you, but you do not always have Me." Perhaps a little something has been lost in translation....I would like to recapture what has been lost. Why? Because I, as a Christ-worshipping agnostic, have seen so much un-Christian impatience with the poor encouraged by the quotation "For the poor always ye have with you."...If Jesus did in fact say that, it is a divine black joke, well suited to the occasion. It says everything about hypocrisy and nothing about the poor. It is a Christian joke, which allows Jesus to remain civil to Judas, but to chide him for his hypocrisy all the same. 'Judas, don't worry about it. There will still be plenty of poor people left long after I'm gone.'....My own translation does no violence to the words in the Bible. I have changed their order some, not merely to make them into the joke the situation calls for but to harmonize them, too, with the Sermon on the Mount. The Sermon on the Mount suggests a mercifulness that can never waver or fade." 

References[edit]

General references: